virologic findings in selected free-range mule duck farms at high risk for avian influenza infection.prevalence of avian influenza infection in free-range mule ducks (a cross between muscovy [cairina moschata domesticus] and pekin ducks [anas platyrhychos domesticus]) is a matter of concern and deserves particular attention. thus, cloacal swabs were collected blindly from 30 targeted mule flocks at 4, 8, and 12 wk of age between october 2004 and january 2005. they were stored until selection. on the basis of a positive h5 antibody detection at 12 wk of age with the use of four h5 antigens, the ...200717494595
evaluation of a positive marker of avian influenza vaccination in ducks for use in h5n1 surveillance.control measures for h5n1 avian influenza involve increased biosecurity, monitoring, surveillance and vaccination. subclinical infection in farmed ducks is important for virus persistence. in major duck rearing countries, homologous h5n1 vaccines are being used in ducks, so sero-surveillance using h5- or n1-specific antibody testing cannot identify infected flocks. an alternative is to include a positive marker for vaccination. testing for an antibody response to the marker would confirm approve ...200818723069
[characterizations of avian influenza virus h6n6 subtype isolated from domestic muscovy duck].to enrich the epidemiologic data of the waterfowl origin avian influenza virus (aiv).201021090254
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