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staggers induced by consumption of perennial ryegrass in cattle and sheep from northern california.staggers was diagnosed in sheep and cattle from the northern california coast. the diagnosis was made on the basis of history of ingestion of perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne) stubble, clinical signs of transient ataxia, which was aggravated by stimulation, and nearly complete recovery after removal of ryegrass as the primary forage. morbidity was high, but death did not occur in any affected animals. the toxic endophyte, acremonium lolii, was in most lower leaf sheaths from the ryegrass. inje ...19911917658
neurotoxic mycotoxins: a review of fungal toxins that cause neurological disease in large animals.five mycotoxins found in concentrates or roughages have been shown to cause neurologic disease in livestock. fumonisin b1 is produced by fusarium moniliforme and causes leukoencephalomalacia in horses. swainsonine and slaframine are produced by rhizoctonia leguminicola and cause mannose accumulation and parasympathomimetic effects, respectively. lolitrems from acremonium lolii and paspalitrems from claviceps paspali are tremorgens found in grasses.19948176663
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