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[comparative studies on avian encephalomyelitis virus strains from chickens and turkeys]. 1975177258
susceptibility of chickens to avian encephalomyelitis virus. iv. behavior of the virus in laying hens.some laying hens 6 months of age were inoculated subcutaneously or orally with a chick embryo--adapted strain of avian encephalomyelitis virus and examined for propagation of the virus in the body. when inoculated subcutaneously, the virus appeared in liver, spleen, ovarian follicle, and muscle at the site of inoculation 1 day, in kidney and lumbar part of the spinal cord 3 days, in the pancreas 5 days, in heart, duodenum, and cervical part of the spinal cord 7 days, and in the brain 11 days aft ...1976185529
pancreas-passaged avian encephalomyelitis virus and its immunogenicity.a serial 34-chicken pancreas passage of avian encephalomyelitis virus by oral administration was successful. oral inoculation test with 4 passaged viruses showed rapid infection of the duodenal wall and unchangeable infection of pancreas diminishing the viral invasiveness to other organs. the passaged virus caused neither detectable viremia nor clinical avian encephalomyelitis signs and produced neutralizing antibody of high titers.1978205148
vaccination immunity to selected diseases in chickens fed the androgen analog mibolerone.chickens fed the androgen analog mibolerone during the first 7 weeks of life regress their bursa of fabricius but can be properly immunized by vaccination against avian pathogens of major economic importance such as newcastle disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus, infectious bronchitis virus, fowl pox virus, marek's disease virus, and pasteurella multocida, the pathogen causing fowl cholera. these findings on immunocompetence to infectious agents are im ...1978209430
pathogenesis of avian encephalomyelitis viruses.the pathogenesis of a field strain, a vaccine strain and the egg-adapted van roekel strain of avian encephalomyelitis virus in susceptible chicken embryos and day-old chickens was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of virus-specific antibody and antigen. the van roekel strain was shown to be highly neurotropic whereas the field and vaccine strains were enterotropic. radioimmuno-precipitation studies using na125i-labelled purified virus failed to detect any di ...19911658197
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of avian encephalomyelitis virus antigens.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of the antigens of avian encephalomyelitis viruses (aevs) was developed, using an antigen capture method with affinity-purified anti-aev immunoglobulins prepared in rabbits. both the van roekel strain and a field strain of aev could be detected at concentrations of 4 x 10(3) ng/g tissue in the presence or absence of an uninfected chicken embryo extract. the procedure was used to determine the distribution of antigens to the van roekel strain aft ...19882840879
detection of avian encephalomyelitis virus.methods for the detection of two strains of avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) in chick embryo brain cell cultures and chickens were compared. it was found that the agar gel precipitin test (agpt) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) carried out on the serum of inoculated chickens were more sensitive than either the indirect fluorescent antibody test in cell cultures or the detection of clinical signs in chicks. on the basis of results obtained in this experiment the effects were t ...19863010409
avian encephalomyelitis virus. i. pathogenesis in chicken embryos. 19714334068
avian encephalomyelitis virus. ii. pathogenesis in chickens. 19714334069
a note on the duration of neutralizing antibody against avian encephalomyelitis virus in chickens. 19724347434
the effect of a latent avian encephalomyelitis virus infection in the chicken embryo on the propagation of newcastle diease, influenza, and infectious bronchitis viruses. 19685693700
performance of 3 successive generations of specified-pathogenfree chickens maintained as a closed flock.no antibodies against salmonella pullorum, mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae, haemophilus gallinarum, fowl pox virus, marek's disease virus, herpes virus of turkey, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian adenovirus, avian reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian leukosis virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus and newcastle disease virus were detectable in the sera obtained from these chickens in 3 generations at various ages. antibodies against i ...19806253742
invasion of avian encephalomyelitis virus from the gastrointestinal tract to the central nervous system in young chickens.invasion sites of avian encephalomyelitis virus in the internal organs of orally infected chicks were determined by the immunofluorescent method. the invasion began when the epithelium tunica mucosae of the duodenum (together with the proventriculus, jejunum, or cecum in certain birds killed at postinoculation day 1) became test-positive. viremia persisted for more than 5 days in the early stage of infection, then the pancreas was rapidly infected, followed by the liver, kidney, and spleen. subs ...19836301318
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to avian encephalomyelitis virus in chickens.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibody to avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) has been developed for determining whether existing aev control programs adequately protect breeder hens. a partially purified aev antigen was bound to microcuvettes for reaction with specific primary antibody. a second antibody, rabbit anti-chicken immunoglobulin g (igg) conjugated with horseradish peroxidase, was employed to react with bound primary igg. the relative amount of boun ...19846326732
the multiplication of avian encephalomyelitis virus in chicken embryo tissues. 196514253981
avian encephalomyelitis virus antibodies in new zealand chicken flocks. 198716031418
reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to detect avian encephalomyelitis virus.a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was developed and optimized for the detection of avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev). a pair of primers was prepared based on the vp2 gene of the structural protein p1 region of the aev genome. an avian encephalomyelitis virus-specific 619-base pair cdna product was amplified by these primers from five reference/field strains of aevs but not from 10 other avian pathogenic viruses and bacteria. the rt-pcr assay developed in this study was ...200516094827
a serological survey for pathogens in old fancy chicken breeds in central and eastern part of the netherlands.to get an impression of the presence of pathogens in multi-aged flocks of old fancy chicken breeds in the netherlands, plasma samples originating from 24 flocks were examined for antibodies against 17 chicken pathogens. these flocks were housed mainly in the centre and east of the netherlands, regions with a high poultry density. the owners of the tested flocks showed their chicken at national and international poultry exhibitions. antibodies against avian influenza, egg drop syndrome '76 virus, ...200415185615
[ataxia and paralysis in meat chickens, as a result of an infection with avian encephalomyelitis virus in the breeding flock].an outbreak of avian encephalomyelitis (ae) in 7 broiler flocks, with signs of ataxia and paralysis is reported. the diagnosis was made by immunofluorescence, histopathology and virus isolation. the breeding flock had a temporary drop in egg production and reduced hatchability caused by late embryonic mortality. the breeding flock had not been vaccinated against ae. the problems were probably caused by vertical transmission of ae virus.19989644755
experimental reproduction of hypoglycemia-spiking mortality syndrome in broiler chickens with the use of homogenized brains containing arenaviruslike particles.severe hypoglycemia-spiking mortality syndrome was experimentally reproduced in broiler chicks. inoculum was homogenized brains from 28-day-old commercial broiler chicks with central nervous system signs (50% [v/v] in phosphate-buffered saline with 2% fetal calf serum). oral inoculations of 1.2 ml of the homogenate were given at 1 day of age to broiler chicks (n = 15). fourteen days later, chicks were fasted and stressed with a 2-sec cool water spray. six chicks (40%) developed clinical signs of ...19979201412
experimental reproduction of severe hypoglycemia and spiking mortality syndrome using field-derived and embryo-passaged preparations.the clinical signs, enteritis, weight depression, and hypoglycemia of spiking mortality syndrome were experimentally reproduced in broiler breeders and broiler chicks. inocula included 1) virus-like particles from intestines of chicks with spiking mortality syndrome that had been banded in a discontinuous renograffin gradient, 2) homogenized darkling beetles collected from litter of farms where spiking mortality syndrome had occurred repeatedly, and 3) homogenized embryos which had been inoculat ...19968713030
an in vitro assay for quantifying the virus of avian encephalomyelitis.chicken embryo brain (ceb) cell cultures support the replication of embryo-adapted strains, vaccine strains, and field isolates of avian encephalomyelitis virus. a centrifugal force of 1,500 x g was applied during virus adsorption. viral antigen was detected in the infected cells by using the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique (ifat). combining the infectivity of the virus in ceb cell culture with the ability to detect viral antigen by the ifat resulted in the development of a virus-titrati ...19826293444
preparation of an agar-gel-precipitating antigen for avian encephalomyelitis and its use in evaluating the antibody status of poultry.an agar-gel-precipitin (agp) antigen for avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) was prepared from infected chicken embryo brains. the antigen could precipitate specific antibodies to aev. no nonspecific reactions were observed. results of agp tests were compared with those of virus-neutralization (vn) tests on both unvaccinated and aev-vaccinated chickens. the agp test reliably detected antibodies to aev as early as four days postinoculation. antibodies persisted in most vaccinated birds for over o ...19826186238
improved potency test for live avian encephalomyelitis vaccines.potency tests were carried out on live avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) vaccines. vaccines were titrated in chick embryo brain cell cultures using an indirect fluorescent antibody test just before vaccination. groups of chickens were inoculated orally with graded doses of each vaccine. after three weeks serum was taken from the chickens and examined for antibodies to aev by indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa). the chickens were then challenged by intracerebral inoculation of virulent a ...19863027803
an elisa for the detection of antibodies to avian nephritis virus and related entero-like viruses.an elisa for the detection of antibodies against avian nephritis virus (anv) and related entero-like viruses was developed. different antigenic preparations made from chicken kidney cells infected with the g-4260 strain of anv were compared. crude antigen obtained by fluorocarbon treatment of infected cells was found to be appropriate and to give reproducible results with antisera directed against anv and three entero-like particles (elps): the belgian entero pv2 and entero 3, and the irish elp- ...199118680047
health survey of backyard poultry and other avian species located within one mile of commercial california meat-turkey flocks.a survey was conducted to characterize domestic and exotic bird populations, estimate seroprevalence to selected disease agents, and describe health management practices on 62 premises containing "backyard" flocks located within one mile of 22 commercial california meat-turkey flocks participating in national animal health monitoring system (nahms). chickens were present on 56 backyard premises and turkeys on seven. antibodies were identified against mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. synoviae, m. mel ...19911854324
antibody responses to avian encephalomyelitis virus vaccines when administered by different routes.antibody responses to a commercial avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) vaccine administered by different routes were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). responses to single doses of vaccine administered by the ocular route to 10% of a flock were comparable with those obtained when all birds received a single dose in the drinking water. however, ocular vaccination of 5% of the flock resulted in significantly lower responses than those obtained when 10% were vaccinated. mater ...19921337695
viral encephalomyelitis of pigeons: pathology and virus isolation.a previously unrecorded nervous disease in pigeons was investigated. the disease, characterized by paresis, paralysis of the extremities, head-shaking, and torticollis, is contagious and spreads slowly. the mortality rate of affected pigeons was very high. the disease appeared to spread among pigeon flocks in spring and summer. the predominant gross change in most cases examined was congestion of the visceral organs. some cases had grayish spots on the pancreas and kidneys. the histologic change ...1979546402
the pathogenesis of infectious avian encephalomyelitis. 4. the effect of maternal antibody on the development of the disease.infectious avian encephalomyelitis virus (iaev) maternal antibody was detected in the serum of chickens for up to 21 days following hatching. this antibody protected chickens against clinical iae after intracerebral inoculation with van roekel strain or oral administration of the nsw-1 strain of iaev. maternal antibody to iaev also protected testosterone bursectomised chickens against the development of clinical disease. iaev maternal antibody also influeced the pattern of virus excretion in fae ...1978207260
the pathogenesis of infectious avian encephalomyelitis. 3. the relationship between viraemia, invasion of the brain by the virus, and the development of specific serum neutralising antibody.an association was demonstrated between the development of clinical infectious avian encephalomyelitis (iae), the persistence and titre of infectious avian encephalomyelitis virus (iaev) in the brain of the chicken, the duration of detectable viraemia and the age of the chicken at the time of infection with the virus. the older the chicken at the time of infection the milder the disease, the lower the virus titre in the brain and the shorter the period of viraemia. iaev serum neutralising antibo ...1978207259
the pathogenesis of infectious avian encephalomyelitis. 2. the effect of immunosuppression on the disease.normal chickens given infectious avian encephalomyelitis virus (iaev) orally at 1, 7 or 14 days of age developed infectious avian encephalomyelitis (iae), whereas those dosed with the virus at 21, 28 and 35 days of age did not. chickens in all of these age groups that had been treated with cyclophosphamide or testosterone developed clinical iae. intraperitoneal inoculation of iaev immunoglobulin at the time of dosing with the virus, or 48 hours later, protected normal and immunosuppressed chicke ...1978207258
the pathogenesis of infectious avian encephalomyelitis. 1. the effect of the age of the chicken and the route of administration of the virus.the age of the chicken at the time of infection with infectious avian encephalomyelitis virus (iaev) and the route of the administration of the virus had a marked effect on the development of the clinical disease. chickens given the virus by intramuscular, intraperitoneal and oral routes exhibited a decreased susceptibility to development of clinical disease with increasing age. irrespective of age, chickens were consistently susceptible to intracerebral inoculation of iaev. chickens infected wi ...1978207257
immunofluorescent study on egg-adapted avian encephalomyelitis virus infection in chickens.fluorescent antibody study showed persistent infection of egg-adapted avian encephalomyelitis virus in the central nervous system and pancreatic tissues of infected embryos and chickens hatched from them. the limited organ tropism of the egg-adapted virus in hatched chickens was in striking contrast to the systemic infection that occurs with a field strain. in chidkens orally infected with egg-adapted virus strains, transient infection of a few organs was found despite occurrence of viremia.1977202177
immunodiffusion test in avian encephalomyelitis. i. standardization of procedure and detection of antigen in infected chickens and embryos.the double immunodiffusion technique was applied to avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev). agar gel medium containing such a high concentration of nacl as 15% was more preferable for highly diluted quantities of reactants than any other nacl-containing medium. a single precipitin line appeared on the 1st to 7th days of diffusion at room temperature. the specificity of reaction between aev antigen and homologous immune chicken serum has been demonstrated by no cross reaction between heterologous vi ...1977199850
use of polyethylene glycol and fluorocarbon for the purification of avian encephalomyelitis virus.a simple method is described for isolating avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) from a bulk amount of proteins and lipids in a homogenate of infected whole chicken embryos. more than 90% of the virus in the homogenate was precipitated by 4% polyethylene glycol (peg), and the precipitate was free of approximately 90% of the total nonviral protein. when the homogenate was extracted with fluorocarbon, the aqueous fraction retained the full virus infectivity and about 70% of the protein but was free ...1977194574
susceptibility of chickens to avian encephalomyelitis virus. v. behavior of a field strain in laying hens.some 12-month-old laying hens were inoculated orally or subcutaneously with 10(4.7) eid50 of a field strain of avian encephalomyelitis virus. they were examined for propagation of the virus in the body at regular intervals of time. when two hens were sacrificed daily in the group of oral inoculation, the virus was found in liver, pancreas, and esophagus in both hens 1 day, in brain, lumbar part of the spinal cord, heart, spleen, pharynx, larynx, glandular stomach, muscle, and blood in one of the ...1976185530
serological evidence of avian encephalomyelitis virus and pasteurella multocida infections in free-range indigenous chickens in southern mozambique.a total of 398 serum samples from free-range indigenous chickens originating from four villages in southern mozambique were tested for the presence of avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) and pasteurella multocida (pm) antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kits. aev and pm antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed. the proportion of positive samples was very high: 59.5% (95% confidence interval (ci) 51.7-67.7%) for aev and 71.5% (95% ci 67.7-77.3%) for pm ...201728474290
susceptibility of chickens to avian encephalomyelitis virus. iii. behavior of the virus in growing chicks.a chick embryo-adapted strain of avian encephalomyelitis virus was inoculated subcutaneously and orally into 40-day-old (middle-aged) and 110-day-old (advanced-aged) chicks to examine the behavior of the virus in the chick body. in the middle-aged chicks, the virus appeared in the muscle at the site of inoculation, liver, spleen, pancreas, lumbar and cervical portions of the spinal cord, and brain 1 approximately 9 days after subcutaneous inoculation, and remained mostly in the central nervous s ...1976181677
emergence pattern of egg-adapted avian encephalomyelitis virus by alternating passage in chickens and embryos.the chance of inducing complete egg-adaptation was slight in alternating passage in chickens and embryos with chicken-brain-passaged viruses of wild avian encephalomyelitis viruses: egg-adaptation was accomplished by use of an incipient egg-adapting mutant, but failed with other passaged virus.1976180961
susceptibility of chickens to avian encephalomyelitis virus. ii. behavior of the virus in day-old chicks.the vr strain of avian encephalomyelitis virus, which had been adapted to embryonated hen's eggs, was inoculated into 2-day-old chicks by the subcutaneous route (10(2.5) approximately 10(3.0) eid50) or by the oral route (10(4.8) eid50). the chicks were examined chronologically for the distribution of the virus in the body. as a result, minute amounts of the virus were detected from the liver, spleen, pancreas, and muscle at the site of inoculation one day after inoculation and various amounts fr ...1976177891
avian encephalomyelitis virus in chicken pancreatic cell cultures.monolayer cell cultures consisting of epithelioid cells were made from pancreatic tissue of 10-to-13-day-old chicks. the maximum virus titer of the cell-culture fluid was obtained 8 days after inoculation with an embryo-adapted avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev). virus titers also increased in cell cultures inoculated with a chick-pancreas-passed aev or a field isolant. cell cultures inoculated with 3 strains of aev maintained virus titers of 10(2.9)-10(3.7) 50% embryo-infective doses/ml for 15 ...1975169803
development of a non-radioactive digoxigenin cdna probe for the detection of avian encephalomyelitis virus.a non-radioactive digoxigenin cdna probe for detection of avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) was developed. the cdna probe hybridized specifically with a fragment of vp1 gene of aev genome was found to be sensitive with as little as 10 pg target dna fragment in a sensitivity test. infected chicken embryos were strongly labelled by testing the probe against a range of aev strains, and no non-specific reaction was observed in non-infected chicken embryos as well as five other avian pathogenic vir ...200818393098
diseases and management of backyard chicken flocks in chitungwiza, zimbabwe.to gather information on backyard chicken flocks in chitungwiza, an urban center in zimbabwe, 85 flock owners were interviewed. the mean flock size was 53 birds (range 1-650), and most birds were kept for meat, for either domestic consumption or local sale. mean age at slaughter was 12.4 weeks (range 8-24). none of the owners vaccinated their birds, and reported mortality rates were high (mean 25%), most commonly being associated with diseases causing eye and respiratory problems. most owners co ...19947832719
an entero-like virus associated with the runting syndrome in broiler chickens.a small round unenveloped virus, 31 nm in diameter, and with no obvious surface structure, was identified during the first week of life in the gut contents of broiler chickens which later developed runting. this virus grew in the cytoplasm of the villous epithelial cells of the small intestine, with a predilection for the mid small intestine. broilers orally infected at 1 day old with a crude inoculum containing the small round virus and reovirus passed abnormal faeces, gained weight and feather ...198418766858
measurement of antibodies to infectious avian encephalomyelitis virus by elisa.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the measurement of antibody to avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) is described. the wells of microtitre trays were coated with antibody to aev, to which was bound a partially purified aev preparation as an immunosorbent. the assay described is specific, in that antibody activity was not detectable in specific-pathogen-free (spf) chickens except following inoculation with aev. inoculation of spf chickens with a number of other viruses did not indu ...198518766927
further evidence that the nucleic acid of avian encephalomyelitis virus consists of rna.the nucleic acid of the van roekel strain of avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) was determined to be rna, according to the inability of the nucleoside analog 5-bromo 2'-deoxyuridine (budr) to inhibit its growth in chicken embryo kidney cell cultures. the test was carried out using known dna and rna viruses as controls, and the results are consistent with classification of aev as a member of the family picornaviridae within the genus enterovirus.19921336656
detection of avian encephalomyelitis viral antigen with a monoclonal antibody.a monoclonal antibody (mab), designated vr9-1, prepared against avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) reacted with the embryo-adapted strain, van roekel, two vaccine and two field strains in indirect immunofluorescent and immunoperoxidase staining of frozen sections of chicken brain, chicken embryo fibroblast and brain cells inoculated with each virus. the mab was also used as a detector in avidin-biotin-peroxidase staining in paraffin sections where results indicate that it recognized a common ep ...199418671071
avian encephalomyelitis: a review.avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) is a picornavirus with a predilection for the central nervous system and other parenchymous organs of chickens that is transmitted by the oral-faecal route. the virus may be spread by the vertical and horizontal routes and, because of its great stability, contaminated areas may remain infectious for long periods. the egg-adapted van roekel strain is highly neurotropic and does not grow efficiently in the enteric tract of the chicken. despite this, the virion p ...199418671128
studies on the serological detection of antibodies to avian encephalomyelitis virus.an avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) antigen, prepared from the gastrointestinal tract of infected chick embryos and partially purified and concentrated by chloroform and polyethylene glycol treatments, exhibited the highest reactivity in the agar-gel precipitin test (agpt). antigen used in the passive haemagglutination test (phat) that was purified and concentrated yielded higher antibody titres than when untreated crude antigens were used. the use of the agpt, phat and embryo susceptibility ...198218770190
the vp1 protein of avian encephalomyelitis virus is a major host-protective immunogen that serves as diagnostic potential.avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) is an important pathogen of poultry and is classified as a member of picornaviridae. to investigate the protective immunity induced by aev structural proteins, recombinant vp1, vp0, and vp3 proteins were expressed in a baculovirus system. the result of in vivo protection assays shows that the vp1 protein is a major host-protective immunogen against aev challenge and demonstrates further that the antibody raised against vp1 protein could neutralize more effecti ...200818316131
field evaluation of maternal antibody transfer to a group of pathogens in meat-type chickens.this study was conducted to evaluate the rate of antibody transfer on a flock basis from hens to their day-old chicks in meat-type chickens raised in a commercial setting. fifteen randomly selected hens from a commercial broiler-breeder flock were bled at 37, 40, and 45 wk of age. at day of bleeding, the collected eggs were identified and tracked through hatching where 30 hatchlings were randomly sampled and bled from the jugular vein. antibodies against 10 different pathogens were quantified fr ...200818648048
isolation and characterisation of cytopathic avian enteroviruses from broiler chicks.cytopathic viruses were isolated from the faeces, pancreas and caecal contents of broiler chicks in two cases of a stunting syndrome. two representative strains, designated aaf7 and m-8, were identified as enteroviruses on the basis of their size (25 nm in diameter), rna in the viral core, virus growth in the cytoplasm, resistance to chloroform, trypsin and acid, and partial heat-stabilisation to molar magnesium chloride. they formed irregular plaques in chick kidney cell cultures. numerous gran ...198918679896
biological characterisation of avian enteroviruses and enterovirus-like viruses.the antigenic relationships and in vitro growth properties of 10 avian enteroviruses and enterovirus-like viruses were investigated. by cross-indirect immunofluorescence tests, six serogroups were identified. the lack of an antigenic relationship between viruses selected from three of these serogroups was confirmed by cross-neutralisation tests. most of the viruses grew poorly or not at all in a range of primary avian cell cultures, but the majority grew following inoculation of chick embryos vi ...199018679916
avian gyrovirus 2 and avirulent newcastle disease virus coinfection in a chicken flock with neurologic symptoms and high mortalities.a disease with severe neurologic symptoms caused 100% mortality in a small broiler operation in the gauteng province, south africa in late march 2013. routine diagnostic pcr testing failed to identify a possible cause of the outbreak; thus, samples were submitted for virus isolation, serology, and bacteriology. an avirulent newcastle disease virus (ndv) strain isolated was identified as a v4-like genotype 1 strain, by dna sequencing, with a cleavage site of 112gkqgr decrease l117. real-time reve ...201424758119
chickens host diverse picornaviruses originated from potential interspecies transmission with recombination.while chickens are an important reservoir for emerging pathogens such as avian influenza viruses, little is known about the diversity of picornaviruses in poultry. we discovered a previously unknown diversity of picornaviruses in chickens in hong kong. picornaviruses were detected in 87 cloacal and 7 tracheal samples from 93 of 900 chickens by reverse transcription-pcr, with their partial 3d(pol) gene sequences forming five distinct clades (i to v) among known picornaviruses. analysis of eight g ...201424906980
serological evidence of avian encephalomyelitis virus infection associated with vertical transmission in chicks.avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) can be transmitted both horizontally and vertically. in the present study, we report a typical case of aev infection in broiler breeder chickens and their progeny identified by clinical survey of the disease, antibody detection, and reverse transcription (rt)-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay.201526493005
effects of blood sample mishandling on elisa results for infectious bronchitis virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus and chicken anaemia virus.this study determined the effect of sample mishandling on the performance of elisas for detection of antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) and chicken anaemia virus (cav) in the serum of chickens. the effects of five different sample mishandling treatments were assessed: heat treatment, repetitive freezing and thawing and three levels of severity of haemolysis. these mishandling treatments simulated different conditions that might occur during ...201122015139
analysis of viral protein-2 encoding gene of avian encephalomyelitis virus from field specimens in central java region, indonesia.avian encephalomyelitis (ae) is a viral disease which can infect various types of poultry, especially chicken. in indonesia, the incidence of ae infection in chicken has been reported since 2009, the ae incidence tends to increase from year to year. the objective of this study was to analyze viral protein 2 (vp-2) encoding gene of ae virus (aev) from various species of birds in field specimen by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) amplification using specific nucleotides pri ...201627051180
avian encephalomyelitis virus in reared pheasants: a case study.an outbreak of neurological disease occurred in pheasant chicks on a game farm in 2007. the disease was first seen in the 10th hatching of chicks on the farm. affected chicks showed trembling and incoordination from the time of hatching, and subsequently blindness and cataract formation was seen in some of the affected chicks at 3 weeks of age. the peak mortality and culling figure was 21.0% in the worst affected hatch, compared with a maximum of 11.7% in the first nine hatches. no further cases ...200919468944
development, standardization and assessment of pcr systems for purity testing of avian viral vaccines.the european pharmacopoeia (ph. eur.) requires avian viral vaccines to be free of adventitious agents. purity testing is an essential quality requirement of immunological veterinary medicinal products (ivmps) and testing for extraneous agents includes monitoring for many different viruses. conventional virus detection methods include serology or virus culture, however, molecular tests have become a valid alternative testing method. nucleic acid testing (nat) is fast, highly sensitive and has a h ...201020338785
development of a sybr green real-time rt-pcr assay for the detection of avian encephalomyelitis virus.avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) causes epidemic diseases in poultry worldwide. a sybr green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr) assay was developed for the rapid detection and quantitation of aev in this study. a pair of specific primers was designed in the highly conserved vp1 gene of this virus. when comparing this assay with conventional rt-pcr, the rrt-pcr assay was 100 times more sensitive and could detect levels as low as 10 standard dna copies of the ae ...201424880065
evolution of avian encephalomyelitis virus during embryo-adaptation.wild-type avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) causes neurological signs in young chicks but no disease in pullets after oral or intracutaneous infection. however, if the virus gets embryo-adapted by serial passaging in chicken embryos, it will cause ae after intracutaneous infection in chickens of all ages. recently, several cases of ae in layer pullets occurring shortly after intracutaneous vaccination were described. the present investigation was initiated to determine if vaccines that had ina ...201728532787
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