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low infectiousness of a wildlife host of leishmania infantum: the crab-eating fox is not important for transmission.the epidemiological role of the crab-eating fox cerdocyon thous in the transmission of leishmania infantum is assessed in a longitudinal study in amazon brazil. a total of 37 wild-caught foxes were immunologically and clinically monitored, and 26 foxes exposed to laboratory colonies of the sandfly vector lutzomyia longipalpis, over a 15-month period. in total 78% (29/37) of foxes were seropositive for anti-leishmania igg on at least 1 occasion, and 38% (8/37) had infections confirmed by pcr and/ ...200212458824
complete conservation of an immunogenic gene (lcr1) in leishmania infantum and leishmania chagasi isolated from iran, spain and brazil.kala-azar is the visceral and most severe form of leishmaniasis that leads to death if untreated. the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) are members of leishmania (l.) donovani complex which includes l. chagasi and l. infantum. genome sequences have raised the question whether l. chagasi and l. infantum are synonymous or different. this question has important implications for clinical and epidemiological studies, evaluation of vaccines and drugs, and disease control. lcr1 is an immu ...201021178212
Importance of worldwide asymptomatic carriers of Leishmania infantum (L. chagasi) in human.Leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) infection is a zoonotic disease present mainly in Mediterranean basin, central Asia and Brazil. Besides a limited number of human cases of clinical visceral leishmaniasis, a great number of infections remains asymptomatic. In this review, the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of L. infantum was evaluated worldwide using parasitological methods or indirect testing such as a skin test or serology. The consequences of the presence of asym ...201121679680
detection of leishmania (leishmania) infantum rna in fleas and ticks collected from naturally infected dogs.the occurrence of the insect vector (sand flies) with low rates of leishmania infection, as well as autochthonous transmission in the absence of the natural vector in dogs, have been reported. these unexpected data suggest a hypothesis of other arthropods as a possible way of leishmania transmission. the prevalence of leishmania (leishmania) infantum in fleas and ticks collected from dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl), as well as parasite viability, were evaluated herein. the presence ...201121221638
leishmania infantum: lipophosphoglycan intraspecific variation and interaction with vertebrate and invertebrate hosts.interspecies variations in lipophosphoglycan (lpg) have been the focus of intense study over the years due its role in specificity during sand fly-leishmania interaction. this cell surface glycoconjugate is highly polymorphic among species with variations in sugars that branch off the conserved gal(β1,4)man(α1)-po(4) backbone of repeat units. however, the degree of intraspecies polymorphism in lpg of leishmania infantum (syn. leishmania chagasi) is not known. in this study, intraspecific variati ...201021118695
thrichomys laurentius (rodentia; echimyidae) as a putative reservoir of leishmania infantum and l. braziliensis: patterns of experimental infection.the importance of the genus thrichomys in the retention of infection and transmission of leishmania species is supported by previous studies that describe an ancient interaction between caviomorphs and trypanosomatids and report the natural infection of thrichomys spp. moreover, these rodents are widely dispersed in brazil and recognized as important hosts of other tripanosomatids. our main purpose was to evaluate the putative role of thrichomys laurentius in the retention of infection and ampli ...201020126407
a long-lasting topical deltamethrin treatment to protect dogs against visceral leishmaniasis.to develop long-lasting, topical pour-on insecticides for dogs to control zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, two deltamethrin-based formulations (emulsifiable concentrate [ec] and suspension concentrate [sc]) were tested for their efficacy against the phlebotomine sandfly lutzomyia longipalpis lutz & neiva (diptera: psychodidae), vector of leishmania infantum nicolle (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae). the entomological outcomes tested were anti-feeding effect (proportion of female sandflies unfed ...200919712155
distinct antigen recognition pattern during zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in humans and dogs.leishmania infantum is a causative agent of endemic zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in regions of south america and the mediterranean. dogs are the major reservoirs for l. infantum in these regions, and control of disease in dogs could have a significant impact on human disease. although dogs share many symptoms of vl with humans as a result of l. infantum infection, they also show some unique clinical manifestations, which are often a combination of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, su ...200919059724
vaccination with plasmid dna encoding kmpii, tryp, lack and gp63 does not protect dogs against leishmania infantum experimental challenge.vaccination of dogs, the domestic reservoir of leishmania infantum, is the best method for controlling zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. this strategy would reduce the incidence of disease in both the canine and, indirectly, the human population. different vaccination approaches have been investigated against canine leishmaniasis (cal) but to date there is only one licensed vaccine against this disease in dogs, in brazil. dna immunization is a promising method for inducing both humoral and cellul ...200717942199
detection of leishmania infantum by pcr, serology and cellular immune response in a cohort study of brazilian dogs.the sensitivity and specificity of pcr, serology (elisa) and lymphoproliferative response to leishmania antigen for the detection of leishmania infantum infection were evaluated in a cohort of 126 dogs exposed to natural infection in brazil. for pcr, leishmania dna from bone-marrow was amplified with both minicircle and ribosomal primers. the infection status and time of infection of each dog were estimated from longitudinal data. the sensitivity of pcr in parasite-positive samples was 98%. howe ...200111289062
mediterranean leishmaniasis in hiv-infected patients: epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic features of 22 cases.twenty-two italian hiv-infected patients developed leishmaniasis, clinically manifested as visceral (13 cases), cutaneous (2 cases) and disseminated disease (7 cases). twenty were males and two females (mean age: 32.8 years) with a mean cd4+ cell count of 46.8/microliter at diagnosis; risk factors were intravenous drug use (17 patients) and sexual behaviour (two bisexual, two homosexual, one heterosexual). all but one patient lived or travelled in hypoendemic italian regions and other mediterran ...19989561378
kdna genetic signatures obtained by lssp-pcr analysis of leishmania (leishmania) infantum isolated from the new and the old world.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) caused by species from the leishmania donovani complex is the most severe form of the disease, lethal if untreated. vl caused by leishmania infantum is a zoonosis with an increasing number of human cases and millions of dogs infected in the old and the new world. in this study, l. infantum (syn. l.chagasi) strains were isolated from human and canine vl cases. the strains were obtained from endemic areas from brazil and portugal and their genetic polymorphism was ascer ...201222912862
leishmania infantum infection in blood donors, northeastern brazil. 201626982482
low parasite load estimated by qpcr in a cohort of children living in urban area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in brazil.an important issue associated with the control of visceral leishmaniasis is the need to identify and understand the relevance of asymptomatic infection caused by leishmania infantum. the aim of this study was to follow the course of asymptomatic l. infantum infection in children in an area of brazil where it is endemic. the children were assessed twice during a 12-month period.201223272263
feeding preferences of lutzomyia longipalpis (diptera: psychodidae), the sand fly vector, for leishmania infantum (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae).leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in brazil, is spread mostly by the bite of the sand fly lutzomyia longipalpis (lutz & neiva). we trapped sand flies in endemic neighborhoods near natal, brazil, where cases of human and dog vl were documented. amplification of species-specific cytochrome b (cyt b) genes by polymerase chain reaction revealed that sand flies from rural and periurban areas harbored blood from different sources. the most common source ofbloodmea ...024605474
an assessment of the genetic diversity of leishmania infantum isolates from infected dogs in brazil.correlations between the genetic diversity of leishmania infantum (syn. l. chagasi) isolates and their respective geographic origins support the theoretic assumption that visceral leishmaniasis probably originated in the old world. because dogs are widely considered to be the main reservoir of this disease, the present study aimed to investigate the degree of genetic divergence among 44 leishmanial canine isolates from two brazilian cities, jequié and campo grande, located approximately 2,028 km ...022556077
an integrated approach using spatial analysis to study the risk factors for leishmaniasis in area of recent transmission.some epidemiological aspects of leishmaniasis in the municipality of formiga, brazil, an important touristic site, were evaluated. those included phlebotomine sand fly vectors, canine infection, and geoprocessing analysis for determining critical transmission areas. sand flies (224 insects) belonging to ten different species were captured. the most captured species included lutzomyia longipalpis (35.3%), lutzomyia cortelezzii (33.5%), and lutzomyia whitmani (18.3%). a significant correlation bet ...201526229961
molecular detection of leishmania in phlebotomine sand flies in a cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in northeastern brazil.several phlebotomine sand fly species have been regarded as putative or proven vectors of parasites of the genus leishmania in brazil, but data for the northeastern region remains incipient. in this study, a total of 600 phlebotomine sand flies were grouped in pools of 10 specimens each and tested by a leishmania genus-specific pcr and by a pcr targeting leishmania (leishmania) infantum. fourteen out of 60 pools were positive by the genus-specific pcr, being five pools of l. migonei, seven of l. ...025076439
detection of leishmania infantum in rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from brazil and italy.canine leishmaniosis is a widespread disease caused by leishmania parasites, which are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. however, in some areas where canine leishmaniosis is endemic, but the primary vectors have not been found, ticks have been suspected to play a role in transmitting the infection. herewith, we report the detection of leishmania infantum kinetoplast minicircle dna (kdna) in ticks collected from naturally infected dogs living in rural areas of southern italy (site a) and no ...201020127362
risk factors for seroconversion by leishmania infantum in a cohort of dogs from an endemic area of brazil.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) has recently emerged in various urban and peri-urban areas of brazil and other countries. understanding the urbanization of vl requires identification of risk factors associated with human and canine infection. to determine the predictors of risk for canine vl, a survey was conducted of 1,443 dogs, from which a cohort was selected (n = 455) and evaluated for approximately 26 months. serology was conducted with two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa): one conduc ...201323990996
evaluation of miltefosine for the treatment of dogs naturally infected with l. infantum (=l. chagasi) in brazil.dogs naturally infected with leishmania infantum (=l. chagasi) were treated with miltefosine using different therapeutic regimens. the animals were evaluated for clinical evolution, biochemical parameters, parasite load (by real-time pcr), cytokine levels and humoral response. after treatment and during the following 24 months, there was progressive clinical improvement and complete recovery in 50% (7/14) of the treated animals. there was a decrease in the smear positivity of the bone marrow aft ...201121641721
selection of appropriate serological tests to measure the incidence of natural leishmania infantum infection during dna/mva prime/boost canine vaccine trials.in response to the increasing need for field trials of experimental dna vaccines against zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in dogs, our aim was to validate the use of elisa protocols which will be suitable for detection of natural infection in vaccinated dogs. we have previously demonstrated that dna/modified vaccinia virus ankara (mva) vaccine expressing tryparedoxin peroxidase (tryp) induced high titres of tryp antigen-specific igg in immunized dogs. here we report our findings that seroconversi ...200919386420
expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 9 in cells of dog jejunum and colon naturally infected with leishmania infantum.infection with parasite protozoa is a long-term health issue in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. the toll-like receptor (tlr) signaling pathway is one of the first-responding defense systems against leishmania. the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of tlr2 and tlr9 in jejunum and colon and its correlation with cd11c, cd11b, and cd14 receptors used as markers for dendritic cells and macrophages.201323668673
heterogeneities in leishmania infantum infection: using skin parasite burdens to identify highly infectious dogs.the relationships between heterogeneities in host infection and infectiousness (transmission to arthropod vectors) can provide important insights for disease management. here, we quantify heterogeneities in leishmania infantum parasite numbers in reservoir and non-reservoir host populations, and relate this to their infectiousness during natural infection. tissue parasite number was evaluated as a potential surrogate marker of host transmission potential.201424416460
domestic swine in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area produce antibodies against multiple leishmania infantum antigens but apparently resist to l. infantum infection.in order to investigate whether pigs can be infected by leishmania infantum, a serological and parasitological study was carried out on swine in the jequié municipality, northeast of brazil. anti-leishmania infantum antibodies were detected in 37 out of 92 swine (40.2%), by two different assays: an anti-l. infantum lysate and an anti-k39 recombinant protein elisa. an experimental study was also carried out to verify the susceptibility of domestic pigs to l. infantum infection. three sows inocula ...200616730628
visceral leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum in a spanish patient in argentina: what is the origin of the infection? case report.the question "where have you been?" is a common one asked by doctors in northern europe and america when faced with clinical symptoms not typical of their country. this question must also arise in the clinics of developing countries in which non-autochthonous cases such as the one described here can appear. important outbreaks of leishmania infantum have been recorded in the last decade in several latin american countries but its presence has not yet been recorded in argentina. we report the fir ...200415225352
coinfection of leishmania chagasi with toxoplasma gondii, feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and feline leukemia virus (felv) in cats from an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.the aim of the present study was to determine the coinfection of leishmania sp. with toxoplasma gondii, feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and feline leukemia virus (felv) in a population of cats from an endemic area for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. an overall 66/302 (21.85%) cats were found positive for leishmania sp., with infection determined by direct parasitological examination in 30/302 (9.93%), by serology in 46/302 (15.23%) and by both in 10/302 (3.31%) cats. real time pcr followed ...201222285010
cytokine gene expression in the tissues of dogs infected by leishmania infantum.canine leishmaniosis (canl) caused by the protozoan parasite leishmania infantum is a chronic systemic disease that is endemic in certain parts of the world. the domestic dog is the most important reservoir of l. infantum and is the main source of infection for other animals and for the human population. the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the level of expression of genes encoding particular cytokines (interleukin [il]-12, interferon [ifn]-γ, il-2 and il-4) in different tissues and ...201121511273
drug susceptibility of leishmania infantum (syn. leishmania chagasi) isolates from brazilian hiv-positive and hiv-negative patients. 201121393233
vaccination using live attenuated leishmania donovani centrin deleted parasites induces protection in dogs against leishmania infantum.live attenuated leishmania donovani parasites such as ldcen(-/-) have been shown elicit protective immunity against leishmanial infection in mice and hamster models. previously, we have reported on the induction of strong immunogenicity in dogs upon vaccination with ldcen(-/-) including an increase in immunoglobulin isotypes, higher lymphoproliferative response, higher frequencies of activated cd4(+) and cd8(+) t cells, ifn-γ production by cd8(+) t cells, increased secretion of tnf-α and il-12/i ...201525475955
bone marrow parasite burden among patients with new world kala-azar is associated with disease severity.kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis, found mostly throughout the indian subcontinent, east africa, and brazil, kills 20,000-40,000 persons annually. the agents, leishmania donovani and leishmania infantum, are obligatory intracellular protozoa of mononuclear phagocytes found principally in the spleen and bone marrow. protracted fever, anemia, wasting, hepatosplenomegaly, hemorrhages, and bacterial co-infections are typical features. one hundred and twenty-two (122) in-hospital patients were stud ...201424615127
lutzomyia longipalpis and the eco-epidemiology of american visceral leishmaniasis, with particular reference to brazil: a review.an historical review is given of american visceral leishmaniasis (avl), with particular reference to the eco-epidemiology of the disease in brazil. following the first records of avl in this country, in 1934, the sandfly lutzomyia longipalpis (lutz and neiva, 1912) was incriminated as the principal vector. it is now generally accepted, however, that there exist a number of cryptic species under the name of lu. longipalpis s.l. and that variations in the quantity of the vasodilatory peptide maxad ...200616444411
mixed infection of leishmania infantum and leishmania braziliensis in rodents from endemic urban area of the new world.in brazil leishmania braziliensis and l. infantum are the principal species responsible for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases, respectively. domestic dogs are the main reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis, while rodents and marsupials are the main reservoirs for cutaneous leishmaniasis. it has also been suggested that dogs could play a role in transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. the identification of the species of leishmania, the reservoirs, and the vectors involved in each particular t ...201525890323
epidemiological aspects of vector, parasite, and domestic reservoir in areas of recent transmission and no reported human cases of visceral leishmaniasis in brazil.about 97% of the human cases of the american visceral leishmaniasis (vl) occur in brazil. in the last few years, the disease expanded to medium- and large-sized cities, in which surveillance and control actions have been intensified, in an effort to control vl spreading. our two-year study was conducted in belo horizonte, the sixth most populous city in brazil, which is endemic for vl. we focused in two particular districts of recent transmission of the disease, with no reported human cases and ...201525882769
the effect of removing potentially infectious dogs on the numbers of canine leishmania infantum infections in an endemic area with high transmission rates.to assess the effect of the rapid removal of potentially infectious dogs on the prevalence and incidence of canine infections, a prospective study was undertaken in an area endemic for leishmania infantum. we used serological testing based on the rapid dpp rk28 fusion protein chromatographic immunoassay for this dog screening-and-culling intervention trial. the outcome was evaluated by measuring seropositivity and sero-conversion/-reversion rates for canine infection. our estimates indicated tha ...022665602
rattus norvegicus (rodentia: muridae) infected by leishmania (leishmania) infantum (syn. le. chagasi) in brazil.in the present study we surveyed the fauna of phlebotomine sand flies and small mammals in peridomestic areas from a brazilian municipality where the american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) is endemic. a total of 608 female phlebotomine sand flies were captured during nine months in 2009 and 2010. seven different species were represented with 60% of them being lutzomyia intermedia and lu. whitmani, both incriminated vectors of acl. lu. longipalpis, a proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) w ...201424707492
detection of leishmania infantum in 4 different dog samples by real-time pcr and its-1 nested pcr.the canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) diagnosis is an important step of visceral leishmaniasis control program in brazil, which involves the elimination of infected dogs, the main animal reservoir host of the disease. the aim of the present study was to evaluate a sensitive real-time pcr method for leishmania infantum detection in 4 different clinical samples of dogs, including the noninvasive conjunctival swab (cs) sample. the results of real-time pcr were compared with those obtained using i ...201424485588
comparison of two commercial vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from endemic areas: igg, and subclasses, parasitism, and parasite transmission by xenodiagnosis.the incidence of zoonotic canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) would decrease if dogs were effectively vaccinated; however, additional data on the efficacy of canine vaccines are required for their approved preventative use.201424406392
high prevalence of asymptomatic leishmania spp. infection among liver transplant recipients and donors from an endemic area of brazil.visceral leishmaniasis is an uncommon disease in transplant recipients; however, if left untreated, the mortality can be high. if an organ donor or recipient is known to be an asymptomatic leishmania spp. carrier,monitoring is advised. this study proposes to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic leishmania spp.infection in liver transplant donors and recipients from an endemic area. a total of 50 liver recipients and 17 liver donors were evaluated by direct parasite search, indirect fluorescent ...201424369026
small mammals as hosts of leishmania spp. in a highly endemic area for zoonotic leishmaniasis in north-eastern brazil.leishmania parasites cause leishmaniasis in humans and animals worldwide. these parasites are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, which become infected upon feeding on an infected mammalian host. we assessed the occurrence of leishmania infection in small mammals in an area of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis endemicity.201323868744
anti-leishmania infantum igg antibody avidity in visceral leishmaniasis.igg avidity tests are used to discriminate acute from chronic infections. there are few reports on the igg avidity profile of patients with visceral leishmaniasis (vl). this study investigated the anti-leishmania igg avidity in patients with classic vl (n = 10), patients showing clinical cure after treatment (n = 18), and asymptomatic subjects with at least one positive leishmania test (n = 20). all subjects were from areas in brazil where vl is endemic. serum samples were collected from each su ...201324006136
canine visceral leishmaniasis: incidence and risk factors for infection in a cohort study in brazil.zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in brazil is caused by leishmania infantum parasites and is transmitted by sand flies of the phlebotominae family. dogs are the main urban reservoirs and represent the major source of contagion for the vectors. studies have shown that most infected dogs are polymerase chain reaction-positive months before seroconversion. herein, we describe a cohort study designed to identify the incidence of and risk factors for l. infantum infection as detected by polymerase cha ...201323941965
sensitive and specific serodiagnosis of leishmania infantum infection in dogs by using peptides selected from hypothetical proteins identified by an immunoproteomic approach.in brazil, the percentage of infected dogs living in areas where canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) is endemic ranges from 10 to 62%; however, the prevalence of infection in dogs is probably higher than figures reported from serological studies. in addition, problems with the occurrence of false-positive or false-negative results in the serodiagnosis of cvl have been reported. the present work analyzed the potential of synthetic peptides mapped from hypothetical proteins for improvement of the ...201323554466
longitudinal analysis of serological tests officially adopted by the brazilian ministry of health for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs vaccinated with leishmune®.development of vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) may provide a prophylactic barrier, but antibody response detected by standard diagnostic techniques may not separate vaccinated from naturally infected dogs. moreover, anti-leishmania antibody levels in vaccinated dogs may be detectable for months. accordingly, the aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate an "in-house" elisa with three serological tests officially adopted by the brazilian ministry of health for th ...201323920056
cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from a rural community in northeastern brazil.a community-based epidemiological study was carried out in a rural area in northeastern brazil, where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic, but the primary vector lutzomyia longipalpis has never been found. forty-one dogs were screened by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat) for the presence of anti-leishmania antibodies and 12 (29.3%) of them were positive. one of the ifat-positive dogs was also positive for leishmania amastigotes in bone marrow cytology and for leishmania infantum ...201020227186
detection of leishmania infantum in lutzomyia longipalpis captured in campo grande, ms.leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by protozoa of the genus leishmania (ross, 1903) and is the focus of considerable attention in human and veterinary medicine. in the city of campo grande, ms, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis is leishmania infantum (= l. chagasi) primary vector, comprising approximately 92.9% of the local sandfly population, is lutzomyia longipalpis. the aim of this work was to compare real-time pcr with pcr as a tool for the detection of the kinetoplast dn ...201425054512
epidemiological survey of lutzomyia longipalpis infected by leishmania infantum in an endemic area of brazil.the objective of this study was to perform an epidemiological survey to determine the areas at risk of visceral leishmaniasis through the detection and quantification of natural infection by leishmania infantum in lutzomyia longipalpis. the sandflies were captured between february 2009 and january 2010, at 21 sites in four regions of the fortaleza municipality. samples were screened for the presence of leishmania dna by real time pcr (qpcr), amplification of kdna minicircle sequence. out of the ...201424728361
effect of abiotic factors on seasonal population dynamics of lutzomyia longipalpis (diptera: psychodidae) in northeastern brazil.the resurgence of visceral leishmaniasis in brazil increases the need for studies to elucidate the spatial and temporal dynamics of lutzomyia longipalpis (lutz and neiva) (diptera: psychodidae), the vector of leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in brazil. sand flies were captured in peridomestic habitats biweekly for 3 yr. cross-correlation tests and spectral analysis were used to analyze the simultaneous and lag-time correlations between lu. longipalpis population ...200617017238
pathology of dogs in campo grande, ms, brazil naturally co-infected with leishmania infantum and ehrlichia canis.different parasites that commonly occur concomitantly can influence one another, sometimes with unpredictable effects. we evaluated pathological aspects of dogs naturally co-infected with leishmania infantum and ehrlichia canis. the health status of the dogs was investigated based on histopathological, hematological and biochemical analyses of 21 animals infected solely with l. infantum and 22 dogs co- infected with l. infantum and e. canis. the skin of both groups showed chronic, predominantly ...201725517530
temporal distribution of positive results of tests for detecting leishmania infection in stray dogs of an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in the brazilian tropics: a 13 years survey and association with human disease.human visceral leishmaniasis occurs in periodic waves in endemic areas of brazil. in this study we followed the prevalence of human visceral leishmaniasis and of leishmania infantum infection in stray dogs of an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis at periods of time between 1997 and 2010. prevalence of human visceral leishmaniasis had two peaks (40 cases) in 1997 and 2006 with sharp declines to 2 cases in 2001 and to 5 cases in 2008. similar fluctuations were also observed in the occurrence o ...201222795669
canine skin and conjunctival swab samples for the detection and quantification of leishmania infantum dna in an endemic urban area in brazil.we evaluated kdna pcr/hybridization and quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) targeting the gene of dna polymerase of leishmania infantum for cvl diagnosis and assessment of parasite load in clinical samples obtained invasively and non-invasively.201222506084
high frequency of asymptomatic leishmania spp. infection among hiv-infected patients living in endemic areas for visceral leishmaniasis in brazil.this study aims at estimating the prevalence of leishmania infection among hiv-infected patients through the use of non-invasive tests. the study was conducted in three infectious diseases services in two large brazilian cities, both endemic areas for visceral leishmaniasis. three hundred and eighty-one asymptomatic patients were enrolled whose ages ranged from 19 to 58 years old; 63.5% were men; mean tcd4+ was 380 cells/μl; and mean viral load was 153800 copies/ml. all individuals were tested f ...201222348817
genetic diversity of leishmania infantum field populations from brazil.leishmania infantum (syn. leishmania chagasi) is the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in brazil. the epidemiology of vl is poorly understood. therefore, a more detailed molecular characterization at an intraspecific level is certainly needed. herein, three independent molecular methods, multilocus microsatellite typing (mlmt), random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd) and simple sequence repeats-polymerase chain reaction (ssr-pcr), were used to evaluate the genetic diversity ...201222310534
a systematic review and meta-analysis of the factors associated with leishmania infantum infection in dogs in brazil.the risk factors associated with canine visceral leishmaniosis (cvl) in brazil are unclear and controversial. the objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to identify the best evidence available in this field and to determine the gaps in existing knowledge. literature searches were carried out using four databases, the reference lists within articles, and references provided by experts in the field. theoretical discussions or separate and independent meta-analyses of p-values ...201323561325
pro-inflammatory cytokines predominate in the brains of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis: a natural model of neuroinflammation during systemic parasitic infection.visceral leishmaniasis is a multisystemic zoonotic disease that can manifest with several symptoms, including neurological disorders. to investigate the pathogenesis of brain alterations occurring during visceral leishmaniasis infection, the expression of the cytokines il-1β, il-6, il-10, il-12p40, ifn-γ, tgf-β and tnf-α and their correlations with peripheral parasite load were evaluated in the brains of dogs naturally infected with leishmania infantum. il-1β, ifn-γ and tnf-α were noticeably up- ...201323207017
sensitivity and specificity of in situ hybridization for diagnosis of cutaneous infection by leishmania infantum in dogs.an accurate diagnosis of infection by leishmania infantum in dogs is fundamental for the control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (vl). histopathology (hp) and immunohistochemistry (ihc) are frequently used for the histological diagnosis of l. infantum in dogs but have shown limited accuracy. to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the histological diagnosis of vl, we evaluated automated in situ hybridization (ish) using a generic probe for leishmania and a specific probe for l. infantum ...201323135932
detection of leishmania infantum in animals and their ectoparasites by conventional pcr and real time pcr.visceral leishmaniosis (vl) is a parasitic disease caused by leishmania infantum, which is primarily transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. however, there has been much speculation on the role of other arthropods in the transmission of vl. thus, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of l. infantum in cats, dogs and their ectoparasites in a vl-endemic area in northeastern brazil. dna was extracted from blood samples and ectoparasites, tested by conventional pcr (cpcr) and quantitative ...201323132326
subtractive phage display selection from canine visceral leishmaniasis identifies novel epitopes that mimic leishmania infantum antigens with potential serodiagnosis applications.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine vl (cvl) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with cvl serodiagnosis. the present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resul ...201424256622
effectiveness of insecticide spraying and culling of dogs on the incidence of leishmania infantum infection in humans: a cluster randomized trial in teresina, brazil.to evaluate the effect of insecticide spraying for vector control and elimination of infected dogs on the incidence of human infection with l. infantum, a randomized community intervention trial was carried out in the city of teresina, brazil.201425357122
immunological profile of resistance and susceptibility in naturally infected dogs by leishmania infantum.visceral leishmaniasis has a great impact on public health, and dogs are considered the main domestic reservoir of leishmania infantum, the causal parasite. in this study, 159 animals naturally infected by l. infantum from an endemic area of brazil were evaluated through an analysis of cellular responses, using flow cytometry, and of the hematological parameters. the results confirmed that disease progression is associated with anemia and reductions in eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. the ...201425234767
antiparasitic indole alkaloids from aspidosperma desmanthum and a. spruceanum from the peruvian amazonia.twenty-three indole alkaloids were isolated from aspidosperma desmanthum and a. spruceanum. alkaloids 1-4 were isolated from the leaves, 5-8 from the stem bark and 9-15 from the root bark of a. desmanthum. alkaloids 5, 11, 16, 17 and 19 were isolated from the stem bark, 18 and 20-22 from the root bark and 23 from the flowers of a. spruceanum. compounds 4, 14, and 15 have not been previously reported as natural products while 16 and 20 have been isolated for the first time from the genus aspidosp ...201425233577
visceral leishmaniasis and hiv coinfection in latin america.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is an endemic zoonotic disease in latin america caused by leishmania (leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus lutzomyia. vl occurs in 12 countries of latin america, with 96% of cases reported in brazil. recently, an increase in vl, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of latin america. the area in which this spread of vl is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with hiv, the number ...201425233461
evaluating the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing for canine visceral leishmaniasis using latent class analysis.host tissues affected by leishmania infantum have differing degrees of parasitism. previously, the use of different biological tissues to detect l. infantum dna in dogs has provided variable results. the present study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing (qpcr) in dogs from an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) by determining which tissue type provided the highest rate of parasite dna detection. fifty-one symptomatic dogs were tested for cvl us ...201425076494
anti-parasitic guanidine and pyrimidine alkaloids from the marine sponge monanchora arbuscula.hplc-uv-elsd-ms-guided fractionation of the anti-parasitic extract obtained from the marine sponge monanchora arbuscula, collected off the southeastern coast of brazil, led to the isolation of a series of guanidine and pyrimidine alkaloids. the pyrimidines monalidine a (1) and arbusculidine a (7), as well as the guanidine alkaloids batzellamide a (8) and hemibatzelladines 9-11, represent new minor constituents that were identified by analysis of spectroscopic data. the total synthesis of monalid ...201525924111
vaccination against canine leishmaniosis increases the phagocytic activity, nitric oxide production and expression of cell activation/migration molecules in neutrophils and monocytes.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is transmitted by phlebotomine sandfly vectors and domestic dogs serve as a reservoir. the elimination of seropositive dogs has been a recommended strategy for managing the disease in brazil. a protective canine vaccine would be an important tool for controlling the disease, reducing the parasites available to sandfly vectors and, consequently, reducing the number of human vl cases. leishmune(®) is an anti-canine leishmaniosis (vl canine) vaccine produced by zoetis (p ...201626995719
one-year timeline kinetics of cytokine-mediated cellular immunity in dogs vaccinated against visceral leishmaniasis.the main control strategy for visceral leishmaniasis in brazil has been based on the elimination of seropositive dogs, although this is not widely accepted. in this context, the use of a long-lasting protective vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) has been highly expected. the aim of this work was to determine the timeline kinetics of the cytokine microenvironment derived from circulating leukocytes as supportive immunological biomarkers triggered by leishmune® vaccine. cross-sect ...201525880646
evaluation of three recombinant leishmania infantum antigens in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is a neglected disease and is fatal if untreated. dogs serve as reservoirs for leishmania infantum (syn. l. chagasi) due to their susceptibility to infection and high skin parasitism. therefore, vl control in brazil involves the elimination of seropositive dogs, among other actions. however, the most frequently used serological tests have limitations regarding sensitivity and specificity. in this study, we have selected three leishmania antigens (c1, c8 and c9) and ha ...201424801885
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