comparison of the external dimensions of capripoxvirus significant difference was found between the external dimensions of the m forms of isolates of sheep pox virus from nigeria, sheep and goat pox virus from kenya and lumpy skin disease virus from south africa. earlier reports that isolates of capripoxvirus can be distinguished by their relative sizes could not be substantiated.19863809738
spread of lumpy skin disease in israeli dairy herds.fourteen of the 17 dairy herds in peduyim, an israeli village, became infected with lumpy skin disease during a period of 37 days in august and september 1989. one cow in one neighbouring village and four cows in another neighbouring village also became infected, probably through being treated by a veterinarian who treated cows in peduyim. circumstantial evidence suggests that the original infection was brought to peduyim and spread by stable flies (stomoxys calcitrans) carried by the wind from ...19958533249
a capripoxvirus detection pcr and antibody elisa based on the major antigen p32, the homolog of the vaccinia virus h3l gene.sheeppoxvirus (spv), goatpoxvirus (gpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) of cattle belong to the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae family and can cause significant economic losses in countries where they are endemic. capripox diagnosis by classical virological methods dependent on live capripox virus is not suitable in countries such as australia where the virus is exotic and live virus is not available. to develop diagnostic tests based on recombinant material, we cloned and sequenced a ...199910485266
attempted mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by biting insects.the mosquitoes anopheles stephensi liston and culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae), the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans linnaeus (diptera: muscidae) and the biting midge culicoides nubeculosus meigen (diptera: ceratopogonidae) were allowed to feed on either lumpy skin disease (lsd) infected animals or through a membrane on a bloodmeal containing lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). these arthropods were then allowed to refeed on susceptible cattle at various intervals after the infective f ...200312941014
vaccines for lumpy skin disease, sheep pox and goat pox.sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease (neethling) are diseases of sheep, goats and cattle respectively, caused by strains of poxvirus, within the genus capripoxvirus. strains affecting sheep and goats are not totally host-specific; some cause disease in both sheep and goats while others may cause disease in only one species. those causing disease in cattle appear to be specific for cattle, and this is reflected in the different geographical distribution of lumpy skin disease (lsd) and sheep ...200314677686
quantification of lumpy skin disease virus following experimental infection in cattle.lumpy skin disease along with sheep pox and goatpox are the most serious poxvirus diseases of livestock, and are caused by viruses that belong to the genus capripoxvirus within the subfamily chordopoxvirinae, family poxviridae. to facilitate the study of lumpy skin disease pathogenesis, we inoculated eight 4- to 6-month-old holstein calves intravenously with lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) and collected samples over a period of 42 days for analysis by virus isolation, real-time pcr and light mic ...200818503511
a heterologous prime/boost immunisation strategy protects against virulent e. ruminantium welgevonden needle challenge but not against tick challenge.heterologous prime/boost immunisation strategies using the ehrlichia ruminantium 1h12 pcmviubs_orfs [pretorius a, collins ne, steyn hc, van strijp f, van kleef m, allsopp ba. protection against heartwater by dna immunisation with four ehrlichia ruminantium open reading frames. vaccine 2007;25(12):2316-24] were investigated in this study. all the animals immunised twice with a recombinant (r) dna cocktail of four 1h12 pcmviubs_orfs followed by a r1h12 protein and those immunised 3x with 1h12 plas ...200818602727
real time pcr method for simultaneous detection, quantitation and differentiation of capripoxviruses.the genus capripoxvirus (capv) comprises three members namely, sheep poxvirus (sppv), goat poxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) affecting sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. capv infections produce similar symptoms in sheep and goats, and the three viruses cannot be distinguished serologically. since there are conflicting opinions regarding the host specificity of capvs, particularly for goatpox and sheeppox viruses, the development of rapid genotyping tools will facilitate mor ...201021029751
sequence analysis of attachment gene of lumpy skin disease and sheep egypt, protection of cattle against lumpy skin disease (lsd) was carried out using a sheep poxvirus (kenyan strain) vaccination strategy. in the present study 15 skin nodules from lsd suspected cows and 5 scab samples from sheep pox (sp) suspected sheep were collected. hyperimmune rabbit sera to lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv)/ismailyia88 strain and sheep pox virus (spv)/ kenyan vaccinal strain were prepared. the causative agent in the collected samples was identified using immunoflourescence ...201021221919
capripoxvirus g-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: a host-range gene suitable for virus animal origin discrimination.the genus capripoxvirus within the family poxviridae comprises three closely related viruses, namely goat pox, sheep pox and lumpy skin disease viruses. this nomenclature is based on the animal species from which the virus was first isolated, respectively, goat, sheep and cattle. since capripoxviruses are serologically identical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. we describe here the suitability of the g-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (gpcr) gene ...200919339476
protective immune responses induced by different recombinant vaccine regimes to rift valley fever.the glycoprotein (gp) and nucleocapsid (nc) genes of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) were expressed in different expression systems and were evaluated for their ability to protect mice from virulent challenge using a prime-boost regime. mice vaccinated with a lumpy skin disease virus-vectored recombinant vaccine (rlsdv-rvfv) expressing the two rvfv glycoproteins (g1 and g2) developed neutralising antibodies and were fully protected when challenged, as were those vaccinated with a crude extract of ...200616870311
the current status of sheep pox disease.sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. the causative agent, sheep p ...200616458357
the genomes of sheeppox and goatpox viruses.sheeppox virus (sppv) and goatpox virus (gtpv), members of the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae, are etiologic agents of important diseases of sheep and goats in northern and central africa, southwest and central asia, and the indian subcontinent. here we report the genomic sequence and comparative analysis of five sppv and gtpv isolates, including three pathogenic field isolates and two attenuated vaccine viruses. sppv and gtpv genomes are approximately 150 kbp and are strikingly similar t ...200212021338
alternative cell lines for the propagation of lumpy skin disease our institute lumpy skin disease virus is grown on primary lamb testis cells for isolation, identification and vaccine production. however, the availability of lambs in kenya has been seriously reduced over the past few years. this has led to an increase in the cost of using primary lamb testis cells. this study was undertaken to investigate other primary cell lines, which are easily available and provide an equivalent or better yield of lumpy skin disease virus. foetal bovine muscle (fbm) ce ...200111585094
use of the capripoxvirus homologue of vaccinia virus 30 kda rna polymerase subunit (rpo30) gene as a novel diagnostic and genotyping target: development of a classical pcr method to differentiate goat poxvirus from sheep poxvirus.sheep poxvirus (sppv), goat poxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) are capripoxviruses (capvs) responsible for causing severe poxvirus disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. serological differentiation of capvs is not possible and strain identification has relied on the implicitly accepted hypothesis that the viruses show well defined host specificity. however, it is now known that cross infections can occur and authentication of identity based on the host animal species ...201021115310
the use of lumpy skin disease virus genome termini for detection and phylogenetic analysis.during 2006 and 2007 there were two outbreaks of lumpy skin disease (lsd) in israel. an lsd virus (lsdv)-specific pcr assay was developed that can detected specifically lsdv even though the number of tested lsdv isolates were limited. full-length sheep pox and lsdv genome sequences were aligned to find non-homologous regions, which were then used for preparing specific primers, whose specificity was tested against several lsdv dna isolates and the system could detect all the different isolates. ...200818582954
genome of lumpy skin disease virus.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), a member of the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae, is the etiologic agent of an important disease of cattle in africa. here we report the genomic sequence of lsdv. the 151-kbp lsdv genome consists of a central coding region bounded by identical 2.4 kbp-inverted terminal repeats and contains 156 putative genes. comparison of lsdv with chordopoxviruses of other genera reveals 146 conserved genes which encode proteins involved in transcription and mrna biogenesi ...200111435593
serodiagnosis of sheeppox and goatpox using an indirect elisa based on synthetic peptide targeting for the major antigen p32.sheeppoxvirus (sppv), goatpoxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) of cattle belong to the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae family and can cause significant economic losses in countries where they are endemic. despite the considerable threat that these viruses pose to livestock production and global trade in sheep, goats, cattle and their products, convenient and effective serodiagnostic tools are not readily available. toward this goal, two synthetic peptides corresponding to th ...201020854693
differentiation of sheep pox and goat poxviruses by sequence analysis and pcr-rflp of p32 gene.sheep pox and goat pox are highly contagious viral diseases of small ruminants. these diseases were earlier thought to be caused by a single species of virus, as they are serologically indistinguishable. p32, one of the major immunogenic genes of capripoxvirus, was isolated and sequenced from two indian isolates of goat poxvirus (gpv) and a vaccine strain of sheep poxvirus (spv). the sequences were compared with other p32 sequences of capripoxviruses available in the database. sequence analysis ...200415215685
the characterization of african strains of capripoxvirus.isolates of capripoxvirus collected from sub-saharan africa were compared in sheep, goats and cattle and by restriction endonuclease digestion of their purified dna. biochemical techniques were used to precisely identify strains of capripoxvirus for epidemiological investigations. strains of capripoxvirus infecting cattle have remained very stable over a 30-year period and are closely related to strains recovered from sheep in africa.19892539299
studies on the major common precipitating antigen of capripoxvirus.the proteins of sheep pox, goat pox, sheep and goat pox and lumpy skin disease (neethling) viruses were labelled with [35s]methionine. the major structural polypeptides of these viruses co-migrated on polyacrylamide gels, demonstrating the very close biochemical relationship between them. using the agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) test with radiolabelled antigen preparations, a major common precipitating antigen was identified. this co-migrated on polyacrylamide gels with one of the major structu ...19863080547
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