antiserum raised in pigs against canine distemper virus and its utility in diagnostic procedures for morbillivirus infections (canine distemper, phocine distemper, rinderpest).antiserum against canine distemper virus (cdv) was raised in pigs by intranasal inoculation with cdv strains cnd65 and rockborn. immunoglobulin fractions were conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. peroxidase-conjugated anti-cdv immunoglobulin preparations were used for the detection and titration of cdv, seal-derived (phocine) distemper virus (pdv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) in vero cell cultures. for the detection and titration of corresponding neutralizing antibodies a direct neutralizing pe ...19902396484
immunovirological studies on human respiratory syncytial virus structural proteins.immunovirological studies suggest that human respiratory syncytial virus may well be composed of five structural proteins as are other members of the paramyxoviridae family: the two external membrane glycoproteins h (90 000) and fo (f1, 49 000; f2, 20 000; disulfide linked), the internal membrane protein m (34 000), the nucleoprotein n (42 000), and a protein (78 000) designated p that could be the equivalent of the polymerase of the morbillivirus and paramyxovirus genus. neutralizing monoclonal ...19862421860
characterization of monoclonal antibodies against four structural proteins of rinderpest virus.twenty-four monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against rinderpest virus (rpv) were established and characterized by several serological tests. of the 24 mabs. 10 recognized the nucleoprotein (np), six the phosphoprotein (p), four the haemagglutinin (h), and two the fusion (f) protein as determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assay. the specificities of the remaining two mabs could not be determined. from a competitive binding assay using mabs against each structural protein, at least five, four and tw ...19892477496
equine morbillivirus pneumonia: susceptibility of laboratory animals to the virus. 19958534238
viral serologic survey of bowhead whales in alaska.serum samples from 21 of 36 eskimo harvested bowhead whales (balaena mysticetus) were positive by virus neutralization (50% endpoint titer > or = 1:28 and/or 100% endpoint titer > or = 1:20) for antibodies to at least one virus serotype from the calicivirus family, vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and san miguel sea lion virus (smsv). many animals were positive to more than one serotype when using the spearman-karber (s-k) method for calculating antibody titers. the most common serotype ...19989476224
newly discovered viruses of flying foxes.flying foxes have been the focus of research into three newly described viruses from the order mononegavirales, namely hendra virus (hev), menangle virus and australian bat lyssavirus (abl). early investigations indicate that flying foxes are the reservoir host for these viruses. in 1994, two outbreaks of a new zoonotic disease affecting horses and humans occurred in queensland. the virus which was found to be responsible was called equine morbillivirus (emv) and has since been renamed hev. inve ...199910501164
the exceptionally large genome of hendra virus: support for creation of a new genus within the family outbreak of acute respiratory disease in hendra, a suburb of brisbane, australia, in september 1994 resulted in the deaths of 14 racing horses and a horse trainer. the causative agent was a new member of the family paramyxoviridae. the virus was originally called equine morbillivirus but was renamed hendra virus (hev) when molecular characterization highlighted differences between it and members of the genus morbillivirus. less than 5 years later, the closely related nipah virus (niv) emerged ...200011024125
emerging viral diseases of southeast asia and the western pacific.over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vectorborne viral diseases have emerged in southeast asia and the western pacific. vectorborne disease agents discussed in this article include japanese encephalitis, barmah forest, ross river, and chikungunya viruses. however, most emerging viruses have been zoonotic, with fruit bats, including flying fox species as the probable wildlife hosts, and these will be discussed as well. the first of these disease agents to emerge was hendra virus, forme ...200111485641
emerging encephalitogenic viruses: lyssaviruses and henipaviruses transmitted by frugivorous bats.three newly recognized encephalitogenic zoonotic viruses spread from fruit bats of the genus pteropus (order chiroptera, suborder megachiroptera) have been recognised over the past decade. these are: hendra virus, formerly named equine morbillivirus, which was responsible for an outbreak of disease in horses and humans in brisbane, australia, in 1994; australian bat lyssavirus, the cause of a severe acute encephalitis, in 1996; and nipah virus, the cause of a major outbreak of encephalitis and p ...200415119765
[enhancement of measles-mumps divaccine using myelopeptide 2 in experiment].combined application of mumps and measles vaccine strains in equal doses results in significant decrease of immune response to the former component in humans. it is possible that this phenomenon is related with well-known immunodepressive effect of measles virus, which was demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. it was previously shown that myelopeptide-2 (mp-2) partially neutralizes suppressive effect of measles vaccine on blast transformation of activated human lymphocytes in vitro. partial su ...200718283736
[nipah encephalitis].nipah encephalitis is a particular dangerous disease that affects animals and man. fatal cases of the disease have been identified in the persons looking after pigs in the villages of malaysia. the causative agent is presumably referred to as morbilliviruses of the paramixoviridae family. two hundred persons died among the ill patients with the signs of encephalitis. the principal hosts of the virus were fox-bats (megaschiroptera) inhabiting in the surrounding forests. the present paper descries ...200818450103
henipaviruses: a new family of emerging paramyxoviruses.paramyxoviruses have been implicated in both animal and human infections. some viruses, such as morbilliviruses are responsible for large-scale epidemics. however, there are limited observations of these viruses crossing the host species barrier in nature. in 1994, in australia a fatal infection in horses and humans was identified to be caused by a new paramyxovirus, hendra virus (hev), and in 1998 in malaysia, a closely related virus, nipah virus (niv) was responsible for fatal infections in pi ...200918511217
emerging tropical diseases in australia. part 5. hendra virus.hendra virus (hev) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the brisbane suburb of hendra, australia. the affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the human cases and the deaths or putting down of 14 of the horses. the virus, isolated by culture from a horse and the kidney of the fatal human case, was initially characterised as a new member of the genus mo ...201121294944
membrane fusion tropism and heterotypic functional activities of the nipah virus and hendra virus envelope glycoproteins.nipah virus (niv) and hendra virus (hev) are novel paramyxoviruses from pigs and horses, respectively, that are responsible for fatal zoonotic infections of humans. the unique genetic and biological characteristics of these emerging agents has led to their classification as the prototypic members of a new genus within the paramyxovirinae subfamily called henipavirus: these viruses are most closely related to members of the genus morbillivirus and infect cells through a ph-independent membrane fu ...200212388678
the fusion protein of peste des petits ruminants virus mediates biological fusion in the absence of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase study the process of membrane fusion in morbilliviruses, the fusion (f) glycoproteins of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) were expressed transiently in mammalian cells. the recombinant f proteins were found to be localized at the surface of transfected cells. the fusion activity, as evident from cell fusion assays and lysis of chicken erythrocytes, documented that transiently expressed pprv f glycoprotein induces cell fusion in the absence of homotypic hemagg ...200111601920
[zoonoses caused by new viruses in the paramyxoviridae family].based on the literature data, the outbreaks of new zoonoses caused by new members of the family paramyxoviridae are briefly presented. some characteristics of hendra and nipah virus, epidemiological aspects, clinical picture and pathology are described. fruit bats are mentioned as the key to the epidemiology of hendra virus. the virus was isolated from affected humans, horses, and from the uterine fluids of a grey-headed fruit bat (pteropus poliocephalus). new morbillivirus designated nipah viru ...200111554115
update on the new virus in malaysia. 199910410627
new virus emerges in malaysia. 199910374006
antigenic and functional characterization of rinderpest virus envelope proteins using monoclonal antibodies.a total of 24 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the haemagglutinin (h) and the fusion protein (f) of rinderpest virus (rpv) were used to characterize their antigenic structure and biological properties, and to analyse natural variation in the envelope proteins of morbilliviruses. the anti-h and anti-f mabs defined seven and three distinct antigenic sites, respectively. the mabs to six sites on h were able to neutralize the infectivity of rpv. the addition of guinea-pig complement or anti-mous ...19911714940
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