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chromosomal evolution in malagasy lemurs. iii. chromosome banding studies in the genus hapalemur and the species lemur catta.the karyotypes of five malagasy lemurs are described and compared after the successive use of various banding methods. phylogenic relationships appear to exist between the respective ancestors of lemur catta, hapalemur simus, h. griseus occidentalis, h. griseus ssp, and h. griseus griseus. their karyotypes can be derived from that of l. fulvus fulvus by chromosomal rearrangements affecting mainly chromosomes 1 and x. intense staining of juxtacentromeric heterochromatin was detected among the dif ...197897055
chromosome painting: a method for testing chromosomal changes in lemur evolution.chromosome painting using commercially available human chromosome-specific dna libraries was performed to elucidate chromosomal rearrangements in lemur evolution. human-specific probes for chromosomes 3, 14, 15, and 21 were used to paint chromosomes of six species: eulemur fulvus mayottensis, varecia variegata, lemur catta, hapalemur simus, h. griseus griseus, and h. aureus. all human chromosome libraries hybridized specifically to chromosome segments of varying length or to whole arms of lemur ...19979371411
phylogenetic relationships between hapalemur species and subspecies based on mitochondrial dna sequences.phylogenetic relationships of the genus hapalemur remains controversial, particularly within the hapalemur griseus species group. in order to obtain more information on the taxonomic status within this genus, and particularly in the cytogenetic distinct subspecies group of hapalemur griseus, 357 bp sequence of cytochrome b and 438 bp of 12s mitochondrial dnas were analyzed on a sample of animals captured in areas extending from the north to the south-east of madagascar. this sample covers all cy ...200211914128
genetic comparison of two populations of hapalemur simus inferred from d-loop mitochondrial dna sequences. 200414716149
a 12-month survey of gastrointestinal helminth infections of lemurs kept in two zoos in madagascar.infections with gastrointestinal parasites may be a major threat to lemurs kept in captivity, as they are a common cause of diarrhea. in this study, fecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastrointestinal nematodes were assessed for 12 mo in 40 lemurs kept under different husbandry and climatic conditions at two sites in madagascar. involved species were black-and-white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata), eastern grey bamboo lemurs (hapalemur griseus), greater bamboo lemurs ( ...201021370644
feeding ecology and morphology make a bamboo specialist vulnerable to climate change.animals with dietary specializations can be used to link climate to specific ecological drivers of endangerment. only two mammals, the giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) in asia and the greater bamboo lemur (prolemur simus) in madagascar, consume the nutritionally poor and mechanically challenging culm or trunk of woody bamboos [1-3]. even though the greater bamboo lemur is critically endangered, paleontological evidence shows that it was once broadly distributed [4, 5]. here, integrating morp ...201729107552
a study of locomotor behavior in a captive colony of red-bellied lemurs (eulemur rubriventer).the considerable diversity of locomotor behavior within the suborder prosimii largely is due to differences in locomotion between families. within families, locomotion is relatively homogeneous, although some species, such as otolemur crassicaudatus among the galagids and hapalemur simus and lepilemur spp. among the lemurids, differ from other species in their family. this paper describes the locomotion of a captive colony of red-bellied lemurs, eulemur rubriventer (following the classification ...199031963961
genome sequence and population declines in the critically endangered greater bamboo lemur (prolemur simus) and implications for conservation.the greater bamboo lemur (prolemur simus) is a member of the family lemuridae that is unique in their dependency on bamboo as a primary food source. this critically endangered species lives in small forest patches in eastern madagascar, occupying a fraction of its historical range. here we sequence the genome of the greater bamboo lemur for the first time, and provide genome resources for future studies of this species that can be applied across its distribution.201829884119
vertical clinging and leaping ahead: how bamboo has shaped the anatomy and physiology of hapalemur.hapalemur sps. and prolemur simus (bamboo lemurs, collectively) stand out from the relatively homogeneous lemurids because they are bamboo feeders and vertical clingers and leapers. this unique diet presents equally unique challenges, like its verticality, toughness, and toxicity. the bamboo lemurs share the generalized anatomy of the other lemurids, but also display some well-documented skeletal adaptations, perhaps to overcome the problems presented by their specialization. soft-tissue adaptat ...202031148418
New distributional records and conservation implications for the critically endangered greater bamboo lemur Prolemur simus.To improve our knowledge of the distribution of the critically endangered greater bamboo lemur Prolemur simus, we surveyed 6 sites in eastern Madagascar. We found its characteristic feeding signs at 5 sites and made a direct sighting at one of these. One site represents a northern extension of 45 km of the known extant range of the species. Two sites are located in a forest corridor approximately halfway between the previously known southern and northern populations, therefore suggesting a broad ...201121952419
semi-quantitative tests of cyanide in foods and excreta of three hapalemur species in madagascar.three sympatric hapalemur species (h. g. griseus, h. aureus, and h. (prolemur) simus) in ranomafana national park, madagascar are known to eat bamboo food parts that contain cyanide. how these lemurs avoid cyanide poisoning remains unknown. in this study, we tested for the presence/absence of cyanide in bamboo lemur foods and excreta to (1) document patterns of cyanide consumption among species with respect to diet, (2) identify routes of elimination of cyanide from the gastrointestinal tract, a ...201019790190
food mechanical properties in three sympatric species of hapalemur in ranomafana national park, madagascar.we investigated mechanical dietary properties of sympatric bamboo lemurs, hapalemur g. griseus, h. aureus, and h. (prolemur) simus, in ranomafana national park, madagascar. each lemur species relies on bamboo, though previous behavioral observations found that they specialize on different parts of a common resource (tan: int j primatol 20 1999 547-566; tan: phd dissertation 2000 state university of new york, stony brook). on the basis of these earlier behavioral ecology studies, we hypothesized ...200919115398
feeding behaviour and activity patterns of two malagasy bamboo lemurs, hapalemur simus and hapalemur griseus, in captivity. 19947813971
phylogeny of the lemuridae revisited: evidence from communication signals.phylogenetic relationships among the extant lemurid prosimians were assessed cladistically using stereotyped vocal, olfactory, and visual communication characters. among our results are 3 findings of particular importance. first, our data are consistent with those from several recent studies of highly repeated dna fragments in supporting a close phyletic affinity between lemur catta and the genus hapalemur. moreover, our results indicate that l. catta is nested within the hapalemur clade as the ...19947813970
subfossil indri indri from the ankarana massif of northern madagascar.subfossil specimens of indri indri have been recovered recently from the ankarana massif cave system in the far north of madagascar. taken together with material from the central highland site of ampasambazimba, the range of this species appears to have once included much of the northern half of the island and to have extended north and west beyond the eastern rainforest (not unlike hapalemur simus). it is probable that forest corridors connected the subfossil localities to the current range at ...19957485433
revision of hapalemur (prohapalemur) gallieni (standing 1905).cranial and mandibular remains of the subfossil lemur hapalemur (prohapalemur) gallieni (standing 1905) from ampasambazimba in central madagascar are reexamined and are shown here to belong to the rare but perhaps still extant species hapalemur simus. past descriptive errors and too limited comparisons have hampered previous taxonomic assessments of the three mandibular rami, two partial maxillae, and one partial cranium ascribed to h. (prohapalemur) gallieni. these and other subfossil h. simus ...19854093081
ecology and conservation of the crowned lemur, lemur coronatus, at ankarana, n. madagascar. with notes on sanford's lemur, other sympatrics and subfossil lemurs.forests of ankarana limestone massif in northern madagascar support one of the largest and least disturbed populations of crowned lemurs, lemur coronatus. this paper reports a preliminary study of the ecology of this species in the ankarana special reserve conducted at the end of the dry season in 1986, with additional information collected a year later. crowned lemurs occur in very high densities in the semi-deciduous canopy forest and this probably represents a dry season refuge for the specie ...19892807091
consumption of cyanogenic bamboo by a newly discovered species of bamboo lemur.three species of bamboo-eating lemurs were found to be sympatric in the southeastern rain forests of madagascar. sympatric species generally differ in habitat utilization or diet, but these three closely related bamboo lemurs lived in the same habitat and all ate bamboo. behavioral observation revealed that they did select different parts of the bamboo, and chemical analyses confirmed that there was a difference in the secondary compound content present in those selections. the growing tips of c ...198931964012
coevolution of cyanogenic bamboos and bamboo lemurs on madagascar.feeding strategies of specialist herbivores often originate from the coevolutionary arms race of plant defenses and counter-adaptations of herbivores. the interaction between bamboo lemurs and cyanogenic bamboos on madagascar represents a unique system to study diffuse coevolutionary processes between mammalian herbivores and plant defenses. bamboo lemurs have different degrees of dietary specialization while bamboos show different levels of chemical defense. in this study, we found variation in ...201627532127
quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in cathariostachys madagascariensis-the main food plant of bamboo lemurs in southeastern madagascar.giant bamboo (cathariostachys madagascariensis) is a major food plant for three sympatric species of bamboo-eating lemurs (hapalemur aureus, h. griseus, and prolemur simus) in the rain forests of southeastern madagascar. this plant species is strongly cyanogenic. however, quantitative data on cyanide concentration in c. madagascariensis are scarce. previous studies reported 15 mg cyanide per 100 g fresh shoot material (corresponding to approx. 57 micromol cyanide per gram dry weight). however, w ...200919132732
survey of giardia and cryptosporidium in lemurs from the ranomafana national park, madagascar.we detected cryptosporidium sp. by direct immunofluorescence in fecal samples from greater bamboo lemurs (prolemur simus) and eastern rufous mouse lemurs (microcebus rufus) inhabiting the ranomafana national park, madagascar. this is the first report of an occurrence of these potentially zoonotic parasites in free-ranging lemurs in the rain forest of madagascar.201323778635
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