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a source of glycosylated human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 envelope protein: expression of gp46 by the vaccinia virus/t7 polymerase system.heterologous expression of the human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (htlv-1) envelope surface glycoprotein (gp46) in a vaccinia virus/t7 polymerase system resulted in the production of authentic recombinant gp46. five differentially glycosylated forms of the surface envelope protein were produced by this mammalian system, as demonstrated by tunicamycin inhibition of n-glycosylation and n-glycan removal with endoglycosidase h and glycopeptidase f. these studies revealed that all four potential ...19968892853
the simian t-lymphotropic virus stlv-pp1664 from pan paniscus is distinctly related to htlv-2 but differs in genomic organization.we have isolated a highly divergent simian t-lymphotropic virus, stlv-pp1664, from a wild-caught bonobo (pan paniscus). previous phylogenetic analysis suggested that this virus represents an additional type of stlv but this has now become a matter of discussion. we have now obtained and analyzed the entire genome of stlv-pp1664. all major genes and their corresponding viral messengers were identified. sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this virus, together with the clos ...19989568035
the discovery of two new divergent stlvs has implications for the evolution and epidemiology of htlvs.we have isolated and characterised two divergent simian t-lymphotropic viruses (stlv), not belonging to the established human and simian t-lymphotropic virus lineages htlv-1/stlv-1 and htlv-2. stlv-l, from an eritrean sacred baboon (papio hamadryas), has been typed as a third type of simian t-lymphotropic virus, distinct from htlv-1/stlv-1 and htlv-2. the other virus, isolated from congolese bonobos (pan paniscus), is a distinct member of the htlv-2 clade and has been designated stlv-2. the isol ...199910479777
genetic diversity of stlv-2 and interspecies transmission of stlv-3 in wild-living bonobos.there are currently four known primate t-cell lymphotropic virus groups (ptlv1-4), each of which comprises closely related simian (stlv) and human (htlv) viruses. for ptlv-1 and ptlv-3, simian and human viruses are interspersed, suggesting multiple cross-species transmission events; however, for ptlv-2 this is not so clear because htlv-2 and stlv-2 strains from captive bonobos (pan paniscus) form two distinct clades. to determine to what extent bonobos are naturally infected with stlv, we screen ...201627774304
implications of the evolution pattern of human t-cell leukemia retroviruses on their pathogenic virulence (review).simian retroviruses pose a serious threat to public health, as two human pathogenic retroviruses, hiv and htlv, have been already proved to originate from such non-human viruses. therefore, studying their natural prevalence among wild non-human primates is important for planning strategies to prevent the emergence of additional human retroviral pathogens. this article is focused on tracing the origin and evolution of the human t-cell leukemia viruses htlv-i and htlv-ii in comparison to that of t ...200415492865
[growing divergence inside primate t cell lymphotropic viruses].during our studies on the evolution of the ptlvs, we have isolated and genomically characterized two divergent simian t-lymphotropic viruses, not belonging to the previously well-established ptlv lineages. stlv-ph969 has been isolated from an eritrean sacred baboon (papio hamadryas), with an htlv-like indeterminate serological profile. the entire 8916 nt long genomic sequence, was obtained from a cdna library of ph969 mrna, in combination with a pcr based strategy. all open reading frames (orf) ...199910379197
human and simian t-cell leukemia viruses type 2 (htlv-2 and stlv-2(pan-p)) transform t cells independently of jak/stat activation.human t-lymphotropic virus type 1 (htlv-1) and htlv-2 differ in pathogenicity in vivo. htlv-1 causes leukemia and neurologic and inflammatory diseases, whereas htlv-2 is less clearly associated with human disease. both retroviruses transform human t cells in vitro, and transformation by htlv-1 was found to be associated with the constitutive activation of the jak/stat pathway. to assess whether htlv-2 transformation may also result in constitutive activation of the jak/stat pathway, six interleu ...19989557732
african origin of human t-lymphotropic virus type 2 (htlv-2) supported by a potential new htlv-2d subtype in congolese bambuti efe pygmies.we identified a potential new subtype within human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (htlv-2), htlv-2d, present in members of an isolated efe bambuti pygmy tribe. two of 23 efe pygmies were htlv-2 seropositive, with htlv-2 western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivities. from one of them the entire genome of the htlv-2 strain efe2 could be amplified and sequenced. in all gene regions analyzed, this strain was the most divergent htlv-2 strain, differing by 2.4% (tax/rex) to 10.7% ( ...19989557723
molecular characterization and phylogenetic analyses of a new simian t cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in a wild-caught african baboon (papio anubis) with an indeterminate stlv type 2-like serology.stlv-1 viruses are closely related to htlv-1 and infect many african monkey species. seroreactivities of monkeys infected by stlv-1 are nearly identical to those of htlv-1-infected individuals. in some cases, stlv-1 are, sequence-wise, indistinguishable from htlv-1, and cannot be separated from them on the basis of phylogenetic analyses. htlv-2-related simian viruses have been rarely reported. such stlv-2 viruses, present in african bonobo (pan paniscus), possess a genomic organization related t ...200011153087
what is the situation of human t cell lymphotropic virus type ii (htlv-ii) in africa? origin and dissemination of genomic subtypes.human t cell lymphotropic virus type ii (htlv-ii) and its two genomic subtypes, a and b, which differ by 3 to 6% at the nucleotide level (depending on the gene studied), were until recently considered to be endemic only in certain indian tribes in the americas and were therefore considered mainly as a "new world virus." first, the evidence of htlv-ii antibodies and later characterization of isolates from sex workers or individuals living in large west and central african cities suggested that ht ...19968797728
the presence of a divergent t-lymphotropic virus in a wild-caught pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus) supports an african origin for the human t-lymphotropic/simian t-lymphotropic group of viruses.we isolated a divergent simian t-lymphotropic virus (stlv) (strain pp1664) from a wild-caught african bonobo (pygmy chimpanzee, pan paniscus). molecular and phylogenetic characterization of this virus show that it reliably separates from the two well-established primate t-lymphotropic virus types, htlv-i/stlv-i (ptlv-i) and ptlv-ii, and from a third type isolated from an african-born papio hamadryas and designated by us as ptlv-l. four of eight bonobos kept at the antwerp zoo, belgium, showed an ...19968609475
isolation of a novel simian t-cell lymphotropic virus from pan paniscus that is distantly related to the human t-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus types i and ii.an unusual serological profile against human t-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type i and ii (htlv-i and -ii) proteins was reported in several human pygmy tribes in zaire and cameroon with serum antibodies reactive with gp21 and p24. here we describe a similar pattern of serum antibodies in a colony of captive pygmy chimpanzees and the isolation of a novel retrovirus, simian t-cell lymphotropic virus from pan paniscus (stlvpan-p), from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of several seroposit ...19947966632
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