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focal philophthalmus gralli infection possibly persists in melanoides tuberculata over two years following the definitive hosts' removal.philophthalmosis is a zoonotic disease associated largely with the spread of the invasive freshwater snail melanoides tuberculata, serving as an intermediate host. here we examined philophthalmus gralli focal fenced infection site reported recently as being associated with tinamus major and m. tuberculata in alajuela, costa rica. removal of the definitive hosts allowed us to address also the long-term survival strategy of the parasite. initially, the snail intermediate hosts displayed high preva ...201425102356
pathology and first report of natural eye infection with the trematode philophthalmus gralli (digenea, philophthalmidae) in tinamus major (tinamiformes, tinamidae), costa rica.the eye-fluke philophthalmus gralli (philophthalmidae looss, 1899) was found in six birds known as great tinamous (tinamus major) reared in a wild animal shelter located in alajuela, costa rica. the birds presented conjunctival hyperemia, blepharitis, anorexia and weakness. some of them suffered from unilateral blindness and ocular loss. after morphometric analysis, the specimens showed characteristics compatible with the digenean trematode p. gralli. the clinical signs of infection were resolve ...201323993998
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