avian malaria in african black-footed penguins.ten captive-reared african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) from a large outdoor colony were monitored for avian malaria, using several diagnostic tests. one treatment regimen was evaluated. thin smear blood evaluation enabled detection of seven parasitemias involving plasmodium relictum and plasmodium elongatum in the penguins. leukocytosis (relative lymphocytosis) was characteristic of infected birds. parasitemia was detected as early as 21 days prior to onset of clinical signs (dep ...1979521378
malaria (plasmodium elongatum) in captive african penguins (spheniscus demersus). 19685692933
hematologic characteristics of avian malaria cases in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) during the first outdoor exposure season.twenty-nine juvenile, captive-reared african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) were hematologically monitored every 2 wk over the period of 24 wk during their first outdoor exposure. blood samples taken from the penguins were screened for 12 blood evaluation parameters. parasitemic penguins were medically treated. eighteen birds (62.1%) experienced naturally acquired malaria and 11 birds (37.9%) remained nonparasitemic. a total of 32 avian malaria episodes were noted; 25 (78.1%) were i ...19948158474
an elisa for detecting anti-plasmodium spp. antibodies in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) utilizing 3 plasmodium falciparum antigens, r32tet32, p.f.r27, and crude red blood cell extract, was developed for the detection of circulating anti-plasmodium relictum or anti-plasmodium elongatum antibodies in sera from naturally infected adult african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) at the baltimore zoo, maryland. a concentration of 2.0 micrograms/ml of each antigen was optimal in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and test speed. it wa ...19948308660
subclinical avian malaria infections in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) and induction of parasite recrudescence.the subclinical and clinical plasmodium elongatum and plasmodium relictum infections of captive-reared african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) were evaluated in nine adult and 29 juvenile penguins in the baltimore zoo (maryland, usa) during summer 1988 and winter 1989. two diagnostic methods were used: giemsa-stained thin blood films, and subinoculation of penguin blood into 1-day-old peking ducklings. chloroquine and primaquine treatment was applied to all parasitemic juvenile pengu ...19947933280
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