avian malaria in african black-footed penguins.ten captive-reared african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) from a large outdoor colony were monitored for avian malaria, using several diagnostic tests. one treatment regimen was evaluated. thin smear blood evaluation enabled detection of seven parasitemias involving plasmodium relictum and plasmodium elongatum in the penguins. leukocytosis (relative lymphocytosis) was characteristic of infected birds. parasitemia was detected as early as 21 days prior to onset of clinical signs (dep ...1979521378
evaluation of serum chemistry values associated with avian malaria infections in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).the value profiles of 5 intracellular enzymes, 15 metabolites (with 2 associated ratios), and 3 electrolytes were monitored over time in 9 captive-reared african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) with different avian malaria clinical status: uninfected, subclinically infected, and clinically infected with fatal outcome. fatal infections were caused by plasmodium relictum. numerous schizonts were visible in the lungs, liver, spleen, and interstitial tissue of the kidneys. the reference ...19957624290
characteristics of naturally acquired avian malaria infections in naive juvenile african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).antibody responses to naturally acquired plasmodium relictum and p. elongatum infections, blood parasitemia, and disease signs were investigated in 23 naive juvenile african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus). anti-plasmodium spp. immunoglobulins were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using p. falciparum antigens. all birds rapidly developed antibody to p. relictum and p. elongatum. five penguins showed detectable parasitemia and signs of the disease. parasitemia was ...19947886030
subclinical avian malaria infections in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) and induction of parasite recrudescence.the subclinical and clinical plasmodium elongatum and plasmodium relictum infections of captive-reared african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) were evaluated in nine adult and 29 juvenile penguins in the baltimore zoo (maryland, usa) during summer 1988 and winter 1989. two diagnostic methods were used: giemsa-stained thin blood films, and subinoculation of penguin blood into 1-day-old peking ducklings. chloroquine and primaquine treatment was applied to all parasitemic juvenile pengu ...19947933280
hematologic characteristics of avian malaria cases in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) during the first outdoor exposure season.twenty-nine juvenile, captive-reared african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) were hematologically monitored every 2 wk over the period of 24 wk during their first outdoor exposure. blood samples taken from the penguins were screened for 12 blood evaluation parameters. parasitemic penguins were medically treated. eighteen birds (62.1%) experienced naturally acquired malaria and 11 birds (37.9%) remained nonparasitemic. a total of 32 avian malaria episodes were noted; 25 (78.1%) were i ...19948158474
an elisa for detecting anti-plasmodium spp. antibodies in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) utilizing 3 plasmodium falciparum antigens, r32tet32, p.f.r27, and crude red blood cell extract, was developed for the detection of circulating anti-plasmodium relictum or anti-plasmodium elongatum antibodies in sera from naturally infected adult african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) at the baltimore zoo, maryland. a concentration of 2.0 micrograms/ml of each antigen was optimal in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and test speed. it wa ...19948308660
parasite diversity in an endemic region for avian malaria and identification of a parasite causing penguin mortality.understanding the population structure of plasmodium parasites is essential for malaria intervention. a survey of parasites in vectors and host infections was conducted in an area of intense mortality due to malaria in a captive penguin (spheniscus demersus) colony, using a novel method for identification of plasmodium species by amplification of ribosomal sequences in dna or rna. three phylogenetically distinct groups of avian plasmodium were detected in mosquitoes (culex) collected at the stud ...19968822810
a model for the prediction of relative titres of avian malaria and aspergillus spp. igg in jackass penguin (spheniscus demersus) females based on maternal igg in egg-yolk.a model for the prediction of igg titres in females of the jackass penguin (spheniscus demersus) was developed, based on igg which was maternally transmitted to the yolk of unembryonated eggs produced by these females. however, prediction of the female titre based on the titre of embryonated eggs may be inadequate. blood samples from 10 s. demersus females and their corresponding embryonated (n = 10) and unembryonated (n = 49) eggs were analysed by indirect elisa for avian malaria (plasmodium re ...19968894766
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