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neurotropic velogenic newcastle disease in cormorants in michigan: pathology and virus characterization.excessive unexplained mortality was observed in flocks of double-crested cormorants located at snake island in green bay, michigan, in june 1992. clinical signs included weakness, lethargy, diarrhea, respiratory distress, paralysis of the wings and legs, torticollis, and incoordination. the most significant and consistent gross lesions included edema of the eyelids and periocular tissues, pulmonary edema and congestion, marked splenomegaly, hepatic necrosis, and scattered hemorrhages in visceral ...19947702523
characterization of newcastle disease virus isolates by reverse transcription pcr coupled to direct nucleotide sequencing and development of sequence database for pathotype prediction and molecular epidemiological analysis.degenerate oligonucleotide primers were synthesized to amplify nucleotide sequences from portions of the fusion protein and matrix protein genes of newcastle disease virus (ndv) genomic rna that could be used diagnostically. these primers were used in a single-tube reverse transcription pcr of ndv genomic rna coupled to direct nucleotide sequencing of the amplified product to characterize more than 30 ndv isolates. in agreement with previous reports, differences in the fusion protein cleavage se ...19958567895
influence of chicken breed on pathogenicity evaluation of velogenic neurotropic newcastle disease virus isolates from cormorants and turkeys.three isolates of newcastle disease virus (ndv) from cormorants and turkeys were classified as velogenic neurotropic ndv (vnndv) by standard pathotyping procedures in specific-pathogen-free white leghorn and white rock chickens. white leghorns inoculated by eye drop, cloaca, intravenous, or intracerebral routes had a higher frequency of nervous signs and mortality than was observed in similarly inoculated white rocks. two backpassages in white rocks increased the intravenous pathogenicity index ...19968713036
comparison of newcastle disease viruses isolated from cormorants in canada and the usa in 1975, 1990 and 1992.seventeen newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolates obtained from cormorants, turkeys, a pelican, and a gull in canada and the usa collected in 1975, 1990 and 1992 were analyzed for relatedness by monoclonal antibody profiling. in addition, nucleotide sequence analysis was performed in two areas of the fusion (f) gene for 5 of the isolates. no difference in the antigenicity of these 17 viruses, as determined by monoclonal antibody binding patterns, was seen. the amino acid sequences obtained via nu ...19968825994
analysis of matrix protein gene nucleotide sequence diversity among newcastle disease virus isolates demonstrates that recent disease outbreaks are caused by viruses of psittacine origin.nucleotide sequence analysis was completed for isolates of newcastle disease virus (ndv; avian paramyxovirus 1) from 1992 outbreaks in cormorants and turkeys. these isolates were of the neurotropic velogenic type. the cormorant and turkey ndv isolates had the fusion protein cleavage sequence 109srgrrqkr/fvg119, as opposed to the consensus sequence 109sggrrqkr/fig119 of most known velogenic ndv isolates. the r for g substitution at position 110 may be unique for the cormorant and turkey isolates. ...19958828148
diagnostic findings in the 1992 epornitic of neurotropic velogenic newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants from the upper midwestern united states.neurotropic velogenic newcastle disease (nvnd) occurred in juvenile double-crested cormorants, phalacrocorax auritus, simultaneously in nesting colonies in minnesota, north dakota, south dakota, and nebraska and in lakes michigan, superior, huron, and ontario during the summer of 1992. mortality as high as 80%-90% was estimated in some of the nesting colonies. clinical signs observed in 4- to 6-wk-old cormorants included torticollis, tremors, ataxia, curled toes, and paresis or weakness of legs, ...19979087334
phylogenetic relationships among highly virulent newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from exotic birds and poultry from 1989 to 1996.newcastle disease virus [ndv (avian paramyxovirus type 1 [apmv1])] isolates were recovered from imported exotic birds confiscated following importation into the united states, from waterbirds in the united states, and from poultry. the exotic birds probably originated from central and south america, asia, and africa. the ndv isolates were initially characterized as highly virulent because of a short mean death time in embryonated chicken eggs. the isolates were typed as neurotropic or viscerotro ...19989542957
an epidemic of newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants from saskatchewan.a newcastle disease epidemic in double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus) occurred in july and august 1995, during a 1994-96 study of a breeding colony of this species on doré lake (saskatchewan, canada). clinical signs and mortality were observed from a tunnel-and-blind system, and moribund and freshly dead birds were examined virologically. yolks from cormorant eggs and sera from cormorants and other birds were tested for hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies to newcastle disease viru ...19989706555
biological and molecular characterization of newcastle disease virus (ndv) field isolates with comparisons to reference ndv strains.fifty-seven newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolates from chickens, turkeys, a rhea, a parrot, and an anhinga were pathotyped and characterized by monoclonal antibody (mab) inhibition profile, elution rate, and hemagglutinin thermostability. nucleotide sequence analysis of portions of the fusion protein and matrix protein genes of the parrot isolate was done for comparison with prior sequence analysis of the anhinga isolate and ndv reference strains. seven of the 43 chicken isolates were recovered ...19989777151
pathology of newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants from saskatchewan, with comparison of diagnostic methods.newcastle disease (nd) in juvenile double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus) occurred several times since 1975, but there are relatively few studies on its pathology and diagnosis. in order to describe the distribution of newcastle disease virus (ndv) and associated lesions in cormorants with nd and to compare diagnostic methods, 25 cormorants with nervous signs from a nd epizootic in saskatchewan in 1995 (nde cormorants) were compared with 18 negative control cormorants. tissues of thes ...199910073341
the 1992 epizootic of newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants in north america.in the summer of 1992, morbidity and mortality in juvenile double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus; dcc) attributable to newcastle disease virus (ndv) was observed for the first time in seven northern usa states and one canadian province, and recurred in three western canadian provinces. based on clinical signs and laboratory diagnostic findings, dcc mortality from ndv occurred in 59 of the 63 nesting colonies and two of three non-colony sites investigated. an estimate of in excess of 2 ...199910231759
isolation of newcastle disease virus and salmonella typhimurium from the brain of double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus).avian paramyxovirus type 1 (newcastle disease virus) and salmonella typhimurium were isolated from the brain and lung tissues of double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus) from lac canard, alberta, canada. more than 100 birds died during this outbreak in 1999. affected birds presented signs of central nervous system disease characterized by unilateral wing and leg paralysis. other geographic locations in the provinces of alberta and saskatchewan have reported cases of cormorants suffering ...200111332490
newcastle disease virus in double-crested cormorants in alabama, florida, and mississippi.in order to understand the epidemiology of newcastle disease (nd) outbreaks in double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus), a study was conducted on wintering migratory cormorants (p. a. auritus) in alabama and mississippi (usa) and non-migratory cormorants (p. a. floridanus) that breed in florida (usa). antibodies against nd virus were detected by the hemagglutination-inhibition method in sera from 86 of 183 (47%) migratory cormorants over-wintering in eight roosting sites in alabama and ...200111763745
molecular characterization of avian paramyxovirus 1 isolates collected from cormorants in canada from 1995 to 2000.sequences encompassing cleavage sites of fusion protein genes were obtained for avian paramyxovirus 1 isolates from cormorants in canada. all isolates have the virulent cleavage site srgrrqkr*fvg. they form a distinct cluster within isolates obtained around the world and may represent a novel genotype closely related to genotype v.200312624068
wintering of neurotropic velogenic newcastle disease virus and west nile virus in double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus) from the florida keys.during november 2002, six double-crested cormorants (dccs; phalacrocorax auritus) were found moribund in big pine key, fl, exhibiting clinical signs indicative of neurologic disease. postmortem diagnostic evaluations were performed on two adult birds. virulent newcastle disease virus (ndv) was isolated from a cloacal swab from cormorant 1. west nile virus (wnv) was isolated from the brain and lung of cormorant 2. nucleotide sequence analysis of a portion of the fusion (f) protein gene of the ndv ...200516094838
hematology, plasma chemistry, and serology of the flightless cormorant (phalacrocorax harrisi) in the galapagos islands, ecuador.the flightless cormorant (phalacrocorax harrisi) is an endemic species of the galápagos islands, ecuador. health studies of the species have not previously been conducted. in august 2003, baseline samples were collected from flightless cormorant colonies on the islands of isabela and fernandina. seventy-six birds, from nestlings to adults, were evaluated. genetic sexing of 70 cormorants revealed 37 females and 33 males. hematology assessment consisted of packed cell volume (n=19), leukograms (n= ...200616699155
[molecular virological monitoring of newcastle disease virus strains (paramyxoviridae, avulavirus) in the populations of wild birds in the volga estuary (the 2001 data)].the paper analyzes the results of isolation of newcastle disease virus (ndv) strains from 336 swaps of 31 wild bird species collected in the 2001 summer in the volga estuary (astrakhan region). twenty-seven ndv strains were isolated from little terns (sterna albifrons) (n=11; infection rate, 24.4%), great cormorants (phalacrocorax carbo) (n=6; 11.1%), coots (fulica atra) (n=8; 6.5%), sandwich terns (sterna sandvicensis) (n=1; 100%), and common redshanks (tringa totanus) (n=1; 50.0%). four strain ...200617087063
newcastle disease in wild water birds in western canada, 1990.this report describes the investigation of mortality of double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus), white pelicans (pelecanus erythrorhynchos), and gulls (larus spp.) in alberta, saskatchewan, and manitoba during late summer 1990. techniques used varied among areas, but virological and histopathological examination of birds was done in each area. the major clinical sign in cormorants was inability to fly, often with unilateral wing or leg paralysis. focal nonsuppurative inflammation was p ...199317424240
excretion of pathogenic newcastle disease virus by double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus) in absence of mortality or clinical signs of disease.pathogenic newcastle disease virus (ndv) caused several epidemics of newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus) in recent years. eleven 16-week-old cormorants were infected with, or exposed to, pathogenic ndv from one of these epidemics and monitored for 70 days. no birds died, four birds had transient ataxia between 12 and 27 days post-infection (d.p.i.), and one bird had neuronal necrosis and non-suppurative encephalitis characteristic for newcastle disease. the mea ...199818484041
[isolation of influenza virus a (orthomyxoviridae, influenza a virus), dhori virus (orthomyxoviridae, thogotovirus), and newcastle's disease virus (paromyxoviridae, avulavirus) on the malyi zhemchuzhnyi island in the north-western area of the caspian sea].the paper presents the results of the 2003 and 2006 environmental virological monitoring surveys on the malyi zhemchuzhnyi island where a large breeding colony of sea gull (laridae) is located. in the past several years, expansion of cormorants (phalacrocorax carbo) has enhanced the intensity of populational interactions. the investigators isolated 13 strains of influenza a virus (orthomyxoviridae, influenza a virus) subtype h13n1 (from sea gulls (n = 4), cormorants (n = 9) 1 strain of dhori vir ...200818590134
genotyping of newcastle disease viruses isolated from 2001 to 2007 in japan.seventeen isolates of newcastle disease virus (ndv) were obtained from various prefectures in japan during the years 2001-2007 and were genotypically analyzed by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) method coupled with direct sequencing. these ndv isolates were classified into three genetic groups that had been reported previously, namely, genotypes i, vi and vii. the isolate from an aigamo duck was classified into genotype i with isolates mainly from waterfowl. all isola ...200919721367
evolutionary changes affecting rapid identification of 2008 newcastle disease viruses isolated from double-crested cormorants.a morbidity-mortality event involving virulent newcastle disease virus (ndv) in wild double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus) occurred in north america in the summer of 2008. all 22 viruses isolated from cormorants were positively identified by the usda-validated real-time reverse transcription-pcr assay targeting the matrix gene. however, the usda-validated reverse transcription-pcr assay targeting the fusion gene that is specific for virulent isolates identified only 1 of these 22 iso ...201020107098
clinicopathological characterization in poultry of three strains of newcastle disease virus isolated from recent outbreaks.newcastle disease is a severe threat to the poultry industry and is caused by newcastle disease virus, a member of the genus avulavirus, family paramyxoviridae. the virus is rapidly evolving, and several new genotypes have been discovered in the past few years. characterization of these strains is important to evaluate field changes, anticipate new outbreaks, and develop adequate control measures. three newcastle disease isolates (apmv-1/duck/vietnam, long bien/78/2002, apmv-1/chicken/australia/ ...201120685918
neurological lesions in chickens experimentally infected with virulent newcastle disease virus isolates.distribution, character, and severity of lesions were evaluated in tissues from the central nervous system of chickens inoculated with 10 different newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolates: ca 1083, korea 97-147, australia (all velogenic viscerotropic), texas gb and turkey north dakota (both velogenic neurotropic), nevada cormorant, anhinga and roakin (all mesogenic), and b1 and qv4 (lentogenic). tissues for the present study included archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain (all strains) ...201121500034
serosurvey for selected infectious agents in two sympatric species of cormorants (phalacrocorax atriceps and phalacrocorax magellanicus) from coastal patagonia, argentina.we conducted a serologic survey for selected infectious agents on two sympatric cormorants, the imperial cormorant (phalacrocorax atriceps) and the rock shag (phalacrocorax magellanicus). blood was collected from 267 imperial cormorants and 106 rock shags at 17 colonies along the patagonia atlantic shore during nine breeding seasons (1994, 1999-2001-2005-2008-2010). antibodies to four pathogens were common to both species and frequently observed: avian paramyxovirus type 1 (56% of imperial cormo ...201323778597
identification of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 in wild birds in the usa.in the us, sampling for avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (apmv-1) is generally conducted when morbidity or mortality events occur involving certain families of wild birds known to be affected by the virus, such as cormorants (family phalacrocoracidae), pigeons, doves (family columbidae), or pelicans (family pelecanidae). to quantify the prevalence of apmv-1 in apparently healthy wild birds and to determine its geographic distribution, we collected swab and serum samples from >3,500 wild birds, rep ...201627243153
temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (newcastle disease virus).newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (apmv-1) and has global economic importance. the disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the united kingdom and indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of apmv-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of ...201626792710
spatial and temporal patterns of avian paramyxovirus-1 outbreaks in double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus) in the usa.morbidity and mortality events caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 (apmv-1) in double-crested cormorant (dcco; phalacrocorax auritus) nesting colonies in the us and canada have been sporadically documented in the literature. we describe apmv-1 associated outbreaks in dcco in the us from the first reported occurrence in 1992 through 2012. the frequency of apmv-1 outbreaks has increased in the us over the last decade, but the majority of events have continued to occur in dcco colonies in the midwester ...201525390762
shedding of zoonotic pathogens and analysis of stomach contents in great cormorants (phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) from switzerland between 2007 and 2012.208 healthy great cormorants (phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) shot during 5 consecutive hunting seasons from 2007/2008 until 2011/2012 were tested for newcastle disease virus (apmv-1), avian influenza virus (aiv), chlamydiae, and salmonella spp. in addition, stomach contents were gross macroscopically examined. none of the birds was positive for apmv1, aiv or chlamydiae. twice salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium and once a rough mutant of salmonella typhimurium were found. stom ...201425082636
newcastle disease virus detection and differentiation from avian influenza.newcastle disease (nd) is a contagious and often fatal disease that affects over 250 bird species worldwide, and is caused by infection with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 (apmv-1) of the family paramyxoviridae, genus avulavirus. infections of poultry with virulent strains of apmv-1 (newcastle disease virus) are reportable to the world organization for animal health (oie). vaccination of poultry species is a key measure in the control of nd. other apmv-1 viruses of low virulence, whic ...201424899433
prevalence of avian paramyxovirus 1 and avian influenza virus in double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus) in eastern north america.although it is well established that wild birds, such as cormorants, carry virulent avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (apmv-1; causative agent of newcastle disease) and avian influenza virus (aiv), the prevalence of these viruses among double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus) in the great lakes region of north america has not been rigorously studied. we determined the prevalences of apmv-1 and aiv in double-crested cormorants from the interior population of eastern north america. from 2009 ...201324502724
epidemiological study of newcastle disease in backyard poultry and wild bird populations in switzerland.blood samples and cloacal swabs from poultry were collected in 107 small chicken flocks and 62 pure-bred poultry flocks to determine their status regarding newcastle disease virus (ndv) infection. a questionnaire emphasizing potential contacts of poultry with wild birds and management practices associated with ndv infection was completed for each flock. additionally, 1576 wild bird carcasses of 115 different bird species were collected from hunters and taxidermists. poultry sera and tissue fluid ...199926915382
characterization of newcastle disease viruses isolated from cormorant and gull species in the united states in 2010.newcastle disease virus (ndv), a member of the genus avulavirus of the family paramyxoviridae, is the causative agent of newcastle disease (nd), a highly contagious disease that affects many species of birds and which frequently causes significant economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. virulent ndv (vndv) is exotic in poultry in the united states; however, the virus has been frequently associated with outbreaks of nd in cormorants, which poses a significant threat to poultry species. ...201222545538
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