covdb: a comprehensive database for comparative analysis of coronavirus genes and genomes.the recent sars epidemic has boosted interest in the discovery of novel human and animal coronaviruses. by july 2007, more than 3000 coronavirus sequence records, including 264 complete genomes, are available in genbank. the number of coronavirus species with complete genomes available has increased from 9 in 2003 to 25 in 2007, of which six, including coronavirus hku1, bat sars coronavirus, group 1 bat coronavirus hku2, groups 2c and 2d coronaviruses, were sequenced by our laboratory. to overco ...200817913743
coronavirus diversity, phylogeny and interspecies jumping.the sars epidemic has boosted interest in research on coronavirus biodiversity and genomics. before 2003, there were only 10 coronaviruses with complete genomes available. after the sars epidemic, up to december 2008, there was an addition of 16 coronaviruses with complete genomes sequenced. these include two human coronaviruses (human coronavirus nl63 and human coronavirus hku1), 10 other mammalian coronaviruses [bat sars coronavirus, bat coronavirus (bat-cov) hku2, bat-cov hku4, bat-cov hku5, ...200919546349
ecoepidemiology and complete genome comparison of different strains of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related rhinolophus bat coronavirus in china reveal bats as a reservoir for acute, self-limiting infection that allows recombination events.despite the identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (sarsr-cov) in rhinolophus chinese horseshoe bats (sarsr-rh-batcov) in china, the evolutionary and possible recombination origin of sarsr-cov remains undetermined. we carried out the first study to investigate the migration pattern and sarsr-rh-batcov genome epidemiology in chinese horseshoe bats during a 4-year period. of 1,401 chinese horseshoe bats from hong kong and guangdong, china, that were sampled, sarsr- ...201020071579
bat coronaviruses and experimental infection of bats, the philippines.fifty-two bats captured during july 2008 in the philippines were tested by reverse transcription-pcr to detect bat coronavirus (cov) rna. the overall prevalence of virus rna was 55.8%. we found 2 groups of sequences that belonged to group 1 (genus alphacoronavirus) and group 2 (genus betacoronavirus) covs. phylogenetic analysis of the rna-dependent rna polymerase gene showed that groups 1 and 2 covs were similar to bat-cov/china/a515/2005 (95% nt sequence identity) and bat-cov/hku9-1/china/2007 ...201020678314
coexistence of different genotypes in the same bat and serological characterization of rousettus bat coronavirus hku9 belonging to a novel betacoronavirus subgroup.rousettus bat coronavirus hku9 (ro-batcov hku9), a recently identified coronavirus of novel betacoronavirus subgroup d, from leschenault's rousette, was previously found to display marked sequence polymorphism among genomes of four strains. among 10 bats with complete rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp), spike (s), and nucleocapsid (n) genes sequenced, three and two sequence clades for all three genes were codetected in two and five bats, respectively, suggesting the coexistence of two or three ...201020702646
middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus ns4b protein inhibits host rnase l activation.middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) is the first highly pathogenic human coronavirus to emerge since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov) in 2002. like many coronaviruses, mers-cov carries genes that encode multiple accessory proteins that are not required for replication of the genome but are likely involved in pathogenesis. evasion of host innate immunity through interferon (ifn) antagonism is a critical component of viral pathogenesis. the ifn-inducible ...201627025250
a mouse model for betacoronavirus subgroup 2c using a bat coronavirus strain hku5 variant.cross-species transmission of zoonotic coronaviruses (covs) can result in pandemic disease outbreaks. middle east respiratory syndrome cov (mers-cov), identified in 2012, has caused 182 cases to date, with ~43% mortality, and no small animal model has been reported. mers-cov and pipistrellus bat coronavirus (btcov) strain hku5 of betacoronavirus (β-cov) subgroup 2c share >65% identity at the amino acid level in several regions, including nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5) and the nucleocapsid (n) pr ...201424667706
identification of a novel coronavirus in bats.exotic wildlife can act as reservoirs of diseases that are endemic in the area or can be the source of new emerging diseases through interspecies transmission. the recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (sars-cov) highlights the importance of virus surveillance in wild animals. here, we report the identification of a novel bat coronavirus through surveillance of coronaviruses in wildlife. analyses of the rna sequence from the orf1b and s-gene regions indicat ...015681402
middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus 4a protein is a double-stranded rna-binding protein that suppresses pact-induced activation of rig-i and mda5 in the innate antiviral response.middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) is an emerging pathogen that causes severe disease in human. mers-cov is closely related to bat coronaviruses hku4 and hku5. evasion of the innate antiviral response might contribute significantly to mers-cov pathogenesis, but the mechanism is poorly understood. in this study, we characterized mers-cov 4a protein as a novel immunosuppressive factor that antagonizes type i interferon production. mers-cov 4a protein contains a double-stranded ...201424522921
cross-reactive antibodies in convalescent sars patients' sera against the emerging novel human coronavirus emc (2012) by both immunofluorescent and neutralizing antibody tests.a severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars)-like disease due to a novel betacoronavirus, human coronavirus emc (hcov-emc), has emerged recently. hcov-emc is phylogenetically closely related to tylonycteris-bat-coronavirus-hku4 and pipistrellus-bat-coronavirus-hku5 in hong kong. we conducted a seroprevalence study on archived sera from 94 game-food animal handlers at a wild life market, 28 sars patients, and 152 healthy blood donors in southern china to assess the zoonotic potential and evidence f ...201323583636
bat coronavirus in brazil related to appalachian ridge and porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses. 201525811911
origin, evolution, and genotyping of emergent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains in the united states.coronaviruses are known to infect humans and other animals and cause respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. here we report the emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv) in the united states and determination of its origin, evolution, and genotypes based on temporal and geographical evidence. histological lesions in small intestine sections of affected pigs and the complete genomic sequences of three emergent strains of pedv isolated from outbreaks in minnesota and iowa were charact ...201324129257
efficient reverse genetic systems for rapid genetic manipulation of emergent and preemergent infectious coronaviruses.emergent and preemergent coronaviruses (covs) pose a global threat that requires immediate intervention. rapid intervention necessitates the capacity to generate, grow, and genetically manipulate infectious covs in order to rapidly evaluate pathogenic mechanisms, host and tissue permissibility, and candidate antiviral therapeutic efficacy. covs encode the largest viral rna genomes at about 28-32,000 nucleotides in length, and thereby complicate efficient engineering of the genome. deconstructing ...201728508214
putative receptor binding domain of bat-derived coronavirus hku9 spike protein: evolution of betacoronavirus receptor binding motifs.the suggested bat origin for middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) has revitalized the studies of other bat-derived coronaviruses with respect to interspecies transmission potential. bat coronavirus (batcov) hku9 is an important betacoronavirus (betacov) that is phylogenetically affiliated with the same genus as mers-cov. the bat surveillance data indicated that batcov hku9 has been widely spreading and circulating in bats. this highlights the necessity of characterizing the vi ...201627696819
a bat-derived putative cross-family recombinant coronavirus with a reovirus gene.the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov) in 2002 and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) in 2012 has generated enormous interest in the biodiversity, genomics and cross-species transmission potential of coronaviruses, especially those from bats, the second most speciose order of mammals. herein, we identified a novel coronavirus, provisionally designated rousettus bat coronavirus gccdc1 (ro-batcov gccdc1), in the rectal swab samples of rousett ...201627676249
from sars to mers: crystallographic studies on coronaviral proteases enable antiviral drug design.this review focuses on the important contributions that macromolecular crystallography has made over the past 12 years to elucidating structures and mechanisms of the essential proteases of coronaviruses, the main protease (m(pro) ) and the papain-like protease (pl(pro) ). the role of x-ray crystallography in structure-assisted drug discovery against these targets is discussed. aspects dealt with in this review include the emergence of the sars coronavirus in 2002-2003 and of the mers coronaviru ...201425039866
[a novel coronavirus, mers-cov].a novel human coronavirus was identified in saudi arabia and qatar as the causative agent of severe acute respiratory diseases in 2012. the virus was termed middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) and is taken notice of important coronavirus caused severe diseases to human after the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) coronavirus. there is a lot of unknown characterization regarding mers-cov because of less than one year after finding the first case. mers-cov was ...201324769571
sars-unique fold in the rousettus bat coronavirus hku9.the coronavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) is a multifunctional protein that comprises multiple structural domains. this protein assists viral polyprotein cleavage, host immune interference, and may play other roles in genome replication or transcription. here, we report the solution nmr structure of a protein from the "sars-unique region" of the bat coronavirus hku9. the protein contains a frataxin fold or double-wing motif, which is an α + β fold that is associated with protein/protein int ...201728580734
isolation and characterization of a novel bat coronavirus closely related to the direct progenitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.we report the isolation and characterization of a novel bat coronavirus which is much closer to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov) in genomic sequence than others previously reported, particularly in its s gene. cell entry and susceptibility studies indicated that this virus can use ace2 as a receptor and infect animal and human cell lines. our results provide further evidence of the bat origin of the sars-cov and highlight the likelihood of future bat coronavirus emerg ...201526719272
a sars-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence.the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov) and middle east respiratory syndrome (mers)-cov underscores the threat of cross-species transmission events leading to outbreaks in humans. here we examine the disease potential of a sars-like virus, shc014-cov, which is currently circulating in chinese horseshoe bat populations. using the sars-cov reverse genetics system, we generated and characterized a chimeric virus expressing the spike of bat coronavirus shc014 in a m ...201526552008
molecular detection of viruses in kenyan bats and discovery of novel astroviruses, caliciviruses and rotaviruses.this is the first country-wide surveillance of bat-borne viruses in kenya spanning from 2012-2015 covering sites perceived to have medium to high level bat-human interaction. the objective of this surveillance study was to apply a non-invasive approach using fresh feces to detect viruses circulating within the diverse species of kenyan bats. we screened for both dna and rna viruses; specifically, astroviruses (astvs), adenoviruses (advs), caliciviruses (calvs), coronaviruses (covs), flaviviruses ...201728393313
receptor usage of a novel bat lineage c betacoronavirus reveals evolution of mers-related coronavirus spike proteins for human dpp4 binding.although bats are known to harbor mers-cov-related viruses, the role of bats in the evolutionary origin and pathway remains obscure. we identified a novel mers-cov-related betacoronavirus, hp-batcov hku25, from chinese pipistrelle bats. while being closely related to mers-cov in most genome regions, its spike protein occupies a phylogenetic position between that of ty-batcov hku4 and pi-batcov hku5. since ty-batcov hku4 but not pi-batcov hku5 can utilize mers-cov receptor, hdpp4, for cell entry, ...201829346682
discovery of a novel swine enteric alphacoronavirus (seacov) in southern china.outbreaks of diarrhea in newborn piglets without detection of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv) and porcine deltacoronavirus (pdcov), have been recorded in a pig farm in southern china since february 2017. isolation and propagation of the pathogen in cell culture resulted in discovery of a novel swine enteric alphacoronavirus (tentatively named seacov) related to the bat coronavirus hku2 identified in the same region a decade ago. specific fluores ...201729102111
detection of alpha- and betacoronaviruses in rodents from yunnan, china.rodents represent the most diverse mammals on the planet and are important reservoirs of human pathogens. coronaviruses infect various animals, but to date, relatively few coronaviruses have been identified in rodents worldwide. the evolution and ecology of coronaviruses in rodent have not been fully investigated.201728549438
genetic relatedness of the novel human group c betacoronavirus to tylonycteris bat coronavirus hku4 and pipistrellus bat coronavirus hku5.the recent outbreak of severe respiratory infections associated with a novel group c betacoronavirus (hcov-emc) from saudi arabia has drawn global attention to another highly probable "sars-like" animal-to-human interspecies jumping event in coronavirus (cov). the genome of hcov-emc is most closely related to tylonycteris bat coronavirus hku4 (ty-batcov hku4) and pipistrellus bat coronavirus hku5 (pi-batcov hku5) we discovered in 2006. phylogenetically, hcov-emc is clustered with ty-batcov hku4/ ...201226038405
entry of scotophilus bat coronavirus-512 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in human and multiple animal cells.bats are natural reservoirs of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov) and middle east respiratory syndrome cov (mers-cov). scotophilus bat cov-512 demonstrates potential for cross-species transmission because its viral rna and specific antibodies have been detected in three bat species of taiwan. understanding the cell tropism of scotophilus bat cov-512 is the first step for studying the mechanism of cross-species transmission. in this study, a lentivirus-based pseudovirus was ...201931766704
the immune response and immunopathology of covid-19.coronaviruses were first discovered in the 1960s and are named due to their crown-like shape. sometimes, but not often, a coronavirus can infect both animals and humans. an acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 or sars-cov-2 previously known as 2019-ncov) was identified as the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) as it spread throughout china and subsequently across the globe. as of 14th july 2020, a total of 13.1 millio ...202032983152
sars-cov-2 and three related coronaviruses utilize multiple ace2 orthologs and are potently blocked by an improved ace2-ig.the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic has caused >20 million infections and >750,000 deaths. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), the etiological agent of covid-19, has been found closely related to the bat coronavirus strain ratg13 (bat-cov ratg13) and a recently identified pangolin coronavirus (pangolin-cov-2020). here, we first investigated the ability of sars-cov-2 and three related coronaviruses to utilize animal orthologs of angiotensin-convertin ...202032847856
covid-19 pandemic: from molecular biology, pathogenesis, detection, and treatment to global societal december 2019, there was an outbreak of viral disease in wuhan, china which raised the concern across the whole world. the viral disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) or novel coronavirus or covid-19 (cov-19) is known as a pandemic. after sars-cov and middle east respiratory syndrome (mers)-related cov, covid-19 is the third most pathogenic virus, hazardous to humans which have raised worries concerning the capacity of current security measures and the ...202032837855
sars-cov-2 jumping the species barrier: zoonotic lessons from sars, mers and recent advances to combat this pandemic virus.coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19), caused by sars-cov-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome - coronavirus-2) of the family coronaviridae, appeared in china in december 2019. this disease was declared as posing public health international emergency by world health organization on january 30, 2020, attained the status of a very high-risk category on february 29, and now having a pandemic status (march 11). covid-19 has presently spread to more than 215 countries/territories while killing nearly 0 ...202032755673
genomic sequencing and analysis of eight camel-derived middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) isolates in saudi arabia.middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) causes severe respiratory illness in humans; the second-largest and most deadly outbreak to date occurred in saudi arabia. the dromedary camel is considered a possible host of the virus and also to act as a reservoir, transmitting the virus to humans. here, we studied evolutionary relationships for 31 complete genomes of betacoronaviruses, including eight newly sequenced mers-cov genomes isolated from dromedary camels in saudi arabia. throu ...202032503352
the covid-19 pandemic: a comprehensive review of taxonomy, genetics, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control.a pneumonia outbreak with unknown etiology was reported in wuhan, hubei province, china, in december 2019, associated with the huanan seafood wholesale market. the causative agent of the outbreak was identified by the who as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2), producing the disease named coronavirus disease-2019 (covid-19). the virus is closely related (96.3%) to bat coronavirus ratg13, based on phylogenetic analysis. human-to-human transmission has been confirmed e ...202032344679
understanding evolution of sars-cov-2: a perspective from analysis of genetic diversity of rdrp gene.coronavirus disease 2019 emerged as the first example of "disease x", a hypothetical disease of humans caused by an unknown infectious agent that was named as novel coronavirus and subsequently designated as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2). the origin of the outbreak at the animal market in wuhan, china implies it as a case of zoonotic spillover. the study was designed to understand evolution of betacoronaviruses and in particular diversification of sars-cov-2 using ...202032314811
a pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin.since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) 18 years ago, a large number of sars-related coronaviruses (sarsr-covs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats1-4. previous studies have shown that some bat sarsr-covs have the potential to infect humans5-7. here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-ncov), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in wuhan, china. the epidemic, which started on 12 dece ...202032015507
broad cross-species infection of cultured cells by bat hku2-related swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus and identification of its replication in murine dendritic cells in vivo highlight its potential for diverse interspecies transmission.outbreaks of severe diarrhea in neonatal piglets in guangdong, china, in 2017 resulted in the isolation and discovery of a novel swine enteric alphacoronavirus (seacov) derived from the species rhinolophus bat coronavirus hku2 (y. pan, x. tian, p. qin, b. wang, et al., vet microbiol 211:15-21, 2017). seacov was later referred to as swine acute diarrhea syndrome cov (sads-cov) by another group (p. zhou, h. fan, t. lan, x.-l. yang, et al., nature 556:255-258, 2018). the present study was set up to ...201931554686
conserved antigenic sites between mers-cov and bat-coronavirus are revealed through sequence analysis.mers-cov is a newly emerged human coronavirus reported closely related with hku4 and hku5 bat coronaviruses. bat and mers corona-viruses are structurally related. therefore, it is of interest to estimate the degree of conserved antigenic sites among them. it is of importance to elucidate the shared antigenic-sites and extent of conservation between them to understand the evolutionary dynamics of mers-cov.201626962326
comparison of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike protein binding to ace2 receptors from human, pets, farm animals, and putative intermediate hosts.the emergence of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), resulted in a pandemic. here, we used x-ray structures of human ace2 bound to the receptor-binding domain (rbd) of the spike protein (s) from sars-cov-2 to predict its binding to ace2 proteins from different animals, including pets, farm animals, and putative intermediate hosts of sars-cov-2. comparing the interaction sites of ace2 proteins known to serve or not serve as receptors allows the defin ...202032404529
genetic evolution analysis of 2019 novel coronavirus and coronavirus from other species.the corona virus disease 2019 (covid-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) is a public health emergency of international concern. however, so far, there are still controversies about the source of the virus and its intermediate host. here, we found the novel coronavirus was closely related to coronaviruses derived from five wild animals, including paguma larvata, paradoxurus hermaphroditus, civet, aselliscus stoliczkanus and rhinolophus sinicus, and was in th ...202032169673
potential intermediate hosts for coronavirus transmission: no evidence of clade 2c coronaviruses in domestic livestock from ghana.the emergence of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov), nearly a decade ago with worldwide distribution, was believed to be of zoonotic origin from bats with dromedary camels as intermediate hosts. there is a likelihood of other domestic livestock serving as intermediate hosts for this virus. the presence of coronaviruses, closely related to mers-cov in ghanaian bats, presented the opportunity to test the hypothesis of transmissibility of this virus through domestic livestock s ...201930744201
isolation of sars-cov-2-related coronavirus from malayan pangolins.the current outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (covid-19) poses unprecedented challenges to global health1. the new coronavirus responsible for this outbreak-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2)-shares high sequence identity to sars-cov and a bat coronavirus, ratg132. although bats may be the reservoir host for a variety of coronaviruses3,4, it remains unknown whether sars-cov-2 has additional host species. here we show that a coronavirus, which we name pangolin-cov, is ...202032380510
genetic characteristics of coronaviruses from korean bats in 2016.bats have increasingly been recognized as the natural reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars), coronavirus, and other coronaviruses found in mammals. however, little research has been conducted on bat coronaviruses in south korea. in this study, bat samples (332 oral swabs, 245 fecal samples, 38 urine samples, and 57 bat carcasses) were collected at 33 natural bat habitat sites in south korea. rt-pcr and sequencing were performed for specific coronavirus genes to identify the bat c ...201728725945
detection of recombinant rousettus bat coronavirus gccdc1 in lesser dawn bats (eonycteris spelaea) in singapore.rousettus bat coronavirus gccdc1 (robat-cov gccdc1) is a cross-family recombinant coronavirus that has previously only been reported in wild-caught bats in yúnnan, china. we report the persistence of a related strain in a captive colony of lesser dawn bats captured in singapore. genomic evidence of the virus was detected using targeted enrichment sequencing, and further investigated using deeper, unbiased high throughput sequencing. robat-cov gccdc1 singapore shared 96.52% similarity with robat- ...202032422932
complete genome analysis of a sars-like bat coronavirus identified in the republic of korea.bats have been widely known as natural reservoir hosts of zoonotic diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) and middle east respiratory syndrome (mers) caused by coronaviruses (covs). in the present study, we investigated the whole genomic sequence of a sars-like bat cov (16bo133) and found it to be 29,075 nt in length with a 40.9% g+c content. phylogenetic analysis using amino acid sequences of the orf 1ab and the spike gene showed that the bat coronavirus strain 16bo133 was g ...201931076983
recent transmission of a novel alphacoronavirus, bat coronavirus hku10, from leschenault's rousettes to pomona leaf-nosed bats: first evidence of interspecies transmission of coronavirus between bats of different suborders.although coronaviruses are known to infect various animals by adapting to new hosts, interspecies transmission events are still poorly understood. during a surveillance study from 2005 to 2010, a novel alphacoronavirus, batcov hku10, was detected in two very different bat species, ro-batcov hku10 in leschenault's rousettes (rousettus leschenaulti) (fruit bats in the suborder megachiroptera) in guangdong and hi-batcov hku10 in pomona leaf-nosed bats (hipposideros pomona) (insectivorous bats in th ...201222933277
discovery and characterization of novel bat coronavirus lineages from kazakhstan.coronaviruses are positive-stranded rna viruses that infect a variety of hosts, resulting in a range of symptoms from gastrointestinal illness to respiratory distress. bats are reservoirs for a high diversity of coronaviruses, and focused surveillance detected several strains genetically similar to mers-coronavirus, sars-coronavirus, and the human coronaviruses 229e and nl63. the bat fauna of central asia, which link china to eastern europe, are relatively less studied than other regions of the ...201930999711
two mutations were critical for bat-to-human transmission of middle east respiratory syndrome understand how middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) transmitted from bats to humans, we compared the virus surface spikes of mers-cov and a related bat coronavirus, hku4. although hku4 spike cannot mediate viral entry into human cells, two mutations enabled it to do so by allowing it to be activated by human proteases. these mutations are present in mers-cov spike, explaining why mers-cov infects human cells. these mutations therefore played critical roles in the bat-to-hum ...201526063432
targeting zoonotic viruses: structure-based inhibition of the 3c-like protease from bat coronavirus hku4--the likely reservoir host to the human coronavirus that causes middle east respiratory syndrome (mers).the bat coronavirus hku4 belongs to the same 2c lineage as that of the deadly middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) and shows high sequence similarity, therefore potentiating a threat to the human population through a zoonotic shift or 'spill over' event. to date, there are no effective vaccines or antiviral treatments available that are capable of limiting the pathogenesis of any human coronaviral infection. an attractive target for the development of anti-coronaviral therapeu ...201526190463
the heptad repeat region is a major selection target in mers-cov and related coronaviruses.middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) originated in bats and spread to humans via zoonotic transmission from camels. we analyzed the evolution of the spike (s) gene in betacoronaviruses (betacovs) isolated from different mammals, in bat coronavirus populations, as well as in mers-cov strains from the current outbreak. results indicated several positively selected sites located in the region comprising the two heptad repeats (hr1 and hr2) and their linker. two sites (r652 and v1 ...201526404138
fatal swine acute diarrhoea syndrome caused by an hku2-related coronavirus of bat origin.cross-species transmission of viruses from wildlife animal reservoirs poses a marked threat to human and animal health 1 . bats have been recognized as one of the most important reservoirs for emerging viruses and the transmission of a coronavirus that originated in bats to humans via intermediate hosts was responsible for the high-impact emerging zoonosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) 2-10 . here we provide virological, epidemiological, evolutionary and experimental evidence that a ...201829618817
covid-19 neutralizing antibodies predict disease severity and survival.covid-19 exhibits variable symptom severity ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening, yet the relationship between severity and the humoral immune response is poorly understood. we examined antibody responses in 113 covid-19 patients and found that severe cases resulting in intubation or death exhibited increased inflammatory markers, lymphopenia, and high anti-rbd antibody levels. while anti-rbd igg levels generally correlated with neutralization titer, quantitation of neutralization poten ...202033106822
sequence analysis and structure prediction of sars-cov-2 accessory proteins 9b and orf14: evolutionary analysis indicates close relatedness to bat coronavirus.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) has a single-stranded rna genome that encodes 14 open reading frames (orfs), eight of which encode accessory proteins that allow the virus to infect the host and promote virulence. the genome expresses around 29 structural and nonstructural protein products. the accessory proteins of sars-cov-2 are not essential for virus replication but do affect viral release, stability, and pathogenesis and finally contribute to virulence. this pape ...202033102591
a systematic review of etiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, image findings, and medication of 2019 corona virus disease-19 in wuhan, china.unknown origin pneumonia has been furiously spreading since the late of december 2019, subsequently spread to approximately all provinces and areas in china and many countries, which was announced as a public health emergency of international concern by world health organization (who). the studies on 2019 corona virus disease-19 (covid-19) conducted from various fields around the world. herein, the objective of the present study is to summarize the etiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations ...202033080715
a novel bat coronavirus closely related to sars-cov-2 contains natural insertions at the s1/s2 cleavage site of the spike protein. 202033022232
sars-cov-2: zoonotic origin of pandemic coronavirus.a novel disease, of unknown origin, causing a deadly pneumonia of human patients was reported in december 2019 in wuhan, hubei province of china. later called coronavirus disease (covid-19), it rapidly spread across china and worldwide. intensive research revealed that the etiological agent of the global covid-19 pandemic was a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2). the sars-cov-2 genome contains typical coronavirus genes but the receptor binding do ...202032985202
genome based evolutionary lineage of sars-cov-2 towards the development of novel chimeric vaccine.the present study aimed to predict a novel chimeric vaccine by simultaneously targeting four major structural proteins via the establishment of ancestral relationship among different strains of coronaviruses. conserved regions from the homologous protein sets of spike glycoprotein, membrane protein, envelope protein and nucleocapsid protein were identified through multiple sequence alignment. the phylogeny analyses of whole genome stated that four proteins reflected the close ancestral relation ...202032882432
mapping genome variation of sars-cov-2 worldwide highlights the impact of covid-19 super-spreaders.the human pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) is responsible for the major pandemic of the twenty-first century. we analyzed more than 4700 sars-cov-2 genomes and associated metadata retrieved from public repositories. sars-cov-2 sequences have a high sequence identity (>99.9%), which drops to >96% when compared to bat coronavirus genome. we built a mutation-annotated reference sars-cov-2 phylogeny with two main macro-haplogroups, a and b, both of asian origin, ...202032878977
coronavirus in continuous flux: from sars-cov to sars-cov-2.the world is currently experiencing a global pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), which causes severe respiratory disease similar to sars. previous studies have suggested that sars-cov-2 shares 79% and 96% sequence identity to sars-cov and to bat coronavirus ratg13, respectively at the whole-genome level. furthermore, a series of studies have shown that sars-cov-2 induces clusters of severe respiratory illnesses (i.e., pneumonia, a ...202032837848
phylogenomic proximity and comparative proteomic analysis of sars-cov-2.the coronavirus disease (covid-19) belongs to the family severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars-cov). it can be more severe for some persons and can lead to pneumonia or breathing difficulties resulting in the death of immune-compromised patients. we performed a phylogenomic and phylogeographic tree from the collected datasets. phylogenomic analysis or sequence-based phylogeny showed an evolutionary relationship between the geographical strains. the phylogenomic tree grouped into two major clad ...202032835133
one-step nested rt-pcr for covid-19 detection: a flexible, locally developed test for sars-cov2 nucleic acid detection.due to the coronavirus pandemic, identifying the infected individuals has become key to limiting its spread. virus nucleic acid real-time rt-pcr testing has become the current standard diagnostic method but high demand could lead to shortages. therefore, we propose a detection strategy using a one-step nested rt-pcr.202032794453
a palindromic rna sequence as a common breakpoint contributor to copy-choice recombination in sars-cov-2.much remains unknown concerning the origin of the novel pandemic coronavirus that has raged across the globe since emerging in wuhan of hubei province, near the center of the people's republic of china, in december of 2019. all current members of the family coronaviridae have arisen by a combination of incremental adaptive mutations, against the backdrop of many recombinational events throughout the past, rendering each a unique mosaic of rna sequences from diverse sources. the consensus among v ...202032737584
proteolytic cleavage of the sars-cov-2 spike protein and the role of the novel s1/s2 site.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 19 (covid-19) has rapidly spread from an initial outbreak in wuhan, china in december 2019 to the rest of the world within a few months. on march 11th 2020, the rapidly evolving covid-19 situation was characterized as a pandemic by the who. much attention has been drawn to the origin of sars-cov-2, a virus which is related to the lineage b betacoronavirus sars-cov and sars-related coronavirus ...202032714113
cameroonian fruit bats harbor divergent viruses, including rotavirus h, bastroviruses, and picobirnaviruses using an alternative genetic code.most human emerging infectious diseases originate from wildlife and bats are a major reservoir of viruses, a few of which have been highly pathogenic to humans. in some regions of cameroon, bats are hunted and eaten as a delicacy. this close proximity between human and bats provides ample opportunity for zoonotic events. to elucidate the viral diversity of cameroonian fruit bats, we collected and metagenomically screened eighty-seven fecal samples of eidolon helvum and epomophorus gambianus frui ...201829644096
discovery of novel bat coronaviruses in south china that use the same receptor as middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus.middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) has represented a human health threat since 2012. although several mers-related covs that belong to the same species as mers-cov have been identified from bats, they do not use the mers-cov receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (dpp4). here, we screened 1,059 bat samples from at least 30 bat species collected in different regions in south china and identified 89 strains of lineage c betacoronaviruses, including tylonycteris pachypus coronavirus ...201829669833
trypsin treatment unlocks barrier for zoonotic bat coronavirus infection.traditionally, the emergence of coronaviruses (covs) has been attributed to a gain in receptor binding in a new host. our previous work with severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars)-like viruses argued that bats already harbor covs with the ability to infect humans without adaptation. these results suggested that additional barriers limit the emergence of zoonotic cov. in this work, we describe overcoming host restriction of two middle east respiratory syndrome (mers)-like bat covs using exogeno ...202031801868
coronaviruses detected in bats in close contact with humans in rwanda.bats living in close contact with people in rwanda were tested for evidence of infection with viruses of zoonotic potential. mucosal swabs from 503 bats representing 17 species were sampled from 2010 to 2014 and screened by consensus pcr for 11 viral families. samples were negative for all viral families except coronaviruses, which were detected in 27 bats belonging to eight species. known coronaviruses detected included the betacorona viruses: kenya bat coronaviruses, eidolon bat coronavirus, a ...202031811597
rna based mngs approach identifies a novel human coronavirus from two individual pneumonia cases in 2019 wuhan outbreak.from december 2019, an outbreak of unusual pneumonia was reported in wuhan with many cases linked to huanan seafood market that sells seafood as well as live exotic animals. we investigated two patients who developed acute respiratory syndromes after independent contact history with this market. the two patients shared common clinical features including fever, cough, and multiple ground-glass opacities in the bilateral lung field with patchy infiltration. here, we highlight the use of a low-inpu ...202032020836
bats and humans during the sars-cov-2 outbreak: the case of bat-coronavirus from mexico.the novel sars-cov-2 coronavirus has attracted attention due to the high number of human cases around the world. it has been proposed that this virus originated in bats, possibly transmitted to humans by an intermediate host, making bats a group of great interest during this outbreak. almost 10% of the world's bat species inhabit mexico, and 14 previous novel covs have been recorded in mexican bats. however, the phylogenetic relationships between these viruses and the novel coronavirus are unkno ...202032725795
in silico studies on the comparative characterization of the interactions of sars-cov-2 spike glycoprotein with ace-2 receptor homologs and human tlrs.coronavirus disease-2019 (covid-19) outbreak due to novel coronavirus or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) infection has come out as a major threat for mankind in recent times. it is continually taking an enormous toll on mankind by means of increasing number of deaths, associated comorbidities, and socioeconomic loss around the globe. unavailability of chemotherapeutics/vaccine has posed tremendous challenges to scientists and doctors for developing an urgent therapeu ...202032383269
nih move to ax bat coronavirus grant draws fire. 202032381695
[analysis of variation and evolution of sars-cov-2 genome].to analyze the evolution and variation of sars-cov-2 during the epidemic starting at the end of 2019.202032376535
detection and characterization of a novel bat-borne coronavirus in singapore using multiple molecular approaches.bats are important reservoirs and vectors in the transmission of emerging infectious diseases. many highly pathogenic viruses such as sars-cov and rabies-related lyssaviruses have crossed species barriers to infect humans and other animals. in this study we monitored the major roost sites of bats in singapore, and performed surveillance for zoonotic pathogens in these bats. screening of guano samples collected during the survey uncovered a bat coronavirus (betacoronavirus) in cynopterus brachyot ...201931418677
protein structure and sequence reanalysis of 2019-ncov genome refutes snakes as its intermediate host and the unique similarity between its spike protein insertions and the infection of 2019-ncov coronavirus is quickly developing into a global pneumonia epidemic, the careful analysis of its transmission and cellular mechanisms is sorely needed. in this communication, we first analyzed two recent studies that concluded that snakes are the intermediate hosts of 2019-ncov and that the 2019-ncov spike protein insertions share a unique similarity to hiv-1. however, the reimplementation of the analyses, built on larger scale data sets using state-of-the-art bioinf ...202032200634
bat coronavirus phylogeography in the western indian ocean.bats provide key ecosystem services such as crop pest regulation, pollination, seed dispersal, and soil fertilization. bats are also major hosts for biological agents responsible for zoonoses, such as coronaviruses (covs). the islands of the western indian ocean are identified as a major biodiversity hotspot, with more than 50 bat species. in this study, we tested 1,013 bats belonging to 36 species from mozambique, madagascar, mauritius, mayotte, reunion island and seychelles, based on molecular ...202032327721
[coronavirus: from common cold to severe pulmonary failure].in december 2019 a new human coronavirus emerged in wuhan, china, which is known as sars-cov‑2. the clinical course of the disease known as coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) ranges from mild respiratory symptoms to severe lung failure. the virus is currently rapidly spreading around the world and pushing health systems to the limits of their capacity due to the exponential increase in the number of cases. the origin of sars-cov‑2 lies in the bat coronavirus pool and has now emerged in the huma ...202032292213
the first 75 days of novel coronavirus (sars-cov-2) outbreak: recent advances, prevention, and treatment.the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2, previously known as 2019-ncov) outbreak has engulfed an unprepared world amidst a festive season. the zoonotic sars-cov-2, believed to have originated from infected bats, is the seventh member of enveloped rna coronavirus. specifically, the overall genome sequence of the sars-cov-2 is 96.2% identical to that of bat coronavirus termed batcov ratg13. although the current mortality rate of 2% is significantly lower than that of ...202032235575
first respiratory transmitted food borne outbreak?the world is faced with a remarkable coronavirus outbreak with epicentre in wuhan, china. altogether 40554 cases have been confirmed globally with novel coronavirus (sars-cov-2) until february 10, 2020. rigorous surveillance in other countries is required to prevent further global expansion of the outbreak, but resolving the exact mechanism of the initial transmission events is crucial. most initial cases had visited huanan south seafood market in wuhan selling also various exotic live animals. ...202032088598
complete genome sequence of bat coronavirus hku2 from chinese horseshoe bats revealed a much smaller spike gene with a different evolutionary lineage from the rest of the genome.apart from bat-sars-cov, we have identified a novel group 1 coronavirus, bat-cov hku2, in rhinolophus sinicus (chinese horseshoe bats). since it has been suggested that the receptor-binding motif (rbm) of sars-cov may have been acquired from a group 1 coronavirus, we conducted a surveillance study and identified bat-sars-cov and bat-cov hku2 in 8.7% and 7.5% respectively of r. sinicus in hong kong and guangdong. complete genome sequencing of four strains of bat-cov hku2 revealed the smallest cor ...200717617433
genomic characterization of a newly discovered coronavirus associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans.a novel human coronavirus (hcov-emc/2012) was isolated from a man with acute pneumonia and renal failure in june 2012. this report describes the complete genome sequence, genome organization, and expression strategy of hcov-emc/2012 and its relation with known coronaviruses. the genome contains 30,119 nucleotides and contains at least 10 predicted open reading frames, 9 of which are predicted to be expressed from a nested set of seven subgenomic mrnas. phylogenetic analysis of the replicase gene ...201223170002
genetic characterization of betacoronavirus lineage c viruses in bats reveals marked sequence divergence in the spike protein of pipistrellus bat coronavirus hku5 in japanese pipistrelle: implications for the origin of the novel middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus.while the novel middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) is closely related to tylonycteris bat cov hku4 (ty-batcov hku4) and pipistrellus bat cov hku5 (pi-batcov hku5) in bats from hong kong, and other potential lineage c betacoronaviruses in bats from africa, europe, and america, its animal origin remains obscure. to better understand the role of bats in its origin, we examined the molecular epidemiology and evolution of lineage c betacoronaviruses among bats. ty-batcov hku4 and ...201323720729
characterization of a novel bat-hku2-like swine enteric alphacoronavirus (seacov) infection in cultured cells and development of a seacov infectious clone.swine enteric alphacoronavirus (seacov), also known as swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (sads-cov), belongs to the species rhinolophus bat coronavirus hku2. herein, we report on the primary characterization of seacov in vitro. four antibodies against the seacov spike, membrane, nucleocapsid and nonstructural protein 3 capable of reacting with viral antigens in seacov-infected vero cells were generated. we established a dna-launched seacov infectious clone based on the cell adapted passa ...201931419711
retrospective detection and phylogenetic analysis of swine acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus in pigs in southern china.swine acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus (sads-cov), a novel coronavirus, was first discovered in southern china in january 2017 and caused a large scale outbreak of fatal diarrheal disease in piglets. here, we conducted a retrospective investigation of 236 samples from 45 swine farms with a clinical history of diarrheal disease to evaluate the emergence and the distribution of sads-cov in pigs in china. our results suggest that sads-cov has emerged in china at least since august 2016. meanwhi ...201930171801
the emerging novel middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus: the "knowns" and "unknowns".a novel lineage c betacoronavirus, originally named human coronavirus emc/2012 (hcov-emc) and recently renamed middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov), that is phylogenetically closely related to tylonycteris bat coronavirus hku4 and pipistrellus bat coronavirus hku5, which we discovered in 2007 from bats in hong kong, has recently emerged in the middle east to cause a severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars)-like infection in humans. the first laboratory-confirmed case, which in ...201323883791
receptor usage and cell entry of bat coronavirus hku4 provide insight into bat-to-human transmission of mers coronavirus.middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) currently spreads in humans and causes ∼ 36% fatality in infected patients. believed to have originated from bats, mers-cov is genetically related to bat coronaviruses hku4 and hku5. to understand how bat coronaviruses transmit to humans, we investigated the receptor usage and cell entry activity of the virus-surface spike proteins of hku4 and hku5. we found that dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (dpp4), the receptor for mers-cov, is also the receptor ...201425114257
bat origins of mers-cov supported by bat coronavirus hku4 usage of human receptor cd26.the recently reported middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) is phylogenetically closely related to the bat coronaviruses (batcovs) hku4 and hku5. however, the evolutionary pathway of mers-cov is still unclear. a receptor binding domain (rbd) in the mers-cov envelope-embedded spike protein specifically engages human cd26 (hcd26) to initiate viral entry. the high sequence identity in the viral spike protein prompted us to investigate if hku4 and hku5 can recognize hcd26 for cell ...201425211075
sars-cov-2 envelope and membrane proteins: structural differences linked to virus characteristics?the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) is a new viral infection caused by the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2). genomic analyses have revealed that sars-cov-2 is related to pangolin and bat coronaviruses. in this report, a structural comparison between the sars-cov-2 envelope and membrane proteins from different human isolates with homologous proteins from closely related viruses is described. the analyses here reported show the high structural similarity of envelope and memb ...202032596311
exploring the genomic and proteomic variations of sars-cov-2 spike glycoprotein: a computational biology approach.the newly identified sars-cov-2 has now been reported from around 185 countries with more than a million confirmed human cases including more than 120,000 deaths. the genomes of sars-cov-2 strains isolated from different parts of the world are now available and the unique features of constituent genes and proteins need to be explored to understand the biology of the virus. spike glycoprotein is one of the major targets to be explored because of its role during the entry of coronaviruses into hos ...202032502733
human-animal interactions and bat coronavirus spillover potential among rural residents in southern china.human interaction with animals has been implicated as a primary risk factor for several high impact zoonoses, including many bat-origin viral diseases. however the animal-to-human spillover events that lead to emerging diseases are rarely observed or clinically examined, and the link between specific interactions and spillover risk is poorly understood. to investigate this phenomenon, we conducted biological-behavioral surveillance among rural residents in yunnan, guangxi, and guangdong district ...201932501444
emergence of novel coronavirus and progress toward treatment and late december 2019, a group of patients was observed with pneumonia-like symptoms that were linked with a wet market in wuhan, china. the patients were found to have a novel coronavirus genetically related to a bat coronavirus that was termed sars-cov-2. the virus gradually spread worldwide and was declared a pandemic by who. scientists have started trials on potential preventive and treatment options. currently, there is no specific approved treatment for sars-cov-2, and various clinical tri ...202032495979
a novel bat coronavirus closely related to sars-cov-2 contains natural insertions at the s1/s2 cleavage site of the spike protein.the unprecedented pandemic of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, sars-cov-2, in china and beyond has had major public health impacts on a global scale [1, 2]. although bats are regarded as the most likely natural hosts for sars-cov-2 [3], the origins of the virus remain unclear. here, we report a novel bat-derived coronavirus, denoted rmyn02, identified from a metagenomic analysis of samples from 227 bats collected from yunnan province in china between may and october 2019. notably, rmyn02 ...202032416074
structure of the sars-unique domain c from the bat coronavirus hku4.coronaviruses (covs) that cause infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) and middle east respiratory syndrome phylogenetically originate from bat covs. the coronaviral nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) has been implicated in viral replication, polyprotein cleavage, and host immune interference. we report the structure of the c domain from the sars-unique domain of bat cov hku4. the protein has a frataxin fold, consisting of 5 antiparallel β strands packed against 2 α helices. bio ...201932395093
structural basis of receptor recognition by sars-cov-2.a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars)-like coronavirus (sars-cov-2) recently emerged and is rapidly spreading in humans, causing covid-191,2. a key to tackling this pandemic is to understand the receptor recognition mechanism of the virus, which regulates its infectivity, pathogenesis and host range. sars-cov-2 and sars-cov recognize the same receptor-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2)-in humans3,4. here we determined the crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain (rbd) of t ...202032225175
repurposing antiviral protease inhibitors using extracellular vesicles for potential therapy of january 2020, chinese health agencies reported an outbreak of a novel coronavirus-2 (cov-2) which can lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars). the virus, which belongs to the coronavirus family (sars-cov-2), was named coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) and declared a pandemic by the world health organization (who). full-length genome sequences of sars-cov-2 showed 79.6% sequence identity to sars-cov, with 96% identity to a bat coronavirus at the whole-genome level. covid-19 has caus ...202032357553
decoding the evolution and transmissions of the novel pneumonia coronavirus (sars-cov-2 / hcov-19) using whole genomic data.the outbreak of covid-19 started in mid-december 2019 in wuhan, china. up to 29 february 2020, sars-cov-2 (hcov-19 / 2019-ncov) had infected more than 85 000 people in the world. in this study, we used 93 complete genomes of sars-cov-2 from the gisaid epiflu tm database to investigate the evolution and human-to-human transmissions of sars-cov-2 in the first two months of the outbreak. we constructed haplotypes of the sars-cov-2 genomes, performed phylogenomic analyses and estimated the potential ...202032351056
prevalence and genetic diversity of coronaviruses in bats from china.coronaviruses can infect a variety of animals including poultry, livestock, and humans and are currently classified into three groups. the interspecies transmissions of coronaviruses between different hosts form a complex ecosystem of which little is known. the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) and the recent identification of new coronaviruses have highlighted the necessity for further investigation of coronavirus ecology, in particular the role of bats and other wild animals ...200616840328
comparative analysis of twelve genomes of three novel group 2c and group 2d coronaviruses reveals unique group and subgroup features.twelve complete genomes of three novel coronaviruses-bat coronavirus hku4 (bat-cov hku4), bat-cov hku5 (putative group 2c), and bat-cov hku9 (putative group 2d)-were sequenced. comparative genome analysis showed that the various open reading frames (orfs) of the genomes of the three coronaviruses had significantly higher amino acid identities to those of other group 2 coronaviruses than group 1 and 3 coronaviruses. phylogenetic trees constructed using chymotrypsin-like protease, rna-dependent rn ...200717121802
genomic and serological detection of bat coronavirus from bats in the philippines.bat coronavirus (btcov) is assumed to be a progenitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars)-related coronaviruses. to explore the distribution of btcovs in the philippines, we collected 179 bats and detected viral rna from intestinal or fecal samples by rt-pcr. the overall prevalence of btcovs among bats was 29.6 %. phylogenetic analysis of the partial rna-dependent rna polymerase gene suggested that one of the detected btcovs was a novel alphacoronavirus, while the others belonged to the ...201222833101
genomic variance of the 2019-ncov coronavirus.there is a rising global concern for the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-ncov). full genomic sequences have been released by the worldwide scientific community in the last few weeks to understand the evolutionary origin and molecular characteristics of this virus. taking advantage of all the genomic information currently available, we constructed a phylogenetic tree including also representatives of other coronaviridae, such as bat coronavirus (bcov) and severe acute respiratory syndrom ...202032027036
cross-species transmission of the newly identified coronavirus 2019-ncov.the current outbreak of viral pneumonia in the city of wuhan, china, was caused by a novel coronavirus designated 2019-ncov by the world health organization, as determined by sequencing the viral rna genome. many initial patients were exposed to wildlife animals at the huanan seafood wholesale market, where poultry, snake, bats, and other farm animals were also sold. to investigate possible virus reservoir, we have carried out comprehensive sequence analysis and comparison in conjunction with re ...202031967321
coronavirus infection and diversity in bats in the australasian region.following the sars outbreak, extensive surveillance was undertaken globally to detect and identify coronavirus diversity in bats. this study sought to identify the diversity and prevalence of coronaviruses in bats in the australasian region. we identified four different genotypes of coronavirus, three of which (an alphacoronavirus and two betacoronaviruses) are potentially new species, having less than 90% nucleotide sequence identity with the most closely related described viruses. we did not d ...201627048154
epitope mapping and cellular localization of swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein using a novel monoclonal antibody.a swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (sads-cov) that causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets was identified in southern china in 2017. to develop an antigen that is specific, sensitive, and easy to prepare for serological diagnosis, antigenic sites in the sads-cov nucleocapsid (n) protein were screened. we generated and characterized an n-reactive monoclonal antibody (mab) 3e9 from mice immunized with recombinant n protein. through fine epitope mapping of mab 3e9 using a panel of eukar ...201931518629
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