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clinical signs, treatment, and postmortem lesions in dairy goats with enterotoxemia: 13 cases (1979-1982).enterotoxemia attributable to clostridium perfringens type d in goats is difficult to diagnose because of a lack of specific clinical signs or postmortem lesions, on which to base the diagnosis. this report describes the clinical signs, postmortem lesions, and clinical responses to treatment and vaccination in 4 goat herds, in which a diagnosis of enterotoxemia was confirmed. four clinical cases had the diagnosis confirmed on the basis of signs of diarrhea or sudden death and the isolation of c ...19921559880
differences in signs and lesions in sheep and goats with enterotoxemia induced by intraduodenal infusion of clostridium perfringens type d.enterotoxemia was induced in 4 lambs and 4 goat kids by continuous intraduodenal infusion of a whole culture of clostridium perfringens type d. clinical signs, hematologic values, biochemical alterations, and postmortem lesions in the lambs and goat kids were compared. the 4 lambs and 4 goat kids died within 25 hours of beginning the infusions. lesions were not observed in the gastrointestinal tract of the 4 lambs; however, severe hemorrhagic enterocolitis was found in the 4 goat kids. this diff ...19911892271
detection of clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin by elisa.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has been developed as an alternative to neutralisation tests in mice to detect clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxin in the intestinal contents of animals which have died from suspected enterotoxaemia. the test was sensitive and quantitative and gave excellent agreement with the mouse protection test.19872884704
an outbreak of enterotoxaemia caused by clostridium perfringens type d in goats in patagonia.forty-four of a flock of 117 angora goats in the rio negro province of argentina died within four days. most of the animals died shortly after the onset of clinical signs, but in a few the clinical course lasted for several days. post mortem the small and large intestines were filled with watery contents, blood and fibrin clots, and there were numerous ulcers on the mucosa. small areas of malacia were observed histologically in the brain. clostridium perfringens type d in pure culture was isolat ...19947817506
enterotoxaemia in goats.enterotoxaemia of sheep and goats occurs worldwide, but the condition in goats is poorly understood. the disease in goats is mostly caused by clostridium perfringens type d, although the role of the toxins of this microorganism in the pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. the disease occurs in three forms, peracute, acute and chronic, the cardinal clinical sign of the acute and chronic forms being diarrhoea. the main biochemical alterations are hyperglycaemia and glycosuria, while ...19968950829
effects of the intravenous administration of clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxin on young goats and lambs.young goats (n = 18) and lambs (n = 10) were compared in respect of the effects of clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxin. toxin produced neurological signs within 0.5-3 h of intravenous injection in (1) all of six kids given doses of 250, 185 or 120 mouse lethal doses 50% (mld50)/kg body weight, (2) two of the three kids given 60 mld50/kg, and (3) all of five lambs given 250 or 120 mld50/kg. six kids and three lambs given 45, 30 or 15 mld50/kg, one lamb given 60 mld50/kg, and three kids a ...19979076601
detection of clostridium perfringens type d epsilon antitoxin in serum of goats by competitive and indirect elisa.indirect and competitive elisa techniques were developed and their ability to detect antibodies to clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin in goat serum was compared. different dilutions of a hyperimmune goat serum, in serum from a colostrum-deprived kid, were used as positive controls, while sera from eleven colostrum-deprived kids were used as negative controls. the epsilon toxin antibodies in the hyperimmune serum were also measured by mouse neutralisation test (mnt). the correlation coefficien ...19979355257
experimental clostridium perfringens type d enterotoxemia in goats.the effects of intraduodenal administration of clostridium perfringens cultures and culture products in goats were evaluated to develop a reliable experimental model of enterotoxemia in this species. five conventionally reared, 11-16-week-old angora goat kids were dosed intraduodenally with whole cultures of c. perfringens type d; five similar animals were dosed with c. perfringens type d filtered culture supernatant; and a third group of five kids was dosed with c. perfringens type d washed cel ...19989539367
detection of alpha- and epsilon-toxigenic clostridium perfringens type d in sheep and goats using a dna amplification technique (pcr).clostridium perfringens isolated from sheep and goat with enterotoxaemia at necropsy and from healthy animals at slaughter were typed using specific pcr assays for the detection of the alpha-, beta- and epsilon-toxin genes. clostridium perfringens isolated from all 52 animals with pathological signs of enterotoxaemia showed the presence of the alpha- and epsilon-toxin genes but were devoid of the beta-toxin gene. these strains could therefore be identified as type d, characteristic for clostridi ...19989674169
protection of goats against experimental enterotoxaemia by vaccination with clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxoid.enterotoxaemia in goats is mainly characterized by enterocolitis, and it has been suggested that the poor efficacy of commercial vaccines in preventing the disease is due to the local action of clostridium perfringens toxin/s within the intestine, where circulating antibodies might not exert their action. five goat kids were vaccinated with an incomplete freund's adjuvant c perfringens type d epsilon toxoid vaccine on three occasions at three-week intervals, four similar kids were vaccinated wit ...19989682431
variability of serum antibody responses of goat kids to a commercial clostridium perfringens epsilon toxoid vaccine.twenty-nine angora goats were used in a trial of a commercial enterotoxaemia (pulpy kidney disease) vaccine. the animals were allocated to four groups, of which three received an initial dose of vaccine, two also received a booster of the same vaccine either 28 or 42 days after the first vaccination, and the fourth remained as an unvaccinated control group. an indirect elisa technique was used to measure the titres of clostridium perfringens type d epsilon antitoxin in serum samples taken before ...19989829304
comparison of the effects of clostridium perfringens type d culture supernates in ligated intestinal loops of goats and sheep.the effects of clostridium perfringens type d culture supernates were compared in ligated loops of the small intestine (ileum) and colon of four goat kids and four lambs, the loops being examined histopathologically and electron microscopically 7 h after inoculation. no lesions were observed in the small intestine of any animal, or in control colonic loops. in the caprine and ovine colonic loops treated with culture supernates, most goblet cells were empty and the lumina contained a layer of muc ...199910405305
pcr detection of clostridium perfringens type d in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of goats and sheep.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to identify the genes encoding the alpha, epsilon and beta toxins of clostridium perfringens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded intestinal tissues of goats and sheep. when pure cultures of cl. perfringens types b and d were used as control templates in the pcr, products of the following sizes were observed on the agarose gel: 247 bp (alpha primers), 1025 bp (beta primers) and 403 bp (epsilon primers). when used to identify cl. perfringens type d in fo ...199910432627
resistance of ovine, caprine and bovine endothelial cells to clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxin in vitro.ovine, caprine and bovine endothelial cells were grown in vitro and challenged with clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxin to compare their susceptibility to this toxin. madin darby canine kidney (mdck) cells, which are known to be susceptible to epsilon toxin, were used as a positive control. no morphological alterations were observed in any of the endothelial cell cultures tested, even after challenging with doses as high as 1200 mld50/ml of epsilon toxin. mdck cells showed contour round ...199910493114
effects of intravenous injection of clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxin in calves.in cattle, a neurological lesion similar to that produced in sheep and goats by clostridium perfringens type d enterotoxaemia has been reported. however, no causal relationship has been established between this disease and the lesion in cattle. the effects of single and multiple intravenous injections of epsilon toxin in three calves aged 6 months were studied. a further calf was inoculated intravenously with saline solution and used as a control. epsilon toxin invariably produced neurological s ...200211814324
comparison of four techniques for the detection of clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxin in intestinal contents and other body fluids of sheep and goats.polyclonal capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pc-elisa), monoclonal capture elisa (mc-elisa), mouse neutralization test (mnt), and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (ciep), were compared for their ability to detect epsilon toxin in intestinal contents and body fluids of sheep and goats. when used to evaluate intestinal contents of sheep artificially spiked with epsilon prototoxin, pc-elisa detected 0.075 mouse lethal dose (mld)50/ml, whereas the mnt, mc-elisa, and ciep detected 6, 25, and 50 ...200312661718
the early effects of clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxin in ligated intestinal loops of goats and sheep.clostridium perfringens type d produces enterotoxaemia in goats, sheep and other animals. the disease is caused by c. perfringens epsilon toxin and, while enterotoxaemia in goats is usually characterized by enterocolitis, the disease in sheep is characterized by systemic lesions (such as lung and brain oedema) with minor and inconsistent changes observed in the intestine. a possible explanation for these differences is that epsilon toxin is more promptly absorbed by the ovine than by the caprine ...200312777097
clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin increases permeability of single perfused microvessels of rat mesentery.epsilon-toxin, the primary virulence factor of clostridium perfringens type d, causes mortality in livestock, particularly sheep and goats, in which it induces an often-fatal enterotoxemia. it is believed to compromise the intestinal barrier and then enter the gut vasculature, from which it is carried systemically, causing widespread vascular endothelial damage and edema. here we used single perfused venular microvessels in rat mesentery, which enabled direct observation of permeability properti ...200516041001
evaluation of different fluids for detection of clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxin in sheep with experimental enterotoxemia.enterotoxemia caused by clostridium perfringens type d is a highly lethal disease of sheep, goats and other ruminants. the diagnosis of this condition is usually confirmed by detection of epsilon toxin, a major exotoxin produced by c. perfringens types b and d, in the intestinal content of affected animals. it has been suggested that other body fluids can also be used for detection of epsilon toxin. this study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of intestinal content versus other body fluid ...200616857397
in vitro effects of clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxin on water and ion transport in ovine and caprine intestine.clostridium perfringens type d produces enterotoxaemia in sheep, goats and other animals. the disease is caused by c. perfringens epsilon toxin, and while enterotoxaemia in goats is usually characterized by enterocolitis, the disease in sheep is characterized by systemic lesions (such as lung and brain oedema) with minor and inconsistent changes observed in the intestine. a possible explanation for these differences is that epsilon toxin is more promptly absorbed by sheep than goat intestine. in ...200316887702
virulence plasmid diversity in clostridium perfringens type d isolates.clostridium perfringens type d isolates are important in biodefense and also cause natural enterotoxemias in sheep, goats, and occasionally cattle. in these isolates, the gene (etx) encoding epsilon-toxin is thought to reside on poorly characterized large plasmids. type d isolates sometimes also produce other potentially plasmid-encoded toxins, including c. perfringens enterotoxin and beta2 toxin, encoded by the cpe and cbp2 genes, respectively. in the current study we demonstrated that the etx, ...200717339362
development and application of an oral challenge mouse model for studying clostridium perfringens type d infection.clostridium perfringens type d isolates cause enterotoxemia in sheep, goats, and probably cattle. while the major disease signs and lesions of type d animal disease are usually attributed to epsilon toxin, a class b select agent, these bacteria typically produce several lethal toxins. understanding of disease pathogenesis and development of improved vaccines are hindered by the lack of a small-animal model mimicking natural disease caused by type d isolates. addressing this need, we developed an ...200717562765
lethal effects of clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin are potentiated by alpha and perfringolysin-o toxins in a mouse model.epsilon toxin (etx) is the most important virulence factor of clostridium perfringens type d. two other important toxins, alpha toxin (cpa) and perfringolysin-o (pfo), are encoded and potentially produced by most c. perfringens type d isolates. the biological effects of these toxins are dissimilar although they are all lethal. since the possible interaction of these toxins during infection is unknown, the effects of cpa and pfo on the lethal activity of etx were studied in a mouse model. mice we ...200817997054
naturally acquired antibodies against clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin in goats.clostridium perfringens type d-producing epsilon toxin is a common cause of death in sheep and goats worldwide. although anti-epsilon toxin serum antibodies have been detected in healthy non-vaccinated sheep, the information regarding naturally acquired antibodies in ruminants is scanty. the objective of the present report was to characterize the development of naturally acquired antibodies against c. perfringens epsilon toxin in goats. the levels of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies in blood serum ...200818538416
ulcerative enterocolitis in two goats associated with enterotoxin- and beta2 toxin-positive clostridium perfringens type d.enterotoxemia caused by clostridium perfringens type d in sheep is believed to result from the action of epsilon toxin (etx). however, the sole role of etx in the intestinal changes of the acute and chronic forms of enterotoxemia in goats remains controversial, and the synergistic action of other c. perfringens toxins has been suggested previously. the current study examined 2 goats that were found dead without premonitory clinical signs. gross lesions at necropsy consisted of multifocal fibrino ...200818776108
molecular cloning and expression of epsilon toxin from clostridium perfringens type d and tests of animal immunization.epsilon toxin produced by clostridium perfringens types b and d causes enterotoxemia in sheep, goats and calves. enterotoxemia can cause acute or superacute disease, with sudden death of the affected animal. it provokes huge economic losses when large numbers of livestock are affected. therapeutic intervention is challenging, because the disease progresses very rapidly. however, it can be prevented by immunization with specific immunogenic vaccines. we cloned the etx gene, encoding epsilon toxin ...201020198582
potency against enterotoxemia of a recombinant clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxoid in ruminants.enterotoxemia, a disease that affects domestic ruminants, is caused mainly by the epsilon toxin from clostridium perfringens type d. its eradication is virtually impossible, control and prophylaxis are based on systematic vaccination of herds with epsilon toxoids that are efficient in inducing protective antibody production. the use of recombinant toxins is one of the most promising of these strategies. this work evaluates the potency of a cl. perfringens type d epsilon toxoid expressed by esche ...201020670910
focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in a goat.focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (fse) is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia caused by clostridium perfringens type d in sheep. however, this lesion has not been reported in goats. the current paper reports a case of fse in a goat from the state of paraíba in the brazilian semiarid region. as reported by the farmer, 30, 4-48-month-old animals from a flock of 150 goats died after showing nervous signs, including blindness and recumbence, for periods varying betw ...201020807946
antibody response in goats vaccinated with liposome-adjuvanted clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxoid.a trial was performed using 20 goats to evaluate the antibody responses to a liposome-adjuvanted clostridium perfringens epsilon toxoid vaccine (lipv). the antibody response was compared with those produced by epsilon toxoid vaccines prepared using aluminium hydroxide (alv) and incomplete freud's adjuvant (fav). the animals were allocated to four groups at the beginning of the trial. the animals in group 1 were vaccinated with alv, while the animals in group 2 received fav and those in groups 3 ...199910401718
caprine enterotoxaemia associated with cerebral microangiopathy.cerebral microangiopathy is described in naturally occurring clostridial enterotoxaemia in two goats. the two cases were selected from the files of two diagnostic laboratories in australia, on the basis that the clinical syndrome and history were consistent with a diagnosis of enterotoxaemia, and that the diagnosis was confirmed by the identification of epsilon toxin in the intestinal contents. the lesions consisted of acute perivascular proteinaceous exudate in the brain and bilaterally symmetr ...19979301010
[clostridium perfringens type d enterotoxemia of goats in switzerland. pathologico-anatomical and bacteriological studies]. 19846091266
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