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molecular cloning of the rinderpest virus matrix gene: comparative sequence analysis with other paramyxoviruses.the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the matrix or membrane (m) protein of the virulent (kabete-o) strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) has been determined. the m gene is 1457 nucleotides long with a single, large open reading frame. the derived polypeptide has 335 amino acids, corresponding to a calculated molecular weight of 38,289 and contains both small hydrophobic regions and many basic residues. the predicted amino acid sequence was compared to the m proteins of paramyxoviruses. sequen ...19902309449
antiserum raised in pigs against canine distemper virus and its utility in diagnostic procedures for morbillivirus infections (canine distemper, phocine distemper, rinderpest).antiserum against canine distemper virus (cdv) was raised in pigs by intranasal inoculation with cdv strains cnd65 and rockborn. immunoglobulin fractions were conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. peroxidase-conjugated anti-cdv immunoglobulin preparations were used for the detection and titration of cdv, seal-derived (phocine) distemper virus (pdv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) in vero cell cultures. for the detection and titration of corresponding neutralizing antibodies a direct neutralizing pe ...19902396484
the molecular biology of the morbillivirus (measles) group.the morbilliviruses are a closely related group of important human and animal pathogens. the best known members of the group are measles virus in man and canine distemper virus in dogs. the group also includes two other serious animal diseases, rinderpest or cattle plague and peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats. the latter viruses are of great economic importance in africa, asia and the middle east. persistence of these viruses in some form is a possible mechanism whereby life-long imm ...19873332767
rinderpest virus infection of bovine peripheral blood monocytes.the ability of rinderpest virus (rpv) to replicate in vitro in adherent peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages under non-stimulation conditions was investigated. when flow cytometry analysis on bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) was performed, monocytic cells were seen to be targets for infection by the cell culture-attenuated rbok vaccine strain of rpv. viral glycoprotein (h) and nucleoprotein (n) expression in adherent blood monocytes and monocyte-derived mac ...19957595385
cloning and sequence analysis of the matrix (m) protein gene of rinderpest virus and evidence for another bovine morbillivirus.we have cloned and sequenced the entire m gene of the vaccine strain of rinderpest virus and that of the virulent kabete "o" strain from which it was derived. the sequences of these two genes are essentially identical (99% at the nucleotide level), but were very different from a previously published kabete o m gene sequence (m. limo and t. yilma, 1990, virology 175, 323-327). inspection of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of known morbillivirus m genes showed that the earlier sequ ...19948128616
cloning and expression of the nucleocapsid gene of virulent kabete o strain of rinderpest virus in baculovirus: use in differential diagnosis between vaccinated and infected animals.rinderpest (rp) is a viral disease of ruminants with > 95% morbidity and mortality. we have cloned the cdna of the nucleocapsid (n) gene of the virulent kabete o strain of rinderpest virus (rpvk) and compared its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences with those of the n genes of the lapinized strain of rinderpest virus (rpvl), measles virus (mv), and canine distemper virus (cdv). the gene has an open reading frame of 1575 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 525 amino acids with a molecula ...19948259649
immunological responses of mice and cattle to baculovirus-expressed f and h proteins of rinderpest virus: lack of protection in the presence of neutralizing antibody.rinderpest is a highly contagious viral disease of ruminants and has greater than 95% morbidity and mortality. the etiological agent, rinderpest virus (rpv), is a member of the family paramyxoviridae and the genus morbillivirus. immune responses to both the hemagglutinin (h) and the fusion (f) antigens of morbilliviruses play an important role in the prevention of infection, and only attenuated live vaccines have been shown to provide protective immunity against the group. the lack of protection ...19938437215
rescue of rinderpest virus from cloned cdna.rinderpest virus is a morbillivirus and is the causative agent of a widespread and important disease of cattle. the viral genome is a single strand of rna in the negative sense. we have constructed plasmids containing cdna copies of the 5' and 3' termini of the virus separated by a reporter gene and have shown that antigenome-sense rna transcripts of these model genomes can be replicated, transcribed, and packaged by helper virus, both rinderpest virus and the related measles virus. further, the ...19978995650
global eradication of rinderpest. yea or nay?rinderpest is a scourge continuing to change the course of history. the german "rinderpest" in english fails to convey the spectre of death, despair and desolation long associated with the disease. although the causal morbillivirus cross-protects against other morbillivirus, there is only one rinderpest serotype which is both immuno-suppressive and immunogenic. safe vaccines induce lifelong protection in cattle. transmission follows close contact between sick and healthy artiodactyls. infectious ...19989668477
cell-mediated immune responses in cattle vaccinated with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the nucleocapsid protein of rinderpest virus.rinderpest virus (rpv) is a member of the genus morbillivirus in the family paramyxoviridae which causes an acute and often fatal disease in large ruminants. to examine the immune response to the virus nucleocapsid (n) protein, a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing rpv nucleocapsid protein (rvv-rpv-n) was used to vaccinate cattle. the recombinant vaccine induced low levels of non-neutralizing anti-n antibodies. rpv-specific cell-mediated immunity induced by the recombinant was assessed by meas ...199910423130
human contact with cattle, dogs and monkeys and genetic diversity of measles viruses.there is a very close contact among humans, cattle, dogs and monkeys in developing countries. that could lead to genetic alteration in morbillivirus isolates of measles, rinderpest, canine distemper. emergence of novel morbillivirus strains and failures of prophylactic viral vaccines should be monitored by characterisation of genetic profiles of isolates in different species. incorporation of additional epitopes in existing prophylactic vaccines should minimise vaccine failures attributable to s ...200010670701
diagnosis of rinderpest in tanzania by a rapid chromatographic strip-test.a simple chromatographic strip-test based on clearview technology, is under development as a pen-side test for the detection of rinderpest antigen in eye swabs taken from cattle in the field. an outbreak of rinderpest occurred in the northern zone of tanzania from late february to june 1997. the affected cattle exhibited very mild clinical signs, which made clinical diagnosis difficult. one hundred and seven eye swabs were collected from cattle suspected of infection with rinderpest. these were ...200010907284
the removal of viruses during the purification of equine antisera using filtration aids hyflo super-cel and fulmon super a.the manufacturing process in australia for equine antisera against various venoms/toxins is based primarily on ammonium sulphate precipitation of pepsin-digested igg, whereby fc and f(ab')(2)fragments are separated. the capacity of the process to remove non-enveloped and enveloped model viruses was assessed using a scaled-down process. each virus was added to mid-process samples from equine plasma before the material was applied to hyflo super-celtrade mark filtration followed by fulmonttrade ma ...200010964443
improved technique for transient expression and negative strand virus rescue using fowlpox t7 recombinant virus in mammalian cells.the suitability of recombinant t7 polymerase produced using either the highly attenuated mva strain of vaccinia (mva-t7) or fowlpox virus (fp-t7) for transient expression and negative strand virus rescue was compared in two mammalian cell lines (mdbk and vero) and in primary cells of bovine, ovine and caprine origin. such primary cells are more permissive for the growth of wild type strains of morbilliviruses, such as rinderpest virus and peste des petits ruminants virus. mva-t7 was found to be ...200010996645
rinderpest virus c and v proteins interact with the major (l) component of the viral polymerase.rinderpest virus, like other morbilliviruses, expresses three proteins from the single p gene. in addition to the p protein, which interacts both with the viral polymerase (l) and the nucleocapsid (n) protein, the virus expresses a c and a v protein from the same gene. the functions of these two proteins in the viral life cycle are not clear. although both c and v proteins are dispensable, in that viable viruses can be made that express neither, each seems to play a role in optimum viral replica ...200111277692
morbilliviruses use signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (cd150) as cellular receptors.morbilliviruses comprise measles virus, canine distemper virus, rinderpest virus, and several other viruses that cause devastating human and animal diseases accompanied by severe immunosuppression and lymphopenia. recently, we have shown that human signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (slam) is a cellular receptor for measles virus. in this study, we examined whether canine distemper and rinderpest viruses also use canine and bovine slams, respectively, as cellular receptors. the onderstepoo ...200111390585
long-term sterilizing immunity to rinderpest in cattle vaccinated with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing high levels of the fusion and hemagglutinin glycoproteins.rinderpest is an acute and highly contagious viral disease of ruminants, often resulting in greater than 90% mortality. we have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine (v2rvfh) that expresses both the fusion (f) and hemagglutinin (h) genes of rinderpest virus (rpv) under strong synthetic vaccinia virus promoters. v2rvfh-infected cells express high levels of the f and h glycoproteins and show extensive syncytium formation. cattle vaccinated intramuscularly with as little as 10(3) pfu of ...200211752138
the detection of antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus in cattle, sheep and goats and the possible implications to rinderpest control programmes.monoclonal antibody-based competitive elisa (c-elisa) have been used for the specific measurement of antibodies to both rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (ppr) viruses in cattle, sheep and goats. examination of serum samples from sheep and goats in gambia, before and after vaccination with rinderpest vaccine, suggested that antibodies to ppr virus could prevent an immune response to the rinderpest vaccine. cattle sera from nigeria and ghana showed a high prevalence of antibody against pp ...19948119361
viral antigen distribution in organs of cattle experimentally infected with rinderpest virus.the distribution of viral antigen in various organs of four approximately 10-month-old castrated male friesian cattle experimentally infected with a highly virulent strain of rinderpest virus was studied. a monoclonal antibody with genus-specific reactivity for morbilliviruses was applied in an indirect immunoperoxidase method performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. rinderpest viral antigen was located mainly in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells of the digestive, resp ...19938116148
inhibition of in vitro leukocyte proliferation by morbilliviruses.immune suppression associated with morbillivirus infections may influence the mortality rate by allowing secondary bacterial infections that are lethal to the host to flourish. using an in vitro proliferation assay, we have shown that all members of the genus morbillivirus inhibit the proliferation of a human b-lymphoblast cell line (bjab). proliferation of freshly isolated, stimulated bovine and caprine peripheral blood lymphocytes is also inhibited by uv-inactivated rinderpest (rpv) and peste- ...200211884584
development of a competitive elisa for detecting antibodies to the peste des petits ruminants virus using a recombinant nucleoprotein.a competitive elisa based on the reaction between a monoclonal antibody (mab) and a recombinant nucleoprotein of the peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) was developed. this protein was obtained in large quantities from insect cells infected with a ppr nucleoprotein recombinant baculovirus (n-b). the competitive elisa was compared with the virus neutralisation test (vnt) for detecting specific antibodies to pprv in sheep and goats. the time consuming vnt is the only prescribed test that is ca ...19957709061
prevalence, distribution, and host range of peste des petits ruminants virus, turkey.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv, genus morbillivirus), which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, has only recently been officially declared to be present in turkey. we carried out a study to determine the prevalence, distribution, and host range of pprv in turkey. a total of 1,607 animals, reared in 18 different locations, were monitored for the presence of antibodies to pprv and the related virus of large ruminants, rinderpest virus (rpv). only two farms had animals that were fre ...200212095439
recombinant hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus expressed in insect cells induces cytotoxic t-cell responses in cattle.rinderpest virus (rpv), a member of the genus morbillivirus within the paramyxoviridae family, causes a highly contagious and often fatal disease known as rinderpest in wild and domestic ruminants. the envelope of the virus contains two surface glycoproteins, namely the hemagglutinin (h) and the fusion (f) proteins, both of which have been shown to confer protective immunity in animals. in this paper, we demonstrate that single administration of low doses of recombinant h protein of rpv expresse ...200111792064
molecular properties of the matrixprotein(m) gene of the lapinized rinderpest virus.the nucleotide sequence of the matrixprotein (m) gene of the lapinized rinderpest virus (rpv-l) was determined. the full-length cdna of the rpv-l m gene is composed of 1460 base pairs and is supposed to contain an open reading frame of 1005 nucleotides encoding on m protein of 335 amino acids. the homology of the predicted amino acid among congeneric morbilliviruses such as rpv kabete 'o' strain (wild strain of rpv), rpv rbok strain (vaccine strain of rpv for cattle), measles virus (mv), and can ...200111503909
rinderpest virus (rpv) iscom vaccine induces protection in cattle against virulent rpv challenge.rinderpest virus (rpv), a member of genus morbillivirus in the family paramyxoviridae, causes an acute and often fatal disease in cattle and other large ruminants. a subunit rinderpest vaccine consisting of an immune-stimulating complex (iscom) incorporating the rpv haemaggulutinin (h) protein, was examined for its ability to induce protective immunity in cattle, the natural host of rpv. all of four cattle vaccinated with the iscom vaccine survived challenge with virulent virus. three were solid ...200111348698
mapping of t-helper epitopes of rinderpest virus hemagglutinin protein.rinderpest virus (rpv) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease of domestic and wild ruminants, caused by rinderpest virus of the genus morbillivirus under the family paramyxoviridae. hemagglutinin (h) and fusion (f) proteins of this enveloped virus confer protective immunity against experimental challenge with virulent rinderpest virus. we have earlier demonstrated that immunization with a single dose of recombinant extracellular baculovirus expressing h protein elicits h-specific humoral ...200111270599
the role of the world reference laboratories for foot-and-mouth disease and for rinderpest.the world reference laboratories for foot-and-mouth disease and for rinderpest provide a worldwide diagnostic and surveillance service for these disease for fao and oie. both laboratories are housed within the high security facility of the institute for animal health, pirbright, uk. foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and rinderpest (rp) are oie list a diseases and historically have caused huge losses to agricultural economies around the world, prompting the establishment of veterinary colleges in euro ...200011193614
full genome sequence of peste des petits ruminants virus, a member of the morbillivirus genus.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) causes an acute febrile illness in small ruminant species, mostly sheep and goats. pprv is a member of the morbillivirus genus which includes measles, rinderpest (cattle plague), canine distemper, phocine distemper and the morbilliviruses found in whales, porpoises and dolphins. full length genome sequences for these morbilliviruses are available and reverse genetic rescue systems have been developed for the viruses of terrestrial mammals, with the excepti ...200515845262
identification of a cytotoxic t-cell epitope on the recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses presented as assembled nucleocapsids.the nucleocapsid protein (n) of morbilliviruses is not only a major structural protein but also the most abundant protein made in infected cells. we overexpressed the n proteins of rinderpest virus and peste des petits ruminants virus in e. coli, which assemble into nucleocapsids in the absence of viral rna that resemble nucleocapsids made in the virus-infected cells. employing these assembled structures resembling subviral particles, we studied the induction of both the antibody response and th ...200111145903
inhibition of host peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation ex vivo by rinderpest virus.rinderpest, or cattle plague, is caused by rinderpest virus (rpv), which is related most closely to human measles virus (mv), both being members of the genus morbillivirus, a group of viruses known to have strong immunosuppressive effects in vitro and in vivo. here, it was shown that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) isolated from cattle experimentally infected with either wild-type or vaccine strains of rpv impaired the proliferation of pbmcs derived from uninfected animals; however, i ...200516298981
xerovac: an ultra rapid method for the dehydration and preservation of live attenuated rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants vaccines.the accepted procedure for the long-term preservation of live viruses and bacteria in vaccines has been lyophilisation. we show that thermolabile viruses can be dehydrated in vitro, within 18 h, in an excipient containing trehalose. we further demonstrate that in the resulting dehydrated state, where the viruses are captive in a metastable glass composed of trehalose, they are capable of resisting 45 degrees c for a period of 14 days with minimal loss of potency. the degree of thermotolerance ac ...200011115706
rinderpest viruses lacking the c and v proteins show specific defects in growth and transcription of viral rnas.rinderpest virus is a morbillivirus and the causative agent of an important disease of cattle and wild bovids. the p genes of all morbilliviruses give rise to two proteins in addition to the p protein itself: use of an alternate start translation site, in a second open reading frame, gives rise to the c protein, while cotranscriptional insertion of an extra base gives rise to the v protein, a fusion of the amino-terminal half of p to a short, highly conserved, cysteine-rich zinc binding domain. ...200010684274
measles virus: cellular receptors, tropism and pathogenesis.measles virus (mv), a member of the genus morbillivirus in the family paramyxoviridae, is an enveloped virus with a non-segmented, negative-strand rna genome. it has two envelope glycoproteins, the haemagglutinin (h) and fusion proteins, which are responsible for attachment and membrane fusion, respectively. human signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (slam; also called cd150), a membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, acts as a cellular receptor for mv. slam is expressed on ...200616963735
rinderpest: the disease and its impact on humans and animals.rinderpest is an ancient plague of cattle and other large ruminants, with descriptions of its effects dating back to roman times. it is caused by a morbillivirus closely related to human measles virus. although a very effective vaccine is available, it is heat labile, and logistical and financial problems hamper its delivery to the remote areas of africa and asia where enzootic foci remain. periodic epizootics emerge from these foci and spread into neighboring areas, mainly as a result of uncont ...199910582096
sequence analysis of morbillivirus cd150 receptor-signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (slam) of different animal species.signaling lymphocyte activation molecule-slam (cd150) molecule has been reported as a putative receptor for most morbilliviruses for their respective host species. in this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the morbillivirus receptor-slam from the four species, namely, goat (capra hircus), sheep (ovis aries), indian cattle (bos indicus), and buffalo (bubalus bubalis). the nucleotide (nt) open reading frame sequence of slam gene in all the four species st ...200919669672
sequence and structure alignment of paramyxoviridae attachment proteins and discovery of enzymatic activity for a morbillivirus hemagglutinin.on the basis of the conservation of neuraminidase (n) active-site residues in influenza virus n and paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn), it has been suggested that the three-dimensional (3d) structures of the globular heads of the two proteins are broadly similar. in this study, details of this structural similarity are worked out. detailed multiple sequence alignment of paramyxovirus hn proteins and influenza virus n proteins was based on the schematic representation of the previousl ...19979223510
global aspects of emerging and potential zoonoses: a who perspective.many new human pathogens that have emerged or reemerged worldwide originated from animals or from products of animal origin. many animal species as well as categories of agents have been involved in the emergence of diseases. wild (e.g., bats, rodents) as well as draught animals (e.g., horses) and food animals (e.g., poultry, cattle) were implicated in the epidemiologic cycles of these diseases. many of the agents responsible for new infections and diseases in humans were viruses (e.g., hantavir ...19979204308
cd9, a tetraspan transmembrane protein, renders cells susceptible to canine distemper virus.canine distemper virus (cdv), a lymphotropic and neurotropic negative-stranded rna virus of the morbillivirus genus, causes a life-threatening disease in several carnivores, including domestic dogs. to identify the cellular receptor(s) involved in the uptake of cdv by susceptible cells, we isolated a monoclonal antibody (mab k41) which binds to the cell surface and inhibits the cdv infection of several cell lines from various species. pretreatment of cells with mab k41 reduces the number of infe ...19978985321
the isolation of peste des petits ruminants virus from northern india.the aetiological agent responsible for an epizootic of a rinderpest-like disease afflicting sheep and goats in three states of northern india was confirmed as peste des petits ruminants virus. to differentiate the virus from rinderpest a number of diagnostic tests were used, including immunocapture elisa, specific oligonucleotide primers in a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence with virus specific monoclonal antibodies and virus isolation. the virulence profile of ...19968870184
evaluation of polymerase chain reaction for the detection and characterisation of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses for epidemiological studies.the high sequence variability found in rna viruses makes it difficult to design primers for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification which will be certain to work with all new field isolates. to overcome this problem for the detection and differential diagnosis of rinderpest (rp) and peste des petits ruminants (ppr) viruses (v), we have designed several sets of primers, based on well-conserved sequences in the p and f genes. analysis of a large number of field isolates from ...19958837881
protection of goats against rinderpest by vaccination with attenuated peste des petits ruminants virus.the ability of the attenuated peste des petits ruminants vaccine virus to protect small ruminants against virulent rinderpest virus was investigated. out of four susceptible goats that were infected with the highly virulent saudi strain of rinderpest virus by intranasal ioculation, three developed mild clinical signs of disease and infected susceptible in-contact goats and cattle with rinderpest virus. however, four goats which had been vaccinated with the attenuated peste des petits ruminants v ...19958525096
rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses exhibit neurovirulence in mice.members of the morbillivirus genus, canine distemper (cdv), phocine distemper virus (pdv), and the cetacean viruses of dolphins and porpoises exhibit high levels of cns infection in their natural hosts. cns complications are rare for measles virus (mv) and are not associated with rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) infection. however, it is possible that all morbilliviruses infect the cns but in some hosts are rapidly cleared by the immune response. in this study, ...200211847591
the morbillivirus receptor slam (cd150).morbilliviruses are highly contagious pathogens that cause some of the most devastating viral diseases of humans and animals, including measles virus (mv), canine distemper virus (cdv), and rinderpest virus (rpv). they replicate mainly in lymphoid organs throughout the body and cause severe immunosuppression accompanied with lymphopenia. we have recently shown that human, canine, and bovine signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (slams; also known as cd150) act as cellular receptors for mv, c ...200212008921
circulating immune complexes in rabbits surviving rinderpest virus infection.circulating immune complexes (cics) precipitated from the sera of rabbits recovered from infection with rabbit virulent (lapinized) rinderpest virus (rpv) were found to contain rpv antigen and rabbit igg. the cics persisted for at least 77 days post infection. the cics and the antigen isolated from them by chromatography on sepharose-6b were found to be non-infectious. rpv-specific antibodies could be detected in the antisera raised in rabbits against the cics and the isolated antigen. furthermo ...19947976861
protection of goats against peste des petits ruminants with recombinant capripoxviruses expressing the fusion and haemagglutinin protein genes of rinderpest virus.goats were protected against a lethal challenge of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus following vaccination with a recombinant capripoxvirus containing either the fusion (f) gene of rinderpest virus or the haemagglutinin (h) gene of rinderpest virus. the h gene recombinant produced high titres of neutralizing antibody to rinderpest virus in the vaccinated goats, whereas the f gene recombinant failed to stimulate detectable levels of neutralizing antibody. a similar response to the two recomb ...19957762275
there is nothing permanent except change. the emergence of new virus diseases.the sudden appearance of apparently new viruses with pathogenic potential is of fundamental importance in medical microbiology and a constant threat to humans and animals. the emergence of a "new" pathogen is not an isolated event, as for instance the frequent appearance of new influenza virus strains demonstrates. often the new virus strains co-circulate with the older strains in a susceptible population, but a replacement of the older strains has been also observed. in rare instances the new v ...19957740750
an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants in a zoological collection.peste des petits ruminants virus was suspected to be the cause of a disease outbreak in a zoological collection at al ain in the arabian gulf. clinically the outbreak affected gazelles (gazellinae), ibex and sheep (caprinae) and gemsbok (hippotraginae); subclinical involvement of nilgai (tragelaphinae) was suspected. a morbillivirus was isolated and using monoclonal antibodies and biological tests in cattle, sheep and goats the virus of peste des petits ruminants was identified.19873424615
monoclonal antibody-based competitive elisa for simultaneous detection of rinderpest virus and peste des petits ruminants virus antibodies.an experimental competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (morbillivirus celisa) using a recombinant n antigen (rrpv n) expressed in a baculovirus and a ruminant morbillivirus (rpv and pprv)-specific monoclonal antibody (p-13a9) was developed for simultaneous detection of rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) antibodies and its diagnostic performance was evaluated. a set of known reference antisera against rpv and pprv belonging to different lineages, experimenta ...200314516703
rinderpest and other animal morbillivirus infections: comparative aspects and recent developments.the genus morbillivirus presently comprises measles virus of man, rinderpest virus (rpv), peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), and canine distemper virus (cdv). 'emerging' morbilliviruses, such as phocid distemper virus (pdv) of seals, dolphin (dmv) and porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) have probably been present for a long period of time and outbreaks are possibly related to introduction into a highly susceptible population and/or be the result of interspecies transmission. in this review some c ...19968885706
ultrastructure of equine morbillivirus.the ultrastructure of the equine morbillivirus (emv) which was implicated in the death of one human and fourteen horses in queensland, australia during september 1994 and a 36 year old man from queensland in october 1995 is described. the ultrastructure of the virus and the intracellular virus-specific structures are characteristic for the family paramyxoviridae. cytoplasmic nucleocapsids were observed within the infected cells monolayers, endothelial cells (lung) of infected horses and the neur ...19968822630
editing of morbillivirus p gene transcripts in infected animals.rna editing in the morbillivirus genus in vivo was investigated by applying a polymerase chain reaction-based primer extension technique to measure the edited and non-edited mrna transcripts. in this genus of the paramyxoviridae the p gene transcript is altered by the co-transcriptional addition of one extra g residue to produce the mrna for the v non-structural protein. using tissues of phocine distemper virus (pdv) infected seals, canine distemper virus (cdv) infected dogs and rinderpest virus ...19958588325
oral immunization of cattle with hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus expressed in transgenic peanut induces specific immune responses.rinderpest is an acute, highly contagious often fatal disease of large and small ruminants, both domestic and wild. global eradication of rinderpest needs a robust, safe and cost-effective vaccine. the causative agent, rinderpest virus (rpv) is an important member of the genus morbillivirus in the paramyxoviridae family. we have generated transgenic peanut (arachis hypogea l.) plants expressing hemagglutinin protein of rpv and report here, the induction of immune responses in cattle following or ...200312804859
a role for virus promoters in determining the pathogenesis of rinderpest virus in cattle.rinderpest virus (rpv) is a morbillivirus that causes cattle plague, a disease of large ruminants. the viral genome is flanked at the 3' and 5' genome termini by the genome promoter (gp) and antigenome promoter (agp), respectively. these promoters play essential roles in directing replication and transcription as well as rna encapsidation and packaging. it has previously been shown that individual changes to the gp of rpv greatly affect promoter activity in a minigenome assay and it was therefor ...200515784902
The insertion of fluorescent proteins in a variable region of respiratory syncytial virus L polymerase results in fluorescent and functional enzymes but with reduced activities.The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) Large protein L is the catalytic subunit of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex. Currently, no structural information is available for RSV L. Sequence alignments of L protein from human and bovine strains of RSV revealed the existence of two variable regions, VR1 and VR2. Following comparison with morbillivirus and rhabdovirus L genes, VR2, which is located between domains V and VI, was chosen as an insertion site for sequences encoding the epitope tag ...201121966341
cross-species infections.animals have always been a major source of human infectious disease. some infections like rabies are recognized as primary zoonoses caused in each case by direct animal-to-human transmission, whereas others like measles become independently sustained within the human population so that the causative virus has diverged from its morbillivirus progenitor in ruminants. recent examples of direct zoonoses are variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease arising from bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and the h5n1 ...200312934941
rescue of a chimeric rinderpest virus with the nucleocapsid protein derived from peste-des-petits-ruminants virus: use as a marker vaccine.the nucleocapsid (n) protein of all morbilliviruses has a highly conserved central region that is thought to interact with and encapsidate the viral rna. the c-terminal third of the n protein is highly variable among morbilliviruses and is thought to be located on the outer surface and to be available to interact with other viral proteins such as the phosphoprotein, the polymerase protein and the matrix protein. using reverse genetics, a chimeric rinderpest virus (rpv)/peste-des-petits-ruminants ...200717554036
cattle disease faces total wipeout. 200920010659
substituted benzimidazoles with nanomolar activity against respiratory syncytial virus.a cell-based assay was used to discover compounds inhibiting respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-induced fusion in hela/m cells. a lead compound was identified and subsequent synthesis of >300 analogues led to the identification of jnj 2408068 (r170591), a low molecular weight (mw 395) benzimidazole derivative with an ec(50) (0.16 nm) against some lab strains almost 100,000 times better than that of ribavirin (15 microm). antiviral activity was confirmed for subgroup a and b clinical isolates of h ...200314638397
immunomodulatory properties of morbillivirus nucleoproteins.morbillivirus infections have been known for a long time to be associated with an acute immunosuppression in their natural hosts. here, we show that recombinant morbillivirus nucleoproteins from canine distemper virus, peste-des-petits-ruminants virus, and rinderpest virus bind b-lymphocytes from dogs, goats, and cattle, respectively, similarly to measles virus nucleoprotein in humans. the use of surface plasmon resonance imaging allowed the real time detection of differential interactions betwe ...200616817775
global rinderpest eradication: lessons learned and why humans should celebrate too. 201121653230
rational attenuation of a morbillivirus by modulating the activity of the rna-dependent rna polymerase.negative-strand rna viruses encode a single rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) which transcribes and replicates the genome. the open reading frame encoding the rdrp from a virulent wild-type strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) was inserted into an expression plasmid. sequences encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) were inserted into a variable hinge of the rdrp. the resulting polymerase was autofluorescent, and its activity in the replication/transcription of a synthetic minigenome wa ...200516254367
infection of bovine dendritic cells by rinderpest or measles viruses induces different changes in host transcription.the morbilliviruses are a closely related genus which are very similar in their sequences and share a common receptor, but nevertheless show significant restriction in the host species in which they cause disease. one contribution to this restriction might be the nature of the hosts' responses to infection. we have used microarrays to study the changes in the transcriptome of bovine dendritic cells after infection with wild-type (pathogenic) and vaccine (apathogenic) strains of rinderpest virus ...200919854460
origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries.measles, caused by measles virus (mev), is a common infection in children. mev is a member of the genus morbillivirus and is most closely related to rinderpest virus (rpv), which is a pathogen of cattle. mev is thought to have evolved in an environment where cattle and humans lived in close proximity. understanding the evolutionary history of mev could answer questions related to divergence times of mev and rpv. we investigated divergence times using relaxed clock bayesian phylogenetics. our est ...201020202190
morbilliviruses and human disease.morbilliviruses are a group of viruses that belong to the family paramyxoviridae. the most instantly recognizable member is measles virus (mv) and individuals acutely infected with the virus exhibit a wide range of clinical symptoms ranging from a characteristic mild self-limiting infection to death. canine distemper virus (cdv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) cause a similar but distinctive pathology in dogs and cattle, respectively, and these, alongside experimental mv infection of primates, have b ...200616362981
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