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vertical transmission of zika virus in aedes aegypti mosquitoes.previous experimental studies have demonstrated that a number of mosquito-borne flavivirus pathogens are vertically transmitted in their insect vectors, providing a mechanism for these arboviruses to persist during adverse climatic conditions or in the absence of a susceptible vertebrate host. in this study, designed to test whether zika virus (zikv) could be vertically transmitted, female aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus were injected with zikv, and their f1 adult progeny were tested for zikv ...201627573623
culex pipiens and aedes triseriatus mosquito susceptibility to zika virus. 201627434194
public health responses to and challenges for the control of dengue transmission in high-income countries: four case studies.dengue has a negative impact in low- and lower middle-income countries, but also affects upper middle- and high-income countries. despite the efforts at controlling this disease, it is unclear why dengue remains an issue in affluent countries. a better understanding of dengue epidemiology and its burden, and those of chikungunya virus and zika virus which share vectors with dengue, is required to prevent the emergence of these diseases in high-income countries in the future. the purpose of this ...201627643596
zika virus in gabon (central africa)--2007: a new threat from aedes albopictus?chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital libreville and several northern towns. both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. the mosquito species aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the gabonese outbreaks. we conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquit ...201424516683
analysis of synonymous codon usage bias of zika virus and its adaption to the hosts.zika virus (zikv) is a mosquito-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family flaviviridae, and the symptoms caused by zikv infection in humans include rash, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia and conjunctivitis. codon usage bias analysis can reveal much about the molecular evolution and host adaption of zikv. to gain insight into the evolutionary characteristics of zikv, we performed a comprehensive analysis on the codon usage pattern in 46 zikv strains by calculating the effective number of codons ( ...201627893824
assessing seasonal risks for the introduction and mosquito-borne spread of zika virus in europe.the explosive zika virus epidemic in the americas is amplifying spread of this emerging pathogen into previously unaffected regions of the world, including europe (gulland, 2016), where local populations are immunologically naïve. as summertime approaches in the northern hemisphere, aedes mosquitoes in europe may find suitable climatic conditions to acquire and subsequently transmit zika virus from viremic travellers to local populations. while aedes albopictus has proven to be a vector for the ...201627344225
population genetics of the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus, an invasive vector of human diseases.the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus is currently one of the most threatening invasive species in the world. native to southeast asia, the species has spread throughout the world in the past 30 years and is now present in every continent but antarctica. because it was the main vector of recent dengue and chikungunya outbreaks, and because of its competency for numerous other viruses and pathogens such as the zika virus, a. albopictus stands out as a model species for invasive diseases vecto ...201627273325
zika virus, a new threat for europe?since its emergence in 2007 in micronesia and polynesia, the arthropod-borne flavivirus zika virus (zikv) has spread in the americas and the caribbean, following first detection in brazil in may 2015. the risk of zikv emergence in europe increases as imported cases are repeatedly reported. together with chikungunya virus (chikv) and dengue virus (denv), zikv is transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. any countries where these mosquitoes are present could be potential sites for future zikv outbreak. we ...201627505002
genetic characterization of spondweni and zika viruses and susceptibility of geographically distinct strains of aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus and culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) to spondweni virus.zika virus (zikv) has extended its known geographic distribution to the new world and is now responsible for severe clinical complications in a subset of patients. while substantial genetic and vector susceptibility data exist for zikv, less is known for the closest related flavivirus, spondweni virus (sponv). both zikv and sponv have been known to circulate in africa since the mid-1900s, but neither has been genetically characterized by gene and compared in parallel. furthermore, the susceptibi ...201627783682
wolbachia modulates lipid metabolism in aedes albopictus mosquito cells.certain strains of the intracellular endosymbiont wolbachia can strongly inhibit or block the transmission of viruses such as dengue virus (denv) by aedes mosquitoes, and the mechanisms responsible are still not well understood. direct infusion and liquid chromatography-fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ft-icr) mass spectrometry-based lipidomics analyses were conducted using aedes albopictus aa23 cells that were infected with the wmel and wmelpop strains of wolbachia in comparison to un ...201626994075
differential susceptibilities of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus from the americas to zika virus.since the major outbreak in 2007 in the yap island, zika virus (zikv) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the south pacific region. in may 2015, the virus was detected in brazil and then spread through south and central america. in december 2015, zikv was detected in french guiana and martinique. the aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus from the caribbean (martinique, guadeloupe), north america ( ...201626938868
travel-associated and autochthonous zika virus infection in mainland france, 1 january to 15 july 2016.during summer 2016, all the conditions for local mosquito-borne transmission of zika virus (zikv) are met in mainland france: a competent vector, aedes albopictus, a large number of travellers returning from zikv-affected areas, and an immunologically naive population. from 1 january to 15 july 2016, 625 persons with evidence of recent zikv infection were reported in mainland france. we describe the surveillance system in place and control measures implemented to reduce the risk of infection.027542120
zika virus in a traveler returning to china from caracas, venezuela, february 2016. 201627070735
global risk model for vector-borne transmission of zika virus reveals the role of el niño 2015.zika, a mosquito-borne viral disease that emerged in south america in 2015, was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the who in february of 2016. we developed a climate-driven r0 mathematical model for the transmission risk of zika virus (zikv) that explicitly includes two key mosquito vector species: aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus the model was parameterized and calibrated using the most up to date information from the available literature. it was then driven by ob ...201627994145
laboratory surveillance of arboviral infections in a southern france region colonized by aedes albopictus.the establishment of aedes albopictus in southern france, a recognized competent vector for several arboviruses, represents a new threat for the local transmission and spread of what were until recently considered as tropical diseases. a preparedness and response plan, based on vigilance of both clinicians and laboratories, has introduced significant changes in guidelines and behaviour regarding patients' care specifically during the activity period of mosquitoes. in the present study, we report ...201727903317
testing of visual and chemical attractants in correlation with the development and field evaluation of an autodissemination station for the suppression of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in florida.three exotic mosquito-borne pathogens-dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses-transmitted by aedes albopictus and ae. aegypti have undergone dramatic global expansion in recent years. the control of vector populations and minimizing bites from these vectors are the primary methods of reducing risk of transmission of these viruses to humans. however, ae. albopictus and ae. aegypti are notoriously challenging to control through conventional chemical means, due primarily to difficulties in applying p ...201627802398
dengue virus serotype 2 infection alters midgut and carcass gene expression in the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus.the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus is currently an important vector for dengue, chikungunya and zika virus, and its role in transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) may increase in the future due to its ability to colonize temperate regions. in contrast to aedes aegypti, the dominant vector of dengue, chikungunya and zika virus, genetic responses of ae. albopictus upon infection with an arbovirus are not well characterized. here we present a study of the changes in transcrip ...201728152011
update: ongoing zika virus transmission - puerto rico, november 1, 2015-july 7, 2016.zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and infection can be asymptomatic or result in an acute febrile illness with rash (1). zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe birth defects (2). infection has also been associated with guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) (3) and severe thrombocytopenia (4,5). in december 2015, the puerto rico department of health (prdh) reported the first locally acquired case o ...201627490087
zika virus: a new arboviral public health problem.zika virus (zikv) is a single-stranded rna virus in the flaviviridae family and transmitted to human through infected mosquitos (aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus). virus is closely related with other flaviviruses; dengue virus, yellow fever virus, west nile virus, and japanese encephalitis virus phylogenetically. due to the possible relationship between virus and clinical features including microcephaly, ventricule, and eye deformities, guillain-barre syndrome increases the interest on this vi ...201627469112
zika virus infections: an overview of current scenario.zika virus (zikv) was discovered more than half a century ago, recently it has gained unprecedented attention by the global health community. until 2007, only 14 cases of human zikv infections were reported around the globe, while during the current outbreak, estimated cases mounted to approximately 1.5 million in brazil alone, the virus was disseminated to wider south-american territories and travel-associated zikv infections were reported in usa, europe and recently in china. zikv infections r ...201627393087
autophagy and viral diseases transmitted by aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus.despite a long battle that was started by oswaldo cruz more than a century ago, in 1903, brazil still struggles to fight aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus, the mosquito vectors of dengue virus (denv), chikungynya virus (chikv) and zika virus (zikv). dengue fever has been a serious public health problem in brazil for decades, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks occurring during summers. in 2015, until november, 1,534,932 possible cases were reported to the ministry of healthv. more recently, the l ...201626774331
why zika virus infection has become a public health concern?prior to 2015, zika virus (zikv) outbreaks had occurred in areas of africa, southeast asia, and the pacific islands. although a causal relationship between zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. in may 2015, the outbreak of zikv infection in brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the pan american health organization (paho) ...201627052792
declining malaria, rising of dengue and zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control.the fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. to our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the nobel prize to youyou tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. rts,s/as01 (rts,s)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-saharan africa. however, there are major challenges that still deserve atte ...201626932263
epa-registered repellents for mosquitoes transmitting emerging viral disease.in many parts of the united states, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. however, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. the aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, and culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the united states and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern, including west nile virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and zika virus. the centers for disease control and prevention and the environmental protection agency (epa) recom ...201627779781
[zika virus infection in pregnancy].the zika virus is a flavivirus spread by mosquitoes. its primary vectors are the aedes aegypti and the aedes albopictus. before 2007 it sporadically caused benign morbidity. since 2015, it started spreading "explosively" in america, especially in brazil. in august 2016 they reported cases from new york and poland, too. most of the infections don't produce any symptoms, but can cause grave complications. the most important lesion is microcephalia that forms in fetuses. microcephalia's most seriou ...201728393598
host-virus interaction of zika virus in modulating disease pathogenesis.the zika virus (zikv) is a newly emerging pathogen that has resulted in a worldwide epidemic. it primarily spreads either through infected aedes aegypti or aedes albopictus mosquitos leading to severe neurological disorders such as microcephaly and guillain-barré syndrome in susceptible individuals. the mode of zikv entry into specific cell types such as: epidermal keratinocytes, fibroblasts, immature dendritic cells (idcs), and stem-cell-derived human neural progenitors has been determined thro ...201728349242
preparing the united states for zika virus: pre-emptive vector control and personal protection.discovered in 1947 in a monkey in the zika forest of uganda, zika virus was dismissed as a cause of a mild illness that was confined to africa and southeast asia and transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. in 2007, zika virus appeared outside of its endemic borders in an outbreak on the south pacific island of yap. in 2013, zika virus was associated with a major neurological complication, guillain-barré syndrome, in a larger outbreak in the french polynesian islands. from the south pacific, zika invade ...201628340908
boswellia ovalifoliolata (burseraceae) essential oil as an eco-friendly larvicide? toxicity against six mosquito vectors of public health importance, non-target mosquito fishes, backswimmers, and water bugs.the use of synthetic pesticides to control vector populations is detrimental to human health and the environment and may lead to the development of resistant strains. plants can be alternative sources of safer compounds effective on mosquito vectors. in this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of boswellia ovalifoliolata leaf essential oil (eo) was evaluated against anopheles stephensi, anopheles subpictus, aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, culex quinquefasciatus, and culex tritaeniorhynchus. ...201728332087
ascension island: a survey to assess the presence of zika virus vectors.following concerns regarding the spread of zika virus, joint services health unit (cyprus) were tasked to carry out a mosquito survey on the ascension island, south atlantic. this was to determine if vectors of the virus such as aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus were introduced and established on the island.201728331047
holding back the tiger: successful control program protects australia from aedes albopictus expansion.the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus, is an important vector of dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses and is a highly invasive and aggressive biter. established populations of this species were first recognised in australia in 2005 when they were discovered on islands in the torres strait, between mainland australia and papua new guinea. a control program was implemented with the original goal of eliminating ae. albopictus from the torres strait. we describe the evolution of management stra ...201728192520
an integrated approach for the assessment of the aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus global spatial distribution, and determination of the zones susceptible to the development of zika virus.the zika virus, one of the new epidemic diseases, is reported to have affected millions of people in the past year. the suitable climate conditions of the areas where zika virus has been reported, especially in areas with a high population density, are the main cause of the current outbreak and spread of the disease. indeed, the suitable climatic conditions of certain territories constitute perfect breading nest for the propagation and outbreak of worldwide diseases. the main objective of this r ...201728111132
experimental transmission of zika virus by mosquitoes from central europe.mosquitoes collected in germany in 2016, including culex pipiens pipiens biotype pipiens, culex torrentium and aedes albopictus, as well as culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus (in colony since 2011) were experimentally infected with zika virus (zikv) at 18 °c or 27 °c. none of the culex taxa showed vector competence for zikv. in contrast, aedes albopictus were susceptible for zikv but only at 27 °c, with transmission rates similar to an aedes aegypti laboratory colony tested in parallel.201728106528
five cases of acute zika virus infection in french women of reproductive age returning from central and south america.the favorable season for aedes albopictus circulation has started in europe and may lead to autochthonous transmission of zika virus. health care providers should be familiar with evocative clinical presentations and able to give updated information to women of reproductive age infected by zika virus.201728104381
flavivirus transmission focusing on zika.flaviviruses are among the most diverse viruses with over 85 species recognized. taxonomically, this genus is one of the 4 recognized genera within the family flaviviridae. most flaviviruses of human public health significance, for example, dengue, yellow fever and zika viruses, are arthropod-borne (arboviruses) and have two evolutionarily and ecologically distinct transmission cycles: a sylvatic transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between zoonotic vertebrate reservoir and amplificati ...201727936448
cytoarchitecture of zika virus infection in human neuroblastoma and aedes albopictus cell lines.the zika virus (zikv) pandemic is a global concern due to its role in the development of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. this mosquito-borne flavivirus alternates between mammalian and mosquito hosts, but information about the biogenesis of zikv is limited. using a human neuroblastoma cell line (sk-n-sh) and an aedes albopictus mosquito cell line (c6/36), we characterized zikv infection by immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (tem), and electron tomography (et ...201727863275
one year after the zika virus outbreak in brazil: from hypotheses to evidence.zika virusis an arbovirus of the flaviviridae family with two major strains, an asian and an african strain. the main vectors involved in the transmission of zika virus are the aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes. despite its identification, discovered in 1947 in the zika forest in uganda, only isolated and sporadic occurrences of human infection were reported within a largely asymptomatic proportion of individuals. the first reported outbreak occurred in 2007 in the yap island, which ...201627812646
culex species mosquitoes and zika virus.recent reports of zika virus (zikv) isolates from culex species mosquitoes have resulted in concern regarding a lack of knowledge on the number of competent vector species for zikv transmission in the new world. although observations in the field have demonstrated that zikv isolation can be made from culex species mosquitoes, the detection of zikv in these mosquitoes is not proof of their involvement in a zikv transmission cycle. detection may be due to recent feeding on a viremic vertebrate, an ...201627556838
contraceptive use among nonpregnant and postpartum women at risk for unintended pregnancy, and female high school students, in the context of zika preparedness - united states, 2011-2013 and 2015.zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1,2). since 2015, zika virus has been spreading through much of the world health organization's region of the americas, including u.s. territories. zika virus is spread through the bite of aedes aegypti or aedes albopictus mosquitoes, by sex with an infected partner, or from a pregnant woman to her fetus during pregnancy.* cdc estimates that 41 states are in the potential range of aedes aegypti or ae ...201627490117
[zika virus infection: a new public health emergency with great media impact].infection with zika virus (zv) has become a new epidemic, with great impact on the media, and is having a strong effect in latin american countries. its possible association with microcephaly and guillain-barré syndrome prompted the world health organization (who) to declare on 1 february 2016 that this epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern. epidemiological data show an increasing incidence in countries like brazil and colombia, and that the epidemic is still expanding i ...201727474488
a detailed comparative analysis of codon usage bias in zika virus.zika virus (zikv) is a member of the family flaviviridae and its genome consists of a single-stranded positive sense rna molecule with 10,794 nucleotides. clinical manifestations of disease caused by zikv infection range from asymptomatic cases to an influenza-like syndrome. there is an increasing concern about the possible relation among microcephaly and zikv infection. to get insight into the relation of codon usage among viruses and their hosts is extremely important to understand virus survi ...201627449601
dengue, chikungunya … and the missing entity - zika fever: a new emerging threat.zika virus (zikv), a relative newcomer from the flavivirus group that includes dengue, japanese encepahalitis and yellow fever, is one of the emerging pathogens that is fast transcending geographical boundaries. it is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the same aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus, which cause dengue and chikungunya. in addition to the vector-mediated transmission of zika fever, probable human-to-human transmission through exchange of body fluids, including sexual and perinatal ...201627257326
[infestation status aedes albopictus and related mosquito-borne infectious disease risk in central urban area in shanghai].to evaluate aedes albopictus infestation status in the central urban area of shanghai, and analyze the related epidemic risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease.201627188346
experimental studies of susceptibility of italian aedes albopictus to zika virus.we report a study on vector competence of an italian population of aedes albopictus for zika virus (zikv). ae. albopictus was susceptible to zikv infection (infection rate: 10%), and the virus could disseminate and was secreted in the mosquito's saliva (dissemination rate: 29%; transmission rate: 29%) after an extrinsic incubation period of 11 days. the observed vector competence was lower than that of an ae. aegypti colony tested in parallel.201627171034
[zika virus infection or the future of infectious diseases].zika virus belongs to the flaviridae, an extended phylogenetic family containing dengue or yellow fever, viruses whose shared main vector are aedes aegypti mosquitoes. the virus originally came from central african simian reservoirs and, from there, expanded rapidly across the pacific to south america. the disease is an example of exantematic fever usually mild. mortality is very low and mainly limited to secondary guillain-barré or fetal microcephaly cases. diagnostic confirmation requires a rt ...201627156484
zika virus: implications for public health.the world health organization has declared the current zika virus (zikv) epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. lack of vaccines and reliable diagnostic tests, broad geographical distribution of mosquito species that can transmit the virus, and absence of population immunity in newly affected countries are causes for concern. although most infected persons are asymptomatic, zikv has been associated with a rise in cases of neurological complications and fetal central nervous ...201627048745
zika virus.zika virus (zikv) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus flavivirus and the family flaviviridae. zikv was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in africa, and zikv infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the pacific and the americas. zikv is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. the clinical presentation of zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especiall ...201627029595
zika virus: yet another emerging threat to nepal.zika virus (zikv) is a flavivirus with single stranded rna related to yellow fever, dengue, west nile, and japanese encephalitis viruses and is transmitted by aedes mosquitoes primarily by aedes aegipti which is widely distributed in nepal. zikv was first identified incidentally in rhesus monkey in uganda in 1947 and human infection in 1952; and by now outbreaks of zikv disease have been recorded in africa, the americas, asia and the pacific. the world health organization (who) has recently decl ...201627005721
global risk of zika virus depends critically on vector status of aedes albopictus. 201626997578
evaluating the vector control potential of the in2care® mosquito trap against aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus under semifield conditions in manatee county, florida.successful integrated vector management programs may need new strategies in addition to conventional larviciding and adulticiding strategies to target aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus, which can develop in small, often cryptic, artificial and natural containers. the in2care® mosquito trap was recently developed to target and kill larval and adult stages of these invasive container-inhabiting aedes mosquitoes by utilizing autodissemination. gravid females that visit the trap pick up pyriproxyfen ...201728854105
evaluation of pyriproxyfen dissemination via aedes albopictus from a point-source larvicide application in northeast florida.the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus , ranks among the most important vectors of dengue fever, zika virus, and chikungunya virus. with no specific medications or vaccines available, vector control is the only way to combat these diseases. autodissemination of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen (nyguard®) from a point-source treatment was evaluated in field settings in northeast florida. the objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of pyriproxyfen dissemination from ...201728590221
[arboviruses also have an american dream].some arboviruses that originated in the old world have been introduced by humans into the american continent. the first of them was the yellow fever virus, coming from the west african coast with slaves in the 17th-19th centuries, followed by dengue viruses, which were always prevalent within the americas. next was thewest nile virus, introduced in new york in 1999, that spread in only a few years over the whole continent. then, chikungunya virus arrived on saint martin island in 2013 after its ...201728509947
could the recent zika epidemic have been predicted?given knowledge at the time, the recent 2015-2016 zika virus (zikv) epidemic probably could not have been predicted. without the prior knowledge of zikv being already present in south america, and given the lack of understanding of key epidemiologic processes and long-term records of zikv cases in the continent, the best related prediction could be carried out for the potential risk of a generic aedes-borne disease epidemic. here we use a recently published two-vector basic reproduction number m ...201728747901
interaction of flavivirus with their mosquito vectors and their impact on the human health in the americas.some of the major arboviruses with public health importance, such as dengue, yellow fever, zika and west nile virus are mosquito-borne or mosquito-transmitted flavivirus. their principal vectors are from the family culicidae, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus being responsible of the urban cycles of dengue, zika and yellow fever virus. these vectors are highly competent for transmission of many arboviruses. the genetic variability of the vectors, the environment and the viral diversity modulate ...201728499872
zingiber cernuum (zingiberaceae) essential oil as effective larvicide and oviposition deterrent on six mosquito vectors, with little non-target toxicity on four aquatic mosquito predators.mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of many pathogens and parasites, which cause serious diseases in humans and animals. currently, botanical products have been suggested as alternative tools in the fight against arthropod vectors. in this study, the essential oil (eo) extracted from zingiber cernuum was tested as larvicide and oviposition deterrent on six mosquito species of public health relevance, including malaria and zika virus vectors. the eo showed high toxicity on third insta ...201728497331
the cost of arbovirus disease prevention in europe: area-wide integrated control of tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus, in emilia-romagna, northern italy.aedes albopictus (tiger mosquito) has become the most invasive mosquito species worldwide, in addition to being a well-known vector of diseases, with a proven capacity for the transmission of chikungunya and dengue viruses in europe as well as the zika virus in africa and in laboratory settings. this research quantifies the cost that needs to be provided by public-health systems for area-wide prevention of arboviruses in europe. this cost has been calculated by evaluating the expenditure of the ...201728425959
imported zika virus in a european city: how to prevent local transmission?background: on february 1st 2016 the who declared the zika virus (zikv) infection a worldwide public health emergency because of its rapid expansion and severe complications, such as guillain-barré syndrome or microcephaly in newborn. the huge amount of people traveling to endemic areas and the presence of aedes albopictus in barcelona increase the risk of autochtonous transmission. the objective of this study was to describe the first zikv cases diagnosed in our city and to analyze the surveill ...201728769893
american aedes vexans mosquitoes are competent vectors of zika virus.abstractstarting in 2013-2014, the americas have experienced a massive outbreak of zika virus (zikv) which has now reached at least 49 countries. although most cases have occurred in south america and the caribbean, imported and autochthonous cases have occurred in the united states. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes are known vectors of zikv. little is known about the potential for temperate aedes mosquitoes to transmit zikv. aedes vexans has a worldwide distribution, is highly abun ...201728719283
zika vector transmission risk in temperate australia: a vector competence study.zika virus is an emerging pathogen of global importance. it has been responsible for recent outbreaks in the americas and in the pacific region. this study assessed five different mosquito species from the temperate climatic zone in australia and included aedes albopictus as a potentially invasive species.201728599659
a location-specific spreadsheet for estimating zika risk and timing for zika vector surveillance, using us military facilities as an example.local zika virus transmission in the united states involving one or both of the known vector species, aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus, is of major concern. to assist efforts to anticipate the risks of transmission, we developed an excel spreadsheet tool that uses vector and virus temperature thresholds, remotely sensed maximum temperature, and habitat suitability models to answer the questions: "is zika transmission likely here?" and "when should we conduct vector surveillance?" an example spre ...201728511272
transmission incompetence of culex quinquefasciatus and culex pipiens pipiens from north america for zika virus.abstractin late 2014, zika virus (zikv; flaviviridae, flavivirus) emerged as a significant arboviral disease threat in the western hemisphere. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus have been considered the principal vectors of zikv in the new world due to viral isolation frequency and vector competence assessments. limited reports of culex transmission potential have highlighted the need for additional vector competence assessments of north american culex species. accordingly, north american culex ...201728500817
effects of zika virus strain and aedes mosquito species on vector competence.in the western hemisphere, zika virus is thought to be transmitted primarily by aedes aegypti mosquitoes. to determine the extent to which ae. albopictus mosquitoes from the united states are capable of transmitting zika virus and the influence of virus dose, virus strain, and mosquito species on vector competence, we evaluated multiple doses of representative zika virus strains in ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus mosquitoes. virus preparation (fresh vs. frozen) significantly affected virus infect ...201728430564
competence of aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, and culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes as zika virus vectors, china.in china, the prevention and control of zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in february 2016. to determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, and culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. we found the highest vector competence for the imported zika virus in ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some sus ...201728430562
evidence of zika virus rna fragments in aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) field-collected eggs from camaçari, bahia, brazil.a major mosquito-borne viral disease outbreak caused by zika virus (zikv) occurred in bahia, brazil, in 2015, largely due to transmission by the mosquito, aedes aegypti (l.). detecting zikv in field samples of ae. aegypti has proven problematic in some locations, suggesting other mosquito species might be contributing to the spread of zikv. in this study, several (five) adult aedes albopictus (skuse) mosquitoes that emerged from a 2015 field collection of eggs from camaçari, bahia, brazil, were ...201728419254
quantitative proteomic analysis of mosquito c6/36 cells reveals host proteins involved in zika virus infection.zika virus (zikv) is an emerging arbovirus belonging to the genus flavivirus of the family flaviviridae during replication processes, flavivirus manipulates host cell systems to facilitate its replication, while the host cells activate antiviral responses. identification of host proteins involved in the flavivirus replication process may lead to the discovery of antiviral targets. the mosquitoes aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are epidemiologically important vectors for zikv, and effective re ...201728404849
assessing the potential risk of zika virus epidemics in temperate areas with established aedes albopictus populations.based on 2015 abundance of aedes albopictus in nine northern italian municipalities with temperate continental/oceanic climate, we estimated the basic reproductive number r0 for zika virus (zikv) to be systematically below the epidemic threshold in most scenarios. results were sensitive to the value of the probability of mosquito infection after biting a viraemic host. therefore, further studies are required to improve models and predictions, namely evaluating vector competence and potential non ...201627104366
exposure of a dengue vector to tea and its waste: survival, developmental consequences, and significance for pest management.dengue mosquitoes are evolving into a broader global public health menace, with relentless outbreaks and the rise in number of zika virus disease cases as reminders of the continued hazard associated with aedes vectors. the use of chemical insecticides-the principal strategy against mosquito vectors-has been greatly impeded due to the development of insecticide resistance and the shrinking spectrum of effective agents. therefore, there is a pressing need for new chemistries for vector control. t ...201627115536
zika virus, vectors, reservoirs, amplifying hosts, and their potential to spread worldwide: what we know and what we should investigate urgently.the widespread epidemic of zika virus infection in south and central america and the caribbean in 2015, along with the increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with zika virus and the potential for worldwide spread, indicate the need to review the current literature regarding vectors, reservoirs, and amplification hosts.201627208633
eco-friendly larvicides from indian plants: effectiveness of lavandulyl acetate and bicyclogermacrene on malaria, dengue and japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, japanese encephalitis, filiariasis and zika virus. mosquito young instars are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial agents. indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. however, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and t ...201627504617
facile fabrication of eco-friendly nano-mosquitocides: biophysical characterization and effectiveness on neglected tropical mosquito vectors.mosquito (diptera: culicidae) vectors are solely responsible for transmitting important diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and zika virus. eco-friendly control tools of culicidae vectors are a priority. in this study, we proposed a facile fabrication process of poly-disperse and stable silver nanoparticles (ag nps) using a cheap leaf extract of ichnocarpus frutescens (apocyanaceae). bio-reduced ag nps were characterized by uv-vis spectropho ...201627866611
[zika fever].zika virus infection is an emerging arboviral disease which presented as a mild flu-like or algo-eruptive syndrome with fever, arthralgia, myalgia and a maculopapulous eruption. severe neurological and fetal complications have recently been highlighted. diagnosis is established by detection of viral rna by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). many publications report on the progress of knowledge on zika and its complications. treatment is symptomatic, mainly with analgesics. ...201728189390
emerging vector-borne diseases.several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in north america; west nile virus is the most common in the united states. although west nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the united states since 2009. known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrh ...201627929218
zika virus infections imported to italy: clinical, immunological and virological findings, and public health implications.we report the first two cases of laboratory confirmed zika virus (zikv) infections imported into italy from french polynesia. both patients presented with low grade fever, malaise, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, ankle oedema, and axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. one patient showed leukopenia with relative monocytosis and thrombocytopenia. the diagnosis was based on zikv seroconversion in both cases and on zikv rna detection in one patient from acute serum sample. sera from both patie ...201525600600
morphological studies on adult mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) and first report of the potential zika virus vector aedes (stegomyia) unilineatus (theobald, 1906) in iran.beside numerous extensive studies on anophelinae mosquitoes of iran, little is known on aedes species in the country and existing reports are dispersed. the objective of this study was to identify adults of culicinae species occurring in the sistan and baluchestan province, southeast of iran, during 2012-2014. mosquito collections were carried out three times (may-june, september, october-november) in four counties by centers for diseases control (cdc) light traps and human landing catches outdo ...201628028709
first record of aedes albopictus in georgia and updated checklist of reported species.mosquito surveillance was carried out in batumi, georgia, in august 2014. aedes albopictus was detected for the first time, which brought the number of reported mosquito species in georgia to 32. an updated checklist of the mosquitoes of georgia is provided.201627802403
no molecular or serological evidence of zikavirus infection among healthy blood donors living in or travelling to regions where aedes albopictus circulates.previous studies have shown that zika virus can infect and be transmitted by a. albopictus. the world health organization (who) has raised concerns of autochthonous transmission of the virus in regions where the vector is endemic. the aim of this pilot study was to assess the occurrence of zika virus (zikv) in western austria (tyrol) especially after a history of travel to a. albopictus endemic regions.201728542611
letter to the editor: diagnostic challenges to be considered regarding zika virus in the context of the presence of the vector aedes albopictus in europe. 201626988027
authors' reply: diagnostic challenges to be considered regarding zika virus in the context of the presence of the vector aedes albopictus in europe. 201626988337
zika virus: cutaneous manifestations in 3 patients.zika virus infection should be suspected in travelers or immigrants with the signs or symptoms of a viral infection (rash, fever, joint pains, conjunctivitis, headache, etc.) and a compatible epidemiological history. although cutaneous manifestations are among the most common clinical signs of zika, they are not specific and very few images are available. we present 3 patients (2 travelers and 1 immigrant) in whom a rash was the presenting manifestation of zika virus infection. prompt diagnosis ...201728683899
differential vector competency of aedes albopictus populations from the americas for zika virus.to evaluate the potential role of aedes albopictus (skuse) as a vector of zika virus (zikv), colonized mosquitoes of low generation number (≤ f5) from brazil, houston, and the rio grande valley of texas engorged on viremic mice infected with zikv strains originating from senegal, cambodia, mexico, brazil, or puerto rico. vector competence was established by monitoring infection, dissemination, and transmission potential after 3, 7, and 14 days of extrinsic incubation. positive saliva samples wer ...201728829735
variable inhibition of zika virus replication by different wolbachia strains in mosquito cell cultures.mosquito-borne arboviruses are a major source of human disease. one strategy to reduce arbovirus disease is to reduce the mosquito's ability to transmit virus. mosquito infection with the bacterial endosymbiont wolbachia pipientis wmel is a novel strategy to reduce aedes mosquito competency for flavivirus infection. however, experiments investigating cyclic environmental temperatures have shown a reduction in maternal transmission of wmel, potentially weakening the integration of this strain int ...201728446677
single-step biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using zornia diphylla leaves: a potent eco-friendly tool against malaria and arbovirus vectors.mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) are vectors of important pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, chikungunya, japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and zika virus. the application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on the environment and human health. in this scenario, eco-friendly control tools of mosquito vectors are a priority. here single-step fabrication of sil ...201627318605
larvicidal and pupicidal evaluation of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aquilaria sinensis and pogostemon cablin essential oils against dengue and zika viruses vector aedes albopictus mosquito and its histopathological analysis.mosquitoes pose a threat to humans and animals, causing millions of deaths every year. vector control by effective eco-friendly pesticides of natural origin is a serious issue that requires urgent attention. the employment of green-reducing extracts for nanoparticles biosynthesis in a rapid and single-step process represents a promising strategy. in this study, silver nanoparticles (agnps) were biofabricated using an essential oil of aquilaria sinensis (aseo) and pogostemonis herba essential oil ...201728859534
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