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experimental factors affecting mortality following inoculation of chickens with avian nephritis virus (g-4260).groups of approximately 20 one-day-old chickens were inoculated with g-4260, the reference strain of avian nephritis virus (anv), or saline. based on mortality rates from severe nephritis in comparable experiments, light sussex chickens generally were more susceptible than rhode island red (rir) chickens. mortality was greater in those given broiler starter than those given other feeds, and was greater when light sussex chickens were given broiler starter feed and cold-stressed at 15 +/- 1 c for ...19921329710
[the distribution of avian enteroviruses in germany].sera from chicken flocks of different regions in germany were examined for antibodies to avian nephritis virus (anv) by indirect immunofluorescence. there was no evidence of a wide distribution of anv, at least in chicken parent flocks, in contrast to results from investigations in england, northern-ireland and japan.19911648474
differences in the induction of urate deposition of specific-pathogen-free chicks inoculated with avian nephritis virus passaged by five different methods.the g-4260 strain of avian nephritis virus (anv) was passaged using five different methods as follows: method 1, passage three times in chorioallantoic membrane (cam) of 11-day-old embryonated eggs (cam3); method 2, passage twice in cam and further passage once in yolk sac (ys) of 6-day-old embryonated eggs (cam2-ys1); method 3, passage 11 times in cam (cam11); method 4, passage 10 times in cam and further passage twice in ys (cam10-ys2); method 5, passage as in method 4 and then passage three t ...19911649587
ascites syndrome in spf light sussex chickens.an ascites syndrome was induced in 17 to 28 per cent of specific pathogen-free (spf) light sussex (lsx) chickens given a low protein (16 per cent crude protein) high calcium (3.5 per cent calcium) layer crumble feed on two separate occasions 6 months apart. affected chickens had increased right ventricular weight as a proportion of either total heart weight or live-weight at 3 weeks of age, compared with non-affected lsx chickens on the same feed, thus indicating right ventricular hypertrophy. t ...19911663140
experimental infection in specific-pathogen-free chicks with avian reovirus and avian nephritis virus isolated from broiler chicks showing runting syndrome.avian reovirus (arv) and avian nephritis virus (anv) were individually isolated from runty 10-day-old broiler chicks. the arv isolate, ir-r, the anv isolate, ir-n, and the reference strain of anv, g-4260, were inoculated orally into 1-day-old chicks of two specific-pathogen-free (spf) chicken lines, 151 and pdl-1. growth retardation without the presence of gross lesions was clearly observed at 7 and 14 days postinoculation (pi) in chicks of both lines inoculated with the ir-r strain. on the othe ...19902164386
effects of cyclophosphamide in newly hatched chickens after inoculation with avian nephritis virus.effects of immunosuppression were compared in newly hatched chickens given cyclophosphamide (cy) after inoculation with avian nephritis virus (anv). all cy-treated infected chickens died within 13 days after inoculation of the virus and had heavy urate deposits throughout the body. however, non-cy-treated infected, cy-treated noninfected, and non-cy-treated noninfected control chickens survived through the observation period. in a chronologic study, the value of serum uric acid in cy-treated inf ...19902173446
pathogenicity of avian nephritis virus for embryonating hen's eggs.the pathogenicity of avian nephritis virus (anv) for embryonating hen's eggs was studied by various routes of inoculation. when inoculated with anv by the yolk sac route, 6-day-old embryos showed the highest susceptibility and all of them died 3 to 14 days postinoculation (pi). they manifested hemorrhage and edema of the whole body (3 to 6 days pi) and stunting (7 to 14 days pi). the 50% egg-infective dose of the virus by yolk sac inoculation coincided well with the virus titer expressed in plaq ...19826281664
susceptibility of chickens to avian nephritis virus at various inoculation routes and ages.factors that influence the response of chickens to avian nephritis virus (anv) were studied. day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks were inoculated with the g-4260 strain of anv by oral, subcutaneous, intratracheal, intramuscular, and intracerebral routes at a dose of 10(5.0) plaque-forming units (pfus) per chick. inoculation induced only nephritis, and contact infection anv occurred very easily. when 1-, 14-, 28-, 56-, and 300-day-old chickens were inoculated orally with 10(5.0) pfus of the viru ...19817259675
antibody survey against avian nephritis virus among chickens in japan. 19807442818
avian nephritis virus (anv) as a new member of the family astroviridae and construction of infectious anv cdna.the complete rna genome of the avian nephritis virus (anv) associated with acute nephritis in chickens has been molecularly cloned and sequenced. excluding the poly(a) tail, the genome comprises 6,927 nucleotides and contains three sequential open reading frames (orfs). the first orf (orf 1a) contains a sequence encoding a serine protease motif, and the second orf (orf 1b) has a sequence encoding an rna-dependent rna polymerase. orf 1a may be linked to the second orf by a ribosomal frameshifting ...200010954549
serological monitoring on layer farms with specific pathogen-free chickens.to monitor the existence of avian pathogens in laying chicken flocks, specific pathogen-free (spf) chickens were introduced into two layer farms and reared with laying hens for 12 months. spf chickens were bled several times after their introduction and examined for their sero-conversion to avian pathogens. as a result, antibodies to eight or ten kinds of pathogens were detected in spf chickens on each farm. antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), avian nephritis virus, mycoplasma galli ...200011193353
avian astroviruses.as poultry becomes more important in the world economy, it is increasingly important to fully understand the mechanisms of disease and poor production that affect the industry. to more accurately and reasonably treat these diseases, a more sophisticated understanding of interrelatedness is required. this review focuses on avian astroviruses (aastvs), in particular the recent advances in our understanding of aastv molecular biology, and also history, diagnosis, treatment and control. the known aa ...200212396344
the isolation and characterisation of astroviruses from chickens.the isolation, cultivation and characterization of three chicken astroviruses (castv) isolates are described. they are antigenically related to each other but unrelated to avian nephritis virus (anv) and duck hepatitis virus type 2 (dvh2) in neutralization, immunofluorescence and gel diffusion tests. castv, anv and dvh2 all grew well in the lmh cell line, which was used for assay and serological tests. serological surveys in 1982 and 2001 showed that antibody to castv virus was widespread in bro ...200415223568
molecular diagnosis of avian nephritis: preliminary report.kidney samples from chickens diagnosed with acute nephritis and gout were subjected to histological and electron microscopic examination. the investigations revealed cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the tubular epithelial cells containing round virions of about 30 nm in diameter. since avian nephritis virus (anv) is known as a potential causative agent of the so-called baby chick nephropathy, an rt-pcr assay was developed for the molecular detection of anv-specific nucleic acid in the specimen. t ...200616613026
phylogenetic diversity of avian nephritis virus in hungarian chicken flocks.avian nephritis virus (anv) infection was detected in 4-day-old to 22-day-old chickens collected on hungarian farms between 2002 and 2005. the animals suffered from diarrhoea, growth retardation, runting-stunting syndrome, and 2 to 6% mortality was reported. tubulonephrosis, interstitial nephritis and uricosis (gout) was diagnosed. the presence of anv rna was detected in chicken carcasses using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. the virus was demonstrated in 69% of the investigated ...200616753614
molecular characterization and typing of chicken and turkey astroviruses circulating in the united states: implications for diagnostics.avian astroviruses were detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction in intestinal contents collected from commercial chickens and turkeys from throughout the united states from 2003 through 2005. astroviruses were detected in birds from both healthy and poorly performing flocks with or without enteric disease. phylogenetic analysis was performed with sequence data from the polymerase (orf-1b) genes of 41 turkey-origin astroviruses and 23 chicken-origin astroviruses. all curre ...200617039840
a multiplex rt-pcr test for the differential identification of turkey astrovirus type 1, turkey astrovirus type 2, chicken astrovirus, avian nephritis virus, and avian rotavirus.recent studies have revealed the presence ofastroviruses and rotavirus in numerous poorly performing and healthy chicken and turkey flocks in the united states. the phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data produced during these studies has identified four groups of avian astroviruses circulating in the united states: turkey astrovirus types 1 and 2 (tastv-1 and tastv-2), avian nephritis virus (anv), and a chicken-origin astrovirus (castv). as the molecular epidemiology of poultry enteric disea ...200717992926
enteric viruses detected by molecular methods in commercial chicken and turkey flocks in the united states between 2005 and 2006.intestinal samples collected from 43 commercial broiler and 33 commercial turkey flocks from all regions of the united states during 2005 and 2006 were examined for the presence of astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus, and coronavirus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and for the presence of groups 1 and 2 adenovirus by pcr. phylogenetic analysis was performed to further characterize the viruses and to evaluate species association and geographic patterns. astroviruses were ide ...200818646452
a comparison of three serological methods to detect chicken and turkey antibodies to avian nephritis virus and the use of virus-specific monoclonal antibodies.avian nephritis virus (anv) strain g-4260 was inoculated orally in to 1-day-old and 3-week-old chickens and the sequential antibody response to the virus was monitored by serum neutralization, elisa and immunofluorescence tests. the order of sensitivity of the serological tests was in the sequence given above, with the neutralization test being by far the most sensitive. there was no obvious difference in the antibody titres produced by either age group. virus was recovered from kidney tissue, t ...199318671059
a survey of specific pathogen-free chicken flocks for antibodies to chicken anaemia agent, avian nephritis virus and group a rotavirus.sera originating from specific pathogen-free flocks from europe, north america and australia were examined by indirect immuno-fluorescence for antibodies to chicken anaemia agent, avian nephritis virus and group a rotavirus. some flocks were free of infection, but others showed evidence of infection with one, two or all of these viruses. in view of the pathogenic potential of these viruses and the possibility that they may be egg-transmitted, it is recommended that their elimination from specifi ...198918679854
isolation and characterisation of cytopathic avian enteroviruses from broiler chicks.cytopathic viruses were isolated from the faeces, pancreas and caecal contents of broiler chicks in two cases of a stunting syndrome. two representative strains, designated aaf7 and m-8, were identified as enteroviruses on the basis of their size (25 nm in diameter), rna in the viral core, virus growth in the cytoplasm, resistance to chloroform, trypsin and acid, and partial heat-stabilisation to molar magnesium chloride. they formed irregular plaques in chick kidney cell cultures. numerous gran ...198918679896
pathogenicity of fowl enteroviruses.the pathogenicity of avian nephritis virus, entero-like particles described by mcnulty et al. (avian pathology, 13: 429), the entero pv2 and entero 3 isolated in our laboratory, was studied by oral inoculation of one-day-old specific pathogen-free chickens. all viruses were shown by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy to multiply in the cytoplasm of enterocytes but histological lesions of the intestine were only observed in chickens infected with mcnulty's entero-like particl ...198918679901
isolation of non-cytopathic viruses implicated in the aetiology of nephritis and baby chick nephropathy and serologically related to avian nephritis virus.three embryo-lethal agents were isolated from broiler chickens having either stunting syndrome or baby chick nephropathy. the agents replicated at low levels in chick kidney cells, but a cytopathic effect was not seen. their presence was detected by embryo mortalities after yolk sac inoculations. all three agents caused nephritis and growth suppression when inoculated into 1-day-old chicks, and one agent caused increased incidence of baby chick nephropathy. this, and one other agent, were serolo ...199018679921
comparative studies on the pathogenicity of cytopathic avian enteroviruses (avian nephritis virus) isolated from broiler chicks.the pathogenicities of three cytopathic avian enteroviruses, strains aaf7, m-8, and g-4260 which were classified as avian nephritis viruses, were compared following inoculation into chicken kidney cell (ckc) cultures, embryonating eggs, and 1-day-old chicks. strain m-8 produced the largest plaques, highest yields in ckc cultures, highest pathogenicity for embryonating eggs, and severest lesions in the kidney of experimentally-infected chicks. in contrast, strain aaf7 was the least pathogenic. al ...199018679977
an elisa for the detection of antibodies to avian nephritis virus and related entero-like viruses.an elisa for the detection of antibodies against avian nephritis virus (anv) and related entero-like viruses was developed. different antigenic preparations made from chicken kidney cells infected with the g-4260 strain of anv were compared. crude antigen obtained by fluorocarbon treatment of infected cells was found to be appropriate and to give reproducible results with antisera directed against anv and three entero-like particles (elps): the belgian entero pv2 and entero 3, and the irish elp- ...199118680047
a survey of avian sera from northern ireland for antibody to avian nephritis virus.sera from chickens, turkeys and ducks were examined for antibody to avian nephritis virus, by indirect immunofluorescence. antibody was found to be widespread in commercial fowls and turkeys and was also detected in sera from specific pathogen-free chickens. no antibody was detected in a limited number of duck sera tested. the possibility of contamination of avian vaccines with avian nephritis virus is discussed.198718766587
identification of chicken enterovirus-like viruses, duck hepatitis virus type 2 and duck hepatitis virus type 3 as astroviruses.earlier work identified and biologically characterized antigenically distinct enterovirus-like viruses (elvs) of chickens. three of these elvs can now be identified as astroviruses. characterization involved the use of a hitherto undescribed, degenerate primer-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) to amplify astrovirus open reading frame (orf) 1b-specific cdna fragments followed by nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of the amplified fragments. elv-1 was confi ...200919156577
detection of chicken astrovirus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.the development of a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) test for detecting chicken astroviruses (castv) is described. primers, which amplified a fragment of 510 base pairs, were located in conserved regions within the orf 1b (rna polymerase) gene. the limit of detection of the test was estimated to be approximately 60 viral copies using a 10-fold dilution series of in vitro transcribed rna. positive signals were produced with representative castv samples, some of which were ...200919937514
development and application of an rt-pcr test for detecting avian nephritis virus.the development of a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) test for detecting avian nephritis virus (anv) is described. primers, which amplified a fragment of 182 base pairs (bp), were located in the conserved 3' untranslated region (utr) of the genome. the limit of detection of the test was estimated to be approximately 18 viral copies using a 10-fold dilution series of in vitro transcribed rna. positive signals were produced with representative anv samples, some of which wer ...201020544427
detection of avian nephritis virus in australian chicken flocks.avian nephritis virus (anv) is thought to infect poultry flocks worldwide, but no confirmed case has been reported in australia. the first such case is described in this study. cases of young chickens with clinical signs of dehydration and diarrhea were submitted to our laboratory and histopathology detected interstitial nephritis. vaccine strains of infectious bronchitis virus were detected in some of these cases but were not considered to be the causative agent. a total of seven fresh submissi ...201020945778
molecular characterization of avian astroviruses.astroviruses are frequently associated with enteric diseases in poultry, being isolated from cases of runting-stunting syndrome (rss) of broiler chickens, poult enteritis complex (pec), and poult enteritis mortality syndrome (pems) of turkeys. currently, five types of avian astrovirus have been identified: turkey astroviruses 1 and 2 (tastv-1, tastv-2), avian nephritis virus (anv), chicken astrovirus (castv) and duck astrovirus (dastv). the objective of this study was to molecularly characterize ...201021069394
development and evaluation of real-time taqman® rt-pcr assays for the detection of avian nephritis virus and chicken astrovirus in chickens.the development and preliminary evaluations of two taqman®-based, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr) assays for the quantitative detection of avian nephritis virus (anv) and chicken astrovirus (castv) rnas are described. the assays used amplicons generated from the 3' untranslated region of the anv genome and a conserved region of castv open reading frame 1b including its junction with open reading frame 2. high virus rna levels (>10(5.99) viral copies) were dete ...201021154056
sequence analyses of the representative chinese-prevalent strain of avian nephritis virus in healthy chicken flocks.avian nephritis virus (anv), which belongs to the astroviridae family, has been associated with acute nephritis in chickens. cases of anv infection have been recorded in japan and in several european countries. however, related studies have never been performed in china. thus, this study isolated anv in chinese chicken flocks. anv rna was detected by reverse transcription-pcr in stool samples collected from healthy layer chickens in the sichuan province of china in 2009. of the 192 stool specime ...201121500638
complete sequence and genetic characterization of pigeon avian nephritis virus, a member of the family astroviridae.in the current study, the complete genome sequence of a member of the family astroviridae isolated from pigeons was determined through genetic characterization and phylogeny analysis. the isolated genome sequence was proposed to be that of pigeon avian nephritis virus (anv), whose genome structure and characteristics were similar to previously reported avian astroviruses. the sequenced ssrna genome comprises 6928 nucleotides, excluding the poly(a) tail, and contains three open reading frames. ph ...201121618030
detection and characterization of a new astrovirus in chicken and turkeys with enteric and locomotion disorders.in the present paper, we report the unexpected discovery of a new virus in samples from chicken and turkey flocks with clinical disorders such as tenosynovitis, enteric problems, or runting and/or stunting-like conditions. since 1987, several virus isolation attempts on samples from these flocks resulted in the same macroscopic characteristic lesions in embryonated specific pathogen free eggs, being mortality with bright-red discolouration of legs and wing-tips, a swollen dark-red liver and oede ...201121780967
detection of astrovirus infection in pigeons (columbia livia) during an outbreak of diarrhoea.avian astrovirus infections are widespread in many countries, and infections have been linked to enteritis and increased mortality in young poultry. although pigeons are treated as an important poultry product in some countries, their diseases are often poorly understood and astrovirus infection in pigeons has not been reported. in the present study, faecal samples were collected during an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in a population of shanghai pigeons. the samples were examined for ast ...201121812714
Segmentation expression of capsid protein as an antigen for the detection of avian nephritis virus infection in chicken flocks.Subclinical pathological changes in the kidneys of broiler chickens and suppression of growth caused by the avian nephritis virus (ANV) affect poultry flocks worldwide. A test for detection of virus-specific antibodies in serum would be useful for epidemiological investigations, however the poor propagation in cell cultures has restricted the development of serological tests based on the use of ANV particles as antigens. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for detection of ...201222001271
simultaneous detection of astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus and adenovirus type i in broiler chicken flocks.enteric diseases cause substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. astroviruses, rotaviruses, reoviruses, and adenovirus type 1 have been reported as a significant cause of intestinal symptoms in poultry. in the present study, intestinal samples from 70 commercial broiler chicken flocks were examined for the presence of astroviruses, rotavirus, and reovirus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and for the presence of group i adenovirus by polymerase chain reaction. astrov ...201222844713
investigation into the aetiology of runting and stunting syndrome in chickens.currently, the aetiology of runting and stunting syndrome (rss) in chickens is unknown. the impact of rss on weight gain and microscopic lesions in immunological organs and the duodenum, was investigated in 1-day-old commercial broilers at 12 days following exposure to rss-contaminated litter. furthermore, the presence of the viral nucleic acids of three astroviruses and one parvovirus was analysed by in situ hybridization from days 1 through 5 post exposure. a 70% decrease in weight was observe ...201222845320
astroviruses associated with stunting and pre-hatching mortality in duck and goose embryos.the first detection of avian nephritis virus (anv) in goose embryos and of turkey astrovirus-1 (tastv-1) in duck embryos is described. intestinal samples from duck and goose embryos from five duck and four goose flocks in croatia were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of anv, tastv-1, turkey astrovirus-2, chicken astrovirus, duck astrovirus and also for the presence of avian reovirus, derzsy's disease virus and duck enteritis virus. the kidneys from duck and goose embryos were ...201222845326
circulation and phylogenetic relationship of chicken and turkey-origin astroviruses detected in domestic ducks (anas platyrhynchos domesticus).the natural occurrence of chicken and turkey-origin astroviruses in domestic ducks (anas platyrhynchos domesticus) is described. twenty-two duck flocks were covered by this research. the liver, spleen, kidney and intestines were sampled and tested by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for the presence of avian nephritis virus (anv), chicken astrovirus (castv), turkey astrovirus (tastv)-1, tastv-2 and duck astrovirus. the astrovirus infection was confirmed in multiple organ samples f ...201223237368
role of chicken astrovirus as a causative agent of gout in commercial broilers in india.several outbreaks of gout were reported in commercial broilers in india during 2011 and 2012, causing up to 40% mortality in the birds. gross and histopathological observations confirmed gout. quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qrt-pcr) analysis from kidney samples of gout-affected birds indicated the presence of chicken astrovirus (castv) in 41.7% of cases and a mixed infection of castv and avian nephritis virus (anv) in 36.4% of cases. castv isolated from gout-affect ...201324015918
molecular survey of enteric viruses in commercial chicken farms in korea with a history of enteritis.several enteric viruses have increasingly received attention as potential causative agents of runting-stunting syndrome (rss) in chickens. a molecular survey was performed to determine the presence of a broad range of enteric viruses, namely chicken astrovirus (castv), avian nephritis virus (anv), chicken parvovirus (chpv), infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), avian rotavirus (avrv), avian reovirus (arv), and fowl adenovirus (fadv), in intestinal samples derived from 34 commercial chicken flocks t ...201324135590
emergence of enteric viruses in production chickens is a concern for avian health.several viruses have been identified in recent years in the intestinal contents of chickens and turkeys with enteric problems, which have been observed in commercial farms worldwide, including brazil. molecular detection of these viruses in brazil can transform to a big threat for poultry production due to risk for intestinal integrity. this disease is characterized by severely delayed growth, low uniformity, lethargy, watery diarrhea, delayed feed consumption, and a decreased conversion rate. c ...201424578633
isolation of chicken astrovirus from specific pathogen-free chicken embryonated eggs.astroviruses have been associated with enteric disorders in many animal species, including chickens. here, we describe the isolation, propagation, and pathological characteristics of chicken astrovirus (castv) in specific pathogen free (spf) chicken embryonated eggs (cee) from chickens with diarrhea and runting-stunting syndrome. the cee were inoculated via the yolk sac route. viral confirmation was carried out using pcr techniques and transmission electron microscopy negative staining with ammo ...201525805833
the c-terminal end of the capsid protein of avian nephritis virus is antigenic and induces broadly cross-reactive antibodies.avian nephritis virus (anv) has been isolated frequently from commercial broilers in many countries. the prevalence and economic impact of anv however has been difficult to ascertain due to the lack of convenient serological techniques. in this study the full-length and fragments of the anv capsid protein were expressed in baculovirus and affinity purified recombinant proteins used for the detection of anv antibodies in elisa. the crystal structure of human astrovirus (hastv) was used as a model ...201525934419
high-resolution melt curve analysis to confirm the presence of co-circulating isolates of avian nephritis virus in commercial chicken flocks.avian nephritis virus (anv) has been implicated in poor growth and renal disease of young chickens. this paper describes the development of a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the detection of anv in commercial meat chickens and the use of high-resolution melt curves to detect the presence of genetically different anvs. pooled cloacal swabs from both healthy and ill commercial chicken broiler flocks were tested for the presence of anv using a combination of polymerase chain rea ...201526365395
detection and molecular characterization of astroviruses in turkeys.this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of turkey astrovirus 1 (tastv-1) and avian nephritis virus (anv) in turkeys with light turkey syndrome (lts), which is characterized by lower body weight in market-age turkeys than their standard breed character. we collected pools of fecal samples from four lts and two non-lts turkey flocks in minnesota at 2, 3, 5 and 8 weeks of age. of the 80 lts pools tested, 16 (20.0 %) and 11 (13.8 %) were positive for tastv- ...201626780891
molecular detection of chicken parvovirus in broilers with enteric disorders presenting curving of duodenal loop, pancreatic atrophy, and mesenteritis.enteric disorders are an important cause of economic losses in broiler chickens worldwide. several agents have been associated with enteric problems, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. in this study, broiler chickens showing signs of enteric disorders were subjected to molecular diagnosis for several viral agents and also for pathological examination for elucidating this problem. thus, the chickens were screened for avian nephritis virus (anv), chicken astrovirus (castv), avian rotavirus ...201626908891
detection and molecular characterization of chicken astrovirus associated with chicks that have an unusual condition known as "white chicks" in brazil.chicken astrovirus (castv) is one of many viruses related to enteric diseases in poultry that are associated with runting-stunting syndrome (rss), which affects young chickens. castv was also recently associated with an unusual condition in chicks called "white chicks." some hatcheries in certain states of brazil have reported several incubation problems, mortality, and the presence of chicks with white plumages over the past several months. these chicks were termed locally as "white chicks." th ...201626976903
a metagenomic comparison of endemic viruses from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome and from normal birds.runting-stunting syndrome (rss) in broiler chickens is an enteric disease that causes significant economic losses to poultry producers worldwide due to elevated feed conversion ratios, decreased body weight during growth, and excessive culling. of specific interest are the viral agents associated with rss which have been difficult to fully characterize to date. past research into the aetiology of rss has implicated a wide variety of rna and dna viruses however, to date, no individual virus has b ...201627215546
pathogenesis of renal lesions in chickens after experimental infection with 9a5b newcastle disease virus mutant isolate.in this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of newcastle disease virus (ndv) in the chicken kidney. twenty-six 32-day-old specific pathogen-free chickens were intranasally inoculated with the 9a5b ndv mutant isolate. kidney tissue samples, collected at 6 and 12 hours postinoculation (hpi) and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 days postinoculation (dpi), were analyzed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry (ihc), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), and virus titration. histopathologic ...201727371537
prevalence of histopathological intestinal lesions and enteric pathogens in dutch commercial broilers with time.intestinal disease has a major impact on the broiler industry due to economic and welfare reasons. intestinal disease might occur due to a large number of reasons varying from well-defined pathogens to non-specific enteritis and complex syndromes. however, knowledge about the nature of intestinal disease and presence of enteric viruses in the dutch broiler industry is largely absent. therefore, a large-scale field study, in which 98 broiler flocks from 86 farms were sampled weekly, was started t ...201727557362
avian nephritis virus (anv) on brazilian chickens farms: circulating genotypes and intra-genotypic diversity.avian nephritis virus (anv), which belongs to the family astroviridae, is associated with different clinical manifestations (including enteric disorders). despite being frequently found in the avian industry worldwide, information regarding genetic features of these viruses in brazil is scarce. therefore, sixty fecal sample pools (5-6 birds of the same flock), representing 60 poultry farms from six brazilian states, were screened using an astrovirus-specific hemi-nested-pcr assay targeting the c ...201627638777
detection and molecular characterization of enteric viruses in enteritis-affected commercial broiler chickens in india.a study was conducted to detect and characterize the enteric viruses (chicken astrovirus, avian nephritis virus and avian orthoreovirus) present in flocks of commercial broiler chickens suffering from enteritis in haryana, india. the intestinal contents were collected from 65 enteritis-affected flocks (cases) and tested by reverse transcription pcr (rt-pcr). of these 65 cases, 35 (53.80%) were positive for a single virus and 26 (40.00%) for two viruses. the remaining four samples were negative f ...201727928915
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