multiple forms of chromosome i, ii and v in a restricted population of leishmania infantum contrasting with monomorphism in individual strains suggest haploidy or automixy.we have resolved the molecular karyotypes of 22 leishmania infantum strains isolated between 1980 and 1988 in a restricted geographic area and belonging to zymodemes mon-11, -29 and -33. three strains were isolated from sandflies and all the others from human cutaneous lesions. a high degree of karyotypic homology is observed among these strains, contrasting with the highly polymorphic mon-1 strains isolated in the same area. we have analysed the time-dependent evolution of size variants of chro ...19921311052
serodiagnosis and screening of canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area of corsica: applicability of a direct agglutination test and immunoblot analysis.for effective control of visceral leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum in the mediterranean area, the detection of infected dogs is of utmost importance. to assess the suitability of a direct agglutination test (dat) and immunoblot analysis in serodiagnosis and screening of infected dogs under field conditions, a study was performed on 113 dogs in an endemic area of corsica. twenty one of 22 parasitologically confirmed cases were correctly diagnosed by both tests, and 100% specificity was ...19921471734
evidence of subjects sensitized to leishmania infantum on the french mediterranean coast: differences in gamma interferon production between this population and visceral leishmaniasis patients.the marseilles region is an endemic area for visceral mediterranean leishmaniasis, but although the number of dog cases, the parasite's main host, is very high, only a few people develop the disease. we looked for sensitized healthy subjects among 25 healthy individuals living in this area by studying their in vitro lymphoproliferative response to leishmania infantum antigens and gamma interferon synthesis. we found that 65% of tested subjects were sensitized against l. infantum. we compared the ...19911956699
introduction of an improved direct agglutination test for the detection of leishmania infantum infection in southern improved direct agglutination test (dat) is assessed for the detection of leishmania infantum antibodies in man and in the canine reservoir in southern france. the test performance in 32 human visceral leishmaniasis patients was in agreement with the parasitological diagnosis and the immunofluorescence (ifat) results. in six patients diagnosed earlier as kala-azar cases, both dat and ifat revealed negative results. the specificity of the dat was reproduced in this study by the absence of cros ...19902199962
[leishmania infantum mon-24 cutaneous leishmaniasis observed in grassa (alpes-maritimes) in a tunisian child]. 19892624379
the life expectancy of phlebotomine sandflies: first field estimates from southern france.1. a field study of phlebotomus ariasi tonnoir, the vector of leishmania infantum nicolle in southern france, addressed the following questions: is it possible to estimate reliably the life expectancy of this sandfly; can spatial or temporal variation in the life expectancy be detected, and is such variation significant for disease transmission? 2. life expectancy was estimated by examining follicular relics in the ovaries of more than ten thousand females caught in light traps at seven sites in ...19872979558
[ecology of leishmaniasis in the south of france. 21. influence of temperature on the development of leishmania infantum nicolle, 1908 in phlebotomus ariasi tonnoir, 1921. experimental study].the influence of temperature on the life-cycle of leishmania infantum nicolle, 1908 (isolated from a dog in the cévennes) in a known vector (phlebotomus ariasi tonnoir, 1921) was studied with special reference to the proportion of flies infected and the intensity and localization of parasites in the sandfly. wild female sandflies were caught at night by active searches and were put with a heavily infected dog in a mosquito net on the night of capture. on the following morning, engorged females w ...19854062175
[ecology of leishmaniasis in southern france. 18. enzymatic identification of leishmania infantum nicolle, 1908, isolated from phlebotomus ariasi tonnoir, 1921, spontaneously infected in the cévennes].out of 187 female phlebotomus ariasi caught in the cévennes focus of leishmaniasis 3 were found naturally infected with leishmania. the infection in one of the three had spread from the midgut to the pharynx and proboscis. stocks of leishmania were isolated from two of the flies and 8 isoenzymes were examined. the newly isolated parasites were found to be indistinguishable from zymodeme 1 of leishmania infantum s. st.19846486620
[leishmania infantum nicolle, 1908, the agent of the autochthonous oriental sore. apropos of the biochemical identification of 2 strains isolated in the eastern pyrenees].two strains of parasites isolated from cases of oriental sore in the pyrénées-orientales were identified by electrophoretic analysis of eight isoenzymes (pgm, pgi, g-6-pdh, 6-pgdh, idh, mdh, me and got). both strains were identical with leishmania infantum nicolle, 1908, which normally causes visceral leishmaniasis. it is probable that, in the mediterranean region, some cutaneous lesions observed within the area of visceral leishmaniasis are caused by this species rather than by leishmania tropi ...19806780226
leishmania-human immunodeficiency virus coinfection in the mediterranean basin: isoenzymatic characterization of 100 isolates of the leishmania infantum complex.isoenzymatic characterization was done on 100 isolates obtained from visceral leishmaniasis (vl) patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv); isolates had been received between 1986 and 1993 at the international leishmania cryobank and identification centre in montpellier, france. electrophoresis was done with 15 isoenzymes using the starch gel technique combined, where appropriate, with isoelectrofocusing. nine leishmania infantum zymodemes were identified; l. infantum zymodeme ...19957797943
use of the leishmanin skin test and western blot analysis for epidemiological studies in visceral leishmaniasis areas: experience in a highly endemic focus in alpes-maritimes (france).fifty unselected subjects living in alpes-maritimes, france, a high risk area for visceral leishmaniasis due to leishmania infantum, were examined simultaneously by the leishmanin skin test and the western blot technique in 1993; 32% and 38%, respectively, gave a positive reaction. the concordance of the 2 methods was 82%. thus, in this high risk area, a large proportion of inhabitants had been exposed to the parasite. the use of these 2 tests should permit the detection of potential cases of re ...19947886761
[childhood visceral leishmaniasis in the alpes-maritimes from 1985 to 1992].here, we present an analysis of clinical and biological data from 15 infantile visceral leishmaniasis recorded between 1985 and 1992 in the french department of alpes-maritimes. the association of fever, splenomegalia, tricytopenia remains the most constant and predictive of diagnosis (90% of cases). bone marrow smear affirms diagnosis in 93% of cases. leishmania infantum mon-1 is the causative agent. except for one case of advanced stade with severe hepatic lesions and one case of clinical resi ...19948061526
human visceral leishmaniasis in alpes-maritimes, france: epidemiological characteristics for the period 8 years (1985-1992), 65 cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (hvl) have been diagnosed in the department of alpes-maritimes, france, 56 of them having been infected locally. the annual frequency has increased from 3 cases in 1985 to 15 cases in 1992. there is a low rate of paediatric cases (29%) and a predominance of males among adult cases (85%). since 1986, 19 cases of co-infection with leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus 1 have been reported, corresponding to 40% of adult cases an ...19948153991
protection of dogs from bites of phlebotomine sandflies by deltamethrin collars for control of canine collars made of pvc plastic impregnated with the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin at 40 mg/g were investigated for their protective efficacy against phlebotomine sandflies. collared dogs were kept separately (two untreated control dogs lived together) in outdoor enclosures, each with a kennel, in the cévennes, southern france. to measure sandfly mortality and anti-feeding effects due to the deltamethrin-impregnated collars worn continuously by the dogs for up to 8 months, each dog was per ...19979226637
[leishmania infantum variant mon-24 isolated from a cutaneous lesion acquired in the suburban area of nice (france)].the authors describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the suburb area of nice (france). the parasite is identificated as leishmania infantum zymodeme mon-24. it is the first report of this dermotropic strain isolated from an autochtonous cutaneous lesion in france.19949235200
rapid identification of causative species in patients with old world leishmaniasis.conventional methods for the identification of species of leishmania parasite causing infections have limitations. by using a dna-based alternative, the present study tries to develop a new tool for this purpose. thirty-three patients living in marseilles (in the south of france) were suffering from visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis. dna of the parasite in clinical samples (bone marrow, peripheral blood, or skin) from these patients were amplified by pcr and were directly sequenced. the sequen ...19979316906
disseminated feline leishmaniosis due to leishmania infantum in southern france.a fortuitously discovered case of feline leishmaniosis is reported. the parasites were found in the skin and the bone marrow of a domestic female cat that spontaneously died after a few weeks of evolution. serological tests for felv, fiv and pif virus detection gave negative results. by using western blot serology, a characteristic pattern of leishmaniosis was obtained and by performing an isoenzyme electrophoresis, a leishmania infantum mon-1 strain was identified. the same zymodeme is implicat ...19989637231
occurrence of leishmania infantum parasitemia in asymptomatic blood donors living in an area of endemicity in southern france.visceral leishmaniosis (vl) due to leishmania infantum (l. chagasi) is a lethal disease if untreated, but asymptomatic l. infantum infections have been reported previously. a better understanding of parasite transmission, dissemination, and survival in the human host is needed. the purpose of this study was to assess whether l. infantum circulated in peripheral blood of subjects with no history of vl. sera from 565 blood donors were screened by western blotting to detect leishmania-specific anti ...199910325353
[first case of cutaneous leishmaniasis from leishmania infantum in corsica].canine leishmaniasis is endemic in corsica. sporadic cases of visceral leishmaniasis due to leishmania infantum have been reported in humans, but no case of cutaneous leishmaniasis has been reported to date. in august 1994, a 42-year-old woman living in orleans (france) presented with two nodular lesions on the face. these lesions appeared two months after a stay near the gulf of ajaccio in corsica. histopathological examination revealed intracellular amastigotes. the culture isolate was identif ...199810399697
[confirmation of leishmania infantum mon-24, agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern france].leishmania infantum mon-24, an agent causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has only been reported once in southern france. the authors report an additional case which confirms the presence of this zymodeme as agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in this area. treatment with a single course of liposomal amphotericine b did not show convincing efficacy.200111346974
[imported cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum confirmed with immunoassay].localized cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired in france is rarely reported. diagnosis usually relies on detection of leishmania on smears or by culture.200111907968
practical approach for typing strains of leishmania infantum by microsatellite analysis.currently the universally accepted standard procedure for characterizing and identifying strains of leishmania is isoenzyme analysis. however, in the mediterranean area, despite their very wide geographical distribution, most leishmania infantum strains belong to zymodeme mon-1. in order to increase our understanding of polymorphism in strains of l. infantum, we developed pcr assays amplifying 10 microsatellites and sequenced pcr products. the discriminative power of microsatellite analysis was ...200212202583
genomic polymorphism of leishmania infantum: a relationship with clinical pleomorphism?leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of visceral (vl) and a cutaneous form (cl) of leishmaniasis around the mediterranean basin. in order to document the parasite genetic background corresponding to this clinical diversity, chromosome size polymorphism was analysed in 32 french isolates (18 cl and 14 vl) originating from the cévennes and the pyrénées orientales (po), and corresponding to zymodemes mon-1 and mon-29. five chromosomes bearing tandemly repeated genes encoding for important a ...200112798050
the identification and variability of the parasites causing leishmaniasis in hiv-positive patients in italy.between 1988 and 1998, 258 leishmania strains from patients infected with hiv were characterized by iso-enzyme electrophoresis at the istituto superiore di sanità (iss) in rome. most (227) of the isolates came from 80 italian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (vl), the rest from cases of leishmania/hiv co-infection in other mediterranean countries. every strain was found to be leishmania infantum. in italy, 19 zymodemes of l. infantum were identified, broadly divided into three groups. over 5 ...200314678634
isoenzymatic analysis of 712 strains of leishmania infantum in the south of france and relationship of enzymatic polymorphism to clinical and epidemiological the south of france, leishmaniasis due to leishmania infantum occurs in the following five foci of endemicity (from west to east): pyrénées-orientales, cévennes, provence, côte d'azur, and corsica. between 1981 and 2002, 712 leishmania strains obtained from humans, dogs, cats, and sand flies were studied by isoenzyme analysis. in total, seven zymodemes were identified: mon-1, mon-11, mon-24, mon-29, mon-33, mon-34, and mon-108. the pyrénées-orientales focus is characterized by a predominance ...200415364993
postglacial dispersal of phlebotomus perniciosus into france.phlebotomus perniciosus was identified morphologically in samples from france and northeast spain, and individuals were then characterized at three polymorphic isoenzyme loci (by isoelectrofocusing) and at the mitochondrial dna locus (by comparative dna sequence analysis of a fragment of the cytochrome b gene). the four polymorphic loci gave conflicting patterns of population relationships, which can be explained by hypothesizing different amounts of gene introgression at each locus when two dis ...200516402559
first report of leishmania infantum in french guiana: canine visceral leishmaniasis imported from the old world.the first two cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis in french guiana are described. one infected dog was most probably imported from france. a second dog was then infected with leishmania infantum in french guiana. these observations exemplify the intercontinental transportation theory for l. infantum.200616517909
[visceral leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent subject, acquired in the pyrenees region].visceral leishmaniasis can develop in immunocompetent subjects exposed to a risk of infestation during physical activities outdoors.200616783261
[mediterranean leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum. update on the utility of the it-leish and id-pagia leishmaniasis tests].the purpose of this article is to update information about mediterranean leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum in man and about the canine reservoir. special emphasis is placed on laboratory diagnosis tests for mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis (mvl) in humans. in addition two rapid diagnostic tests for human leishmaniasis are compared based on indirect immunofluorescence and western blot. findings show that the overall sensitivity of the two tests in immunocompetent and immunodepressed ...200717506280
a century of leishmaniasis in alpes-maritimes, france.a century of publications on leishmaniasis in alpes-maritimes, in southern france, is here reviewed. autochtonous human and canine leishmaniasis were first recognised in this département, which lies by the mediterranean sea and near the italian border, in 1918 and 1925, respectively. the parasite responsible for the leishmaniasis, leishmania infantum, is transmitted by phlebotomus perniciosus and p. ariasi. the human leishmaniasis is zoonotic, with domestic dogs acting as the main 'reservoir' ho ...200717877875
the potential effects of global warming on changes in canine leishmaniasis in a focus outside the classical area of the disease in southern 1994, an ecoepidemiologic study was carried out in the mid-ariège valley (french pyrenees) where autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniasis had been previously reported. serologic samples were collected from 336 dogs in two groups of villages. the seroprevalences were 11.67% in the valley villages and only 1.43% in the foothill villages. five lymph node biopsies were taken from serologically positive dogs, and resultant isolates were identified as leishmania infantum zymodeme mon-1. phleboto ...200919271999
canine leishmaniasis in south-east of france: screening of leishmania infantum antibodies (western blotting, elisa) and parasitaemia levels by pcr quantification.leishmania infantum leishmaniasis is endemic in south-east of france. the main goal of our study was to evaluate the real prevalence of asymptomatic carriage in dogs by means of real time quantitative pcr (qpcr) and serology. we included prospectively 140 military dogs wearing deltamethrine-impregnated collars. parasitaemia levels were then measured by means of quantitative real time pcr targeting kinetoplast dna with taqman chemistry. elisa and western blotting (wb) were used for serological sc ...200919720466
leishmania infantum: lipophosphoglycan intraspecific variation and interaction with vertebrate and invertebrate hosts.interspecies variations in lipophosphoglycan (lpg) have been the focus of intense study over the years due its role in specificity during sand fly-leishmania interaction. this cell surface glycoconjugate is highly polymorphic among species with variations in sugars that branch off the conserved gal(β1,4)man(α1)-po(4) backbone of repeat units. however, the degree of intraspecies polymorphism in lpg of leishmania infantum (syn. leishmania chagasi) is not known. in this study, intraspecific variati ...201021118695
mucosal leishmania infantum leishmaniasis: specific pattern in a multicentre survey and historical cases.leishmania infantum mucosally restricted leishmaniasis was rarely reported, so that diagnostic and treatment strategies remain debated. a long-term multicentric survey appeared thereby necessary.201121658772
integrated mapping of establishment risk for emerging vector-borne infections: a case study of canine leishmaniasis in southwest france.zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the mediterranean basin, where the dog is the main reservoir host. the disease's causative agent, leishmania infantum, is transmitted by blood-feeding female sandflies. this paper reports an integrative study of canine leishmaniasis in a region of france spanning the southwest massif central and the northeast pyrenees, where the vectors are the sandflies phlebotomus ariasi and p. perniciosus.201121857899
Epidemiologic relationship between Toscana virus infection and Leishmania infantum due to common exposure to Phlebotomus perniciosus sandfly vector.Sand flies are recognised vectors of parasites in the genus Leishmania and a number of arthropod-borne viruses, in particular viruses within the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. In southern France, Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV) is recognized as a prominent cause of summer meningitis. Since Leishmania and TOSV have a common vector (Phlebotomus perniciosus), an epidemiologic link has been assumed for a long time. However, there is no scientific evidence of such a link between human leishmanios ...201121949894
ecology of leishmaniasis in the south of france. 22. reliability and representativeness of 12 phlebotomus ariasi, p. perniciosus and sergentomyia minuta (diptera: psychodidae) sampling stations in vallespir (eastern french pyrenees region).this study was conducted around céret (pyrénées-orientales, mean elevation 200 m) to test the statistical reliability of 12 stations devoted to sampling the leishmania infantum vectors phlebotomus ariasi and p. perniciosus in the south of france. each station included a retaining wall and the surrounding phytoecological environment (total area: 2,000 m(2)). the wall had rectangular drainage cavities (weep holes) in which flight interception traps (sticky paper) were inserted and stretched every ...201324112589
genetic diversity and population structure of leishmania infantum from southeastern france: evaluation using multi-locus microsatellite the south of france, leishmania infantum is responsible for numerous cases of canine leishmaniasis (canl), sporadic cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and rare cases of cutaneous and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl and mcl, respectively). several endemic areas have been clearly identified in the south of france including the pyrénées-orientales, cévennes (ce), provence (p), alpes-maritimes (am) and corsica (co). within these endemic areas, the two cities of nice (am) and marseille (p ...201626808522
heterogeneity of environments associated with transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in south-eastern france and implication for control strategies.visceral leishmaniasis due to leishmania infantum is currently spreading into new foci across europe. leishmania infantum transmission in the old world was reported to be strongly associated with a few specific environments. environmental changes due to global warming or human activity were therefore incriminated in the spread of the disease. however, comprehensive studies were lacking to reliably identify all the environments at risk and thereby optimize monitoring and control strategy.201222880142
visceral leishmaniasis due to leishmania infantum in a kidney transplant recipient living in france. 201525487142
new microsatellite markers for multi-scale genetic studies on phlebotomus ariasi tonnoir, vector of leishmania infantum in the mediterranean area.the population structure of phlebotomus ariasi, a proven vector of leishmania infantum in the mediterranean area, is still poorly understood. previously, only two microsatellite loci had been developed to study the population genetics of this species. herein we use these loci and determined fourteen novel microsatellite loci, useful for the characterization of p. ariasi populations. these loci were tested on three populations of p. ariasi, two from france and one from portugal. in addition, the ...201525447832
visceral leishmaniasis due to leishmania infantum with renal involvement in hiv-infected patients.we describe histological, clinical findings and outcomes of renal involvement during leishmania infantum infection in four hiv-infected patients in south france and north italy hospital settings.201425358548
heterogeneity of molecular resistance patterns in antimony-resistant field isolates of leishmania species from the western mediterranean area.antimonials remain the first-line treatment for the various manifestations of leishmaniasis in most areas where the disease is endemic, and increasing cases of therapeutic failure associated with parasite resistance have been reported. in this study, we assessed the molecular status of 47 clinical isolates of leishmania causing visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis from algeria, tunisia, and southern france. in total, we examined 14 genes that have been shown to exhibit significant variations in ...201424913173
a twenty-year follow-up of canine leishmaniosis in three military kennels in southeastern france.canine leishmaniosis (canl) is enzootic in southeastern france, and military working dogs (mwd) posted in this area are highly exposed. to assess the efficiency of prevention, we performed a serological and clinical follow-up of 80 mwd in the var and corsica regions during the 20-year period from 1993 to 2012. the systematic and specific prevention of canl using a deltamethrin-impregnated collar (dmc) was implemented in 2002.201324499552
[chronic facial ulceration in france and potential involvement of leishmania infantum cutaneous leishmaniasis].in france, cutaneous leishmaniasis is frequently seen in patients returning from north africa or south america. autochthonous leishmaniasis due to leishmania infantum causes rather visceral forms. nevertheless, cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by this parasite is occasionally seen in immunocompetent patients who have never been outside france.201324206806
detection of leishmania in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from southeastern france using real-time quantitative pcr.the role of red foxes in the natural cycle of leishmania infection is not well known. in the var area, southeastern france, from 2006 to 2012, we conducted a longitudinal epidemiologic survey of foxes using quantitative pcr. among 92 red foxes screened, prevalence of leishmania infantum infection was 9%. red foxes may be considered a bioindicator of parasite circulation in this biotope.201424171581
presence of sandflies infected with leishmania infantum and massilia virus in the marseille urban area.leishmaniasis is considered a rural disease in europe. however, circumstantial evidence has indicated urban transmission of leishmaniasis and phleboviruses in the urban area of marseille, france. to investigate this urban transmission, sandflies were trapped in 33 locations in the urban area (horse farms, public gardens and a residential area). sandflies were always captured: 87.8% were phlebotomus perniciosus, a vector of leishmania infantum and toscana and massilia viruses. rt-pcr and cell cul ...201424107240
[epidemiology of autochthonous leishmaniases in france].leishmania infantum is the only species occurring in metropolitan france; located in the mediterranean part of the country, it is responsible for a highly enzootic canine disease, while the human endemicity is low, with about 23 cases yearly reported to the national reference centre of leishmaniases, mainly visceral forms. in french guyana, five leishmania species occur in the amazonian forest, of which l. guyanensis is the predominant species, and l. braziliensis is responsible for the most cri ...201323886932
surveillance of leishmaniases in france, 1999 to 2012.leishmaniasis is endemic in the south of france, where autochthonous disease is caused by leishmania infantum, and affects both humans and dogs. the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis is between 3 and 66% depending on the region and the methods used. human leishmaniases are also imported into france, mainly from french guiana and north africa. the surveillance of autochthonous and imported human leishmaniases is based on passive notification to the national reference centre for leishmaniases (nr ...201323929121
parasitic genotypes appear to differ in leishmaniasis patients compared with asymptomatic related carriers.for numerous infectious diseases affecting humans, clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic forms to severe pathologies. the originality of this study was its focus on asymptomatic carriers of leishmania infantum in southern france. the fundamental interest in these asymptomatic carriers is that they can be a reservoir of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. it remains to be established whether the parasitic genomes from asymptomatic carriers differ from those of patients. multilocus mi ...201323380201
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