survival and growth of food poisoning bacteria following inoculation into cottage cheese varieties.following inoculation into cottage cheese varieties with and without sorbic acid, obtained directly from the manufacturer, strains of enteropathogenic escherichia coli and other e. coli survived but failed to multiply during storage at 7, 10 or 25 degrees c. in the absence of sorbic acid spoilage due to pseudomonas fluorescens occurred after storage for 5-13 days at 7 or 10 degrees c and 1-2 days at 25 degrees c. salmonella enteritidis, s. hadar, s. saint-paul, s. typhimurium and s. virchow surv ...19892518228
experimental studies on yersinia enterocolitica infection in chickens exposed at 1-day old.1. seventy 1-d-old broiler chicks were experimentally inoculated orally with yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:3 (1.4 x 10(11) cells/chick), 0:8 (1.6 x 10(11) cells) and 0:9 (8.0 x 10(10) cells) with or without sodium bicarbonate solution (10 g/l). 2. none of the chicks showed any overt clinical signs or pathological lesions although the organism was demonstrated in the ileum and shedding was observed up to 13 d after exposure. 3. the serotype, dose of y. enterocolitica and administration of na ...19892545317
raw beef, pork and chicken in japan contaminated with salmonella sp., campylobacter sp., yersinia enterocolitica, and clostridium perfringens--a comparative hundred and twenty samples each of raw ground beef, pork and chicken from ten local grocery stores in shimane prefecture, japan, were examined for the presence of salmonella sp. (sal), campylobacter jejuni (cj), campylobacter coli (cc), yersinia enterocolitica (ye), and clostridium perfringens (cp) from april 1984 to march 1985. a total of 205 isolates of sal (112 strains), cj (64 strains), cc (one strain), ye (7 strains) and cp (21 strains) were recovered from 17 beef (14.2%), 31 pork (25.8 ...19872887078
the growth of potential food poisoning organisms on chicken and pork muscle surfaces.muscle surfaces of pork were inoculated with a mixture of yersinia enterocolitica and staphylococcus aureus, and chicken muscle with campylobacter jejuni or a mixture of salmonella typhimurium and staph. aureus. the surface growth at 20 degrees c was followed microscopically. organisms grew as discrete colonies bound together by a glycocalyx which differed between bacterial species. on prolonged incubation colonies spread peripherally and tended to coalesce, while still retaining their colony st ...19883072327
occurrence of yersinia spp. in raw beef, pork and hundred and twenty raw ground beef, pork and chicken samples from ten local grocery stores during a one year period were assayed for the presence of yersinia spp., using direct and postenrichment koh treatment. seven thousand and fifty-five different isolates were recovered from 119 (99%) samples of beef and pork and 118 (98%) samples of chicken, including 27 yersinia enterocolitica serotype 03 biotype 3b phage type 2 (4 pork samples), 4 y. enterocolitica serotype 03 biotype 4 phage type 8 ( ...19873113096
isolation of campylobacter spp. and yersinia enterocolitica from domestic animals and human patients in kenya.rectal swabs or faecal samples from 992 domestic animals and 97 human patients in the nairobi region were cultured for thermophilic campylobacter species and yersinia enterocolitica. the highest isolation rate of campylobacters was obtained from diarrhoeic pigs (55.1%), followed by healthy chicken (51.5%), diarrhoeic dogs (47.2%), healthy pigs (44.0%), healthy ducks (29.4%), healthy goats (6.3%), healthy cattle (5.8%), diarrhoeic humans (3.1%), and healthy sheep (2.0%). only one strain of y. ent ...19883345259
prevalence of yersinia enterocolitica infection in nigerian chickens: cultural and serologic studies. 19873453510
[campylobacter jejuni, yersinia enterocolitica and salmonella in game and poultry].samples of various sorts of game and poultry (other than chicken), obtained from poulterers, hunters, rearing-farms and slaughterhouses, were surveyed for the presence of campylobacter jejuni, yersinia enterocolitica and salmonella. these pathogens were isolated from hare, wild boars, pheasants, guinea-fowl, turkeys, mallards and domestic ducks. yersinia enterocolitica and salmonella were also cultured from wild and domestic rabbits. moreover, yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from wood pigeo ...19836648946
enteropathogenic bacteria in frozen chicken.eighty-two samples of frozen chicken from retail stores were examined for the presence of campylobacter, yersinia enterocolitica, and salmonellae. aerobic plate counts and numbers of coliform bacteria at 37 degrees c were determined. campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni was found in 22% of the samples, y. enterocolitica was found in 24.5% and salmonella typhimurium was found in one sample (1.2%). the isolated strains of y. enterocolitica belonged to serotypes 4, 5b, 6, and 8. aerobic plate counts a ...19817020597
the direct application of the polymerase chain reaction to dna extracted from foods.two methods for the successful extraction of dna from foods are described. the rapid lysis method uses a proteinase k buffer system to lyse cells and solubilize food samples. dna is then precipitated using isopropanol. the second method achieves cell lysis using toluene and mutanolysin, and solubilization using guanidium thiocyanate. following protein removal with organic solvents dna is precipitated with isopropanol. both methods enabled the polymerase chain reaction to be applied directly to d ...19957766115
effect of ionizing dose rate on the radioresistance of some food pathogenic pathogenic bacteria including listeria monocytogenes (1a1 and atcc 19111), staphylococcus aureus (gd13 and atcc 13565), escherichia coli o157:h7 (atcc 35150), salmonella typhimurium, yersinia enterocolitica, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and campylobacter jejuni were exposed to various rates of ionizing radiation (0.78, 2.6, and 22 kgy/h) emitted by three different 60co irradiators. d10 values (d10 is the radiation dose required to eliminate 90% of a bacterial population (one logarithmic cycle r ...19948069779
introduction into japan of pathogenic yersinia through imported pork, beef and fowl.yersinia was isolated from imported raw meat and fowl products by hela cell treatment and conventional koh-treatment, to obtain information on the origin of pathogenic yersinia in japan. forty-one strains of yersinia enterocolitica and one strain of yersinia pseudotuberculosis, serotype 4b were isolated from 38 (3.0%) of 1278 samples of pork, two (0.3%) of 612 samples of beef and two (0.3%) of 615 samples of chicken. y. enterocolitica isolates belonged to b:4/o:3 (biotype/serotype, 15 strains), ...19979105929
effects of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on the growth of spoilage and inoculated pathogenic bacteria on fresh poultry.fresh chicken breast meats inoculated with yersinia enterocolitica and aeromonas hydrophila were packaged in glass jars either containing different compositions of modified atmospheres (ma) (100% co2; 80% co2/20% n2), or in vacuo or containing air, and were stored at 3 +/- 1 degrees c and 8 +/- 1 degrees c. the changes in gas composition as well as y. enterocolitica, a. hydrophila, total aerobic bacterial, total psychotropic, lactobacilli and enterobacteriaceae counts were determined after 0, 1, ...19969123970
isolation of yersinia from raw meat (pork and chicken) and precooked meat (porcine tongues and sausages) collected from commercial establishments in mexico city.a total of 160 meat product samples were collected from commercial outlets in mexico city to investigate the presence of different species of yersinia by the 4 degrees c enrichment method after 1, 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation using alkaline treatment and isolating in cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin and macconkey agars with tween 80. overall, yersinia spp. were isolated from 27% of the samples analyzed, whereas 40% of the raw and only 13% of the precooked samples were contaminated. although 2,970 ...200010772223
survival of yersinia enterocolitica and mesophilic aerobic bacteria on eggshell after washing with hypochlorite and organic acid solutions.populations of yersinia enterocolitica 0:9 and mesophilic aerobic bacteria on the shell of fresh chicken eggs were assessed prior and after washing with 0.75%, 1%, and 3% acetic and lactic acids, 50, 100, and 200 mg/liter (ppm) of chlorine, and water. highest reductions of mesophilic aerobic bacterial populations (normal flora) on trypticase soy agar were 1.28 and 2.15 log10 cycles with 100 and 200 mg/liter of chlorine, 0.28 and 0.36 log10 cycles with 1% and 3% acetic acid, and 0.70 and 0.71 log ...200010945580
yersinia enterocolitica biogroup 1a, serotype o:5 in chicken evaluate the presence of yersinia enterocolitica in raw chicken, 70 samples of chicken carcasses were obtained from a buenos aires, argentina, processing plant. the detection of this psychotropic microorganism was carried out using the whole carcass rinse method and enrichment in phosphate-buffered saline, 0.067 m, ph 7.6, at 4 degrees c, followed by alkaline treatment and isolation on cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin nutrient agar. y. enterocolitica or related species were detected in 7 of 70 s ...200011079706
development and validation of growth model for yersinia enterocolitica in cooked chicken meats packaged under various atmosphere packaging and stored at different temperatures.mathematical models that can predict the growth of yersinia enterocolitica in chicken meats were evaluated in this study. the growth curves for y. enterocolitica in chicken meats variously packaged (air, vacuum, and modified atmosphere packaging [map]) and stored at various temperatures (4, 10, 16, 22, 28, and 34 degrees c) were constructed. the gompertz model was applied to fit each of the experimental curves for the conditions mentioned above. the variations in the parameters, including lag ti ...200111456208
serological and biochemical characteristics of virulence plasmid of yersinia enterocolitica isolates from chicken in the islamic republic of iran.pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica harbour plasmid that is essential for virulence. we studied the characteristics of virulence plasmid using serological, biochemical and bioassay tests in y. enterocolitica isolates of chicken using plasmid curing. plasmid-cured isogenic derivatives (2029c and 2150c) were obtained from two isolates of y. enterocolitica (rtcc 2029 and rtcc 2150). the results demonstrated that plasmid-bearing isolates (2029 and 2150) were human-serum-resistant when grown at 37 deg ...200011556031
rapid separation and concentration of food-borne pathogens in food samples prior to quantification by viable-cell counting and real-time pcr.buoyant density gradient centrifugation has been used to separate bacteria from complex food matrices, as well as to remove compounds that inhibit rapid detection methods, such as pcr, and to prevent false-positive results due to dna originating from dead cells. applying a principle of buoyant density gradient centrifugation, we developed a method for rapid separation and concentration following filtration and low- and high-speed centrifugation, as well as flotation and sedimentation buoyant den ...200717056684
microbiological baseline study of broiler chickens at swedish slaughterhouses.this 1-year study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and concentrations of pathogenic and indicator bacteria on swedish broiler chickens. a total of 636 chilled carcasses were collected from 10 slaughterhouses and sent to the national food administration for analyses of carcass rinses. no carcasses were positive for salmonella. campylobacter, predominantly campylobacter jejuni, were detected on 15% (by enrichment) or 14% (by direct plating) of the carcasses. with one exception, all samples ...200617186653
detection of chromosomal and plasmid--encoded virulence determinants in yersinia enterocolitica and other yersinia spp. isolated from food animals in greece.the distribution of yersinia strains in animal reservoirs was examined in 835 food animals (pigs, chickens, sheep, cows) from different greek departments (attica, fthiotida, viotia and evia) over a one year period. the isolated strains were characterized with respect to the presence of chromosomal (yst) and plasmid-encoded virulence determinants (virf, yada) and their antimicrobial susceptibility was tested. in total, yersiniaspp. were obtained from 9.94% of the 835 food animals at slaughter tha ...200717825934
effectiveness of trisodium phosphate, acidified sodium chlorite, citric acid, and peroxyacids against pathogenic bacteria on poultry during refrigerated storage.the effects of dipping treatments (15 min) in potable water or in solutions (wt/vol) of 12% trisodium phosphate (tsp), 1,200 ppm acidified sodium chlorite (asc), 2% citric acid (ca), and 220 ppm peroxyacids (pa) on inoculated pathogenic bacteria (listeria monocytogenes, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus cereus, salmonella enteritidis, escherichia coli, and yersinia enterocolitica) and skin ph were investigated throughout storage of chicken legs (days 0, 1, 3, and 5) at 3 +/- 1 degrees c. all chemi ...200717900083
effects of essential oils of oregano and nutmeg on growth and survival of yersinia enterocolitica and listeria monocytogenes in barbecued chicken.the in vitro effects of plant essential oils (eos) against pathogenic bacteria are well known, yet few studies have addressed the effects of these compounds against pathogens associated with ready-to-cook foods. experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of oregano and nutmeg eos on the growth and survival of yersinia enterocolitica and listeria monocytogenes in broth culture and in iranian barbecued chicken. ready-to-cook iranian barbecued chicken was prepared according to the co ...200718044446
isolation and purification of enterocin e-760 with broad antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.strain nrrl b-30745, isolated from chicken ceca and identified as enterococcus durans, enterococcus faecium, or enterococcus hirae, was initially identified as antagonistic to campylobacter jejuni. the isolate produced a 5,362-da bacteriocin (enterocin) that inhibits the growth of salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis, s. enterica serovar choleraesuis, s. enterica serovar typhimurium, s. enterica serovar gallinarum, escherichia coli o157:h7, yersinia enterocolitica, citrobacter freundii, klebs ...200818086839
salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium can detect acyl homoserine lactone production by yersinia enterocolitica in mice.luxr-type transcription factors detect acyl homoserine lactones (ahls) and are typically used by bacteria to determine the population density of their own species. escherichia coli and salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium cannot synthesize ahls but can detect the ahls produced by other bacterial species using the luxr homolog, sdia. previously we determined that s. typhimurium did not detect ahls during transit through the gastrointestinal tract of a guinea pig, a rabbit, a cow, 5 mice, 6 pig ...201019820103
antimicrobial resistance of major foodborne pathogens from major meat products.the bacterial contamination of raw and processed meat products with resistant pathogens was studied. the raw samples included sheep (40), goat (40), pork (120), beef (80), and chicken (19) meat, and the processed samples included turkey filets (33), salami (8), readymade mincemeat (16), stuffing (22), and roast-beef (50). the samples were collected from retail shops in northwestern greece over a period of 3 years. the isolated pathogens were evaluated for susceptibilities to 19 antimicrobial age ...201021039131
detection, semiquantitative enumeration, and antimicrobial susceptibility of yersinia enterocolitica in pork and chicken meats in italy.yersinia enterocolitica is recognized as an etiological agent of gastroenteritis, lymphadenitis, and chronic sequelae. during 2006 and 2007, 205 samples (125 pork and 80 chicken meats) were collected in italy and tested for detection and most-probable-number (mpn) enumeration of y. enterocolitica organisms. the microorganism was isolated from 45 samples (21.9%): 19 (15.2%) pork samples and 26 (32.5%) chicken samples. y. enterocolitica mpn contamination levels were low, ranging from 0.30 to 1.50/ ...201021067665
occurrence of pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica and yersinia pseudotuberculosis in small wild rodents.summaryrodents are a potential source of pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica and y. pseudotuberculosis. in order to study this, 190 rodents were captured and sampled on seven pig farms (n=110), five chicken farms (n=55) and six other locations (n=25) in sweden. pigs from three of the pig farms were also sampled (n=60). pathogenic y. enterocolitica was detected by taqman pcr in about 5% of rodent samples and 18% of pig samples. only rodents caught on pig farms tested positive for the pathogen. y. ...201021073763
inactivation of cronobacter sakazakii by ultrasonic waves under pressure in buffer and foods.the objective of this research was to characterize the resistance of cronobacter sakazakii to ultrasonic waves under pressure (manosonication, ms). the d(ms) value (decimal reduction time value) of c. sakazakii in standard conditions (35°c, 117 μm, 200 kpa, citrate-phosphate buffer ph 7.0) was 0.41 min. this value was higher than that of yersinia enterocolitica (d(ms)=0.19 min) and lower than those of salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis (d(ms)=0.61 min), listeria monocytogenes (d(ms)=0.86 mi ...201021111503
survival and growth of escherichia coli o157:h7, yersinia enterocolitica and salmonella enteritidis on decontaminated and untreated meat.decontamination of meat or carcasses may have an effect in reducing the number of pathogens. recontamination with other pathogens during cutting or packaging may, however, result in higher growth on decontaminated than on untreated meat due to the lack of competing non-pathogenic microorganisms. in this study we compared the growth of pathogens during storage at 10°c (worst case condition) on untreated meat and meat that had been decontaminated by steam vacuuming combined with spraying with 0.2 ...200122061504
detection of zoonotic enteropathogens in children and domestic animals in a semirural community in ecuador.animals are important reservoirs of zoonotic enteropathogens, and transmission to humans occurs more frequently in low- and middle-income countries (lmics), where small-scale livestock production is common. in this study, we investigated the presence of zoonotic enteropathogens in stool samples from 64 asymptomatic children and 203 domestic animals of 62 households in a semirural community in ecuador between june and august 2014. multilocus sequence typing (mlst) was used to assess zoonotic tran ...201627208122
antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties of wines and winery byproducts in relation to their flavonoid content.grapes produce organic compounds that may be involved in the defense of the plants against invading phytopathogens. these metabolites include numerous phenolic compounds that are also active against human pathogens. grapes are used to produce a variety of wines, grape juices, and raisins. grape pomace, seeds, and skins, the remains of the grapes that are a byproduct of winemaking, also contain numerous bioactive compounds that differ from those found in grapes and wines. this overview surveys an ...201424945318
food-borne pathogens of animal origin-diagnosis, prevention, control and their zoonotic significance: a review.the term food borne diseases or food-borne illnesses or more commonly food poisoning are used to denote gastrointestinal complications that occur following recent consumption of a particular food or drink. millions of people suffer worldwide every year and the situation is quiet grave in developing nations creating social and economic strain. the food borne pathogens include various bacteria viz., salmonella, campylobacter, escherichia coli, listeria monocytogenes, yersinia enterocolitica, staph ...201324506006
occurrence of pathogens in wild rodents caught on swedish pig and chicken farms.a total of 207 wild rodents were caught on nine pig farms, five chicken farms and five non-farm locations in sweden and surveyed for a selection of bacteria, parasites and viruses. lawsonia intracellularia and pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica were only detected in rodents on pig farms (9% and 8% prevalence, respectively) which indicate that these agents are more likely to be transmitted to rodents from pigs or the environment on infected farms. brachyspira hyodysenteriae (1%), brachyspira inte ...201323174339
zoonotic public health hazards in backyard chickens.backyard poultry has become increasingly popular in industrialized countries. in addition to keeping chickens for eggs and meat, owners often treat the birds as pets. however, several pathogenic enteric bacteria have the potential for zoonotic transmission from poultry to humans but very little is known about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in backyard flocks. the occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance of salmonella enterica, campylobacter spp., listeria monocytogenes and enteropathoge ...201626752227
foodborne bacterial pathogens in retail prepacked ready-to-eat mixed ingredient salads.prepacked ready-to-eat mixed ingredient salads (rte salads) are readily available whole meals that include a variety of ingredients such as raw vegetables, cooked meat, and pasta. as part of a trend toward healthy convenience foods, rte salads have become an increasingly popular product among consumers. however, data on the incidence of foodborne pathogens in rte salads are scarce. in this study, the microbiological safety of 141 rte salads containing chicken, ham, or smoked salmon was investiga ...201627296602
evaluation of drug-resistant enterobacteriaceae in retail poultry and beef.there has been increasing concern on the emergence of multidrug-resistant foodborne pathogens from foods of animal origin, including poultry. the current study aimed to evaluate antibiotic-resistant enterobacteriaceae from raw retail chicken/turkey parts (thigh, wings, breast, and ground) and beef meat (ground and chunks) in middle tennessee. resistance of the collected enterobacteriaceae to a panel of antibiotics was determined by the kirby-bauer disk diffusion test. retail meats were also assa ...201323472034
fate of listeria monocytogenes , pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica , and escherichia coli o157:h7 gfp(+) in ready-to-eat salad during cold storage: what is the risk to consumers?in this study, we investigated the fate of listeria monocytogenes , pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica , and escherichia coli o157:h7 gfp(+) inoculated in low numbers into ready-to-eat baby spinach and mixed-ingredient salad (baby spinach with chicken meat). samples were stored at recommended maximum refrigerator temperature (8°c in sweden) or at an abuse temperature (15°c) for up to 7 days. mixed-ingredient salad supported considerable growth when stored at 15°c during shelf life (3 days), with ...201728221975
ecology and geographic distribution of yersinia enterocolitica among livestock and wildlife in china.the results in this study show the prevalence of yersinia enterocolitica varies in different animal species and regions of china. the highest prevalence is among pigs (12.91%), followed by dogs (9.80%), ochotona curzoniae (plateau pica) (6.76%), chickens (4.50%), rodents (3.40%), cattle (2.78%) and sheep (0.89%). pathogenic isolates comprised the majority of the y. enterocolitica recovered from pigs (73.50%) and dogs (59.44%); whereas the nonpathogenic y. enterocolitica made up most of poultry a ...201525987302
genetic diversity among yersinia enterocolitica isolated from chicken and fish in and around coimbatore city, india.yersinia enterocolitica is rapidly emerging worldwide as an enteric pathogen and has become a major cause of diarrhea even in developed countries. the aim of this study was to characterize and genetic diversity analysis among y. enterocolitica strains isolated from fish and chicken sources.201426110155
isolation of yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1 a from raw meat products.a survey has been carried out for the presence of yersinia enterocolitioca in raw meat products. one hundred and twenty raw beef, chicken and ham samples were assayed for the presence of yersinia enterocolitica by the 4 degrees c enrichment method after 2 weeks of incubation using phosphate buffered saline. yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1 a non agglutinable (nag) was isolated from a sample of beef and identified by api 20 e system and additional biochemical tests, lipase, beta-d-glucosidase an ...200818847181
pleiotropic phenotypes of a yersinia enterocolitica flhd mutant include reduced lethality in a chicken embryo model.the yersinia enterocolitica flagellar master regulator flhd/flhc affects the expression levels of non-flagellar genes, including 21 genes that are involved in central metabolism. the sigma factor of the flagellar system, flia, has a negative effect on the expression levels of seven plasmid-encoded virulence genes in addition to its positive effect on the expression levels of eight of the flagellar operons. this study investigates the phenotypes of flhd and flia mutants that result from the compl ...200818215272
genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of yersinia enterocolitica isolated from the surface of chicken eggshells obtained in argentina.the prevalence of yersinia enterocolitica on chicken eggshell surfaces in san luis, argentina, was investigated. the pathogenic potential of recovered isolates was assessed by means of phenotypic virulence tests and the presence of the 72-kb pyv plasmid. antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the agar diffusion method. dna digested with xbai was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and relationships between genomic dna profiles were established. eight y. enterocolitica b2 ...200516161678
the invasin protein of yersinia enterocolitica: internalization of invasin-bearing bacteria by eukaryotic cells is associated with reorganization of the cytoskeleton.yersinia enterocolitica, a facultative intracellular pathogen of mammals, readily enters (i.e., invades) cultured eukaryotic cells, a process that can be conferred by the cloned inv locus of the species. we have studied the mechanism by which the product of inv, a microbial outer membrane protein termed "invasin," mediates the internalization of bacteria by hep-2 cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts. invasin-bearing bacteria initially bound the filopodia and the leading edges of cultured cells. ...19921730744
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