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human escherichia coli o157:h7 infection associated with the consumption of unpasteurized goat's milk.a cluster of four cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in children occurred in northern bohemia, czech republic, between 15 june and 7 july, 1995. all the cases had significantly elevated titres of anti-o157 lipopolysaccharide (lps) antibodies as detected by the indirect haemagglutination assay. all but one of them had drunk unpasteurized goat's milk from the same farm within the week before the disease. evidence of e. coli o157 infection was subsequently found in 5 of 15 regular drinkers of the ...19979440432
public health hazards from small ruminant meat products in europe.foodborne diseases, in particular those related to meat and meat products, have recently become a matter of great public concern. sheep and goat meat can transmit infections and diseases either through handling during preparation procedures or as a result of ingestion by the consumer. the authors highlight the second route of contamination in relation to meat and meat products from small ruminants in european countries. among the most important diseases transmitted by mutton and goat meat, toxop ...19979501355
development of a colony lift immunoassay to facilitate rapid detection and quantification of escherichia coli o157:h7 from agar plates and filter monitor membranes.e. coli o157:h7 is a food-borne adulterant that can cause hemorrhagic ulcerative colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. faced with an increasing risk of foods contaminated with e. coli o157:h7, food safety officials are seeking improved methods to detect and isolate e. coli o157:h7 in hazard analysis and critical control point systems in meat- and poultry-processing plants. a colony lift immunoassay was developed to facilitate the positive identification and quantification of e. coli o157:h7 by ...19989665968
immunomagnetic separation and flow cytometry for rapid detection of escherichia coli o157:h7.a rapid method for detecting escherichia coli o157:h7 combining immunomagnetic beads (imb) and flow cytometry was developed. labeling antigens separated by imb with fluorescent antibody enabled the detection of < 10(3) cfu bacteria per ml in pure culture. the optimum concentration of magnetic beads for flow cytometry was lower (ca. 10(5) particles per ml) than that reported for conventional imb assay (more than 6 x 10(6) to 8 x 10(6) particles per ml). immunomagnetic separation and flow cytometr ...19989678161
development of a magnetic microplate chemifluorimmunoassay for rapid detection of bacteria and toxin in blood.a magnetic microplate chemifluorimmunoassay (mmcia) is described using an immunomagnetic separation and a fluorescent microplate technique for rapid detection of low-level escherichia coli o157:h7, bacillus subtilis var. niger spores, and staphylococcal enterotoxin type b from whole blood. in general, the mmcia has at least several-fold more sensitivity than the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. in addition, the assay sensitivities using direct fluorochrome label as the reporter, o ...19989683505
health risks associated with unpasteurized goats' and ewes' milk on retail sale in england and wales. a phls dairy products working group study.a pilot study to determine the microbiological quality of unpasteurized milk from goats and ewes sampled from farm shops, health food shops, and other retail premises found that 47%, (47/100) of goats' and 50% (13/26) of ewes' milk samples failed the standards prescribed by the dairy products (hygiene) regulations 1995. in addition, staphylococcus aureus, haemolytic streptococci or enterococci, were present in excess of 10(2) c.f.u./ml in 9 (7 %) 2 (2 %) and 19 (15%) samples, respectively. salmo ...199910459642
fluorescence of dietary porphyrins as a basis for real-time detection of fecal contamination on meat.digestion of green plants in the gastrointestinal (gi) tract produces degradation products from chlorophyll that cause ingesta and feces to be highly fluorescent. this property was exploited for development and construction of instruments to noninvasively detect minute quantities of feces on meat samples in real time. the presence of feces on meat products is a primary source of foodborne pathogens, such as escherichia coli o157:h7 and salmonella. this new technology provides a rapid and accurat ...200312744689
isolation of a rare escherichia coli o157:h7 strain from farm animals in greece.a strain of escherichia coli o157:h7 was isolated from goat faeces during a surveillance study on the prevalence of this serotype of e. coli in farm animals in greece. three hundred and fifty one faecal samples were collected from goat, sheep and cattle breeding farms in the area of epirus, northwestern greece. the e. coli o157:h7 isolate was nonsorbitol-fermenter, produced only vt2 and showed a beta-glucuronidase positive activity, a rather unusual biochemical feature for the e. coli o157:h7 se ...200415001315
development of a novel hand-held immunoassay for the detection of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7.escherichia coli o157:h7 is an important human pathogen responsible for numerous outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome world-wide. a portable detection device is needed for field testing and point-of-care testing. poly(dimethylsiloxane) (pdms) is a solid substrate well suited for adsorption of macromolecules. the purpose of this study was to develop a hand-held enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of e. coli o157:h7 antigens. the prototype consiste ...200415320634
isolation of escherichia coli o157:h7 from foods in greece.the presence of escherichia coli o157:h7 in various foods of animal origin was surveyed in northwestern greece. six hundred samples of unpasteurized cows', ewes' and goats' milk, raw minced meat, uncooked frozen beef hamburgers, sandwiches (containing ham or turkey, mixed vegetable salad with mayonnaise and lettuce), fresh traditional greek pork sausages and swine intestines appropriate for traditional greek kokoretsi were assayed for e. coli serogroup o157:h7 using the standard cultural method ...200312593930
detection of salmonella strains and escherichia coli o157:h7 in feces of small ruminants and their isolation with various media.salmonella strains and escherichia coli o157:h7 were detected in 17 and 5 small ruminants in virginia, respectively, of 287 tested. background microflora interfered with the fecal analysis. the combination of salmonella enzyme immunoassay (eia) detection and xylose-lysine-deoxycholate agar isolation was satisfactory. modifying enrichment to a 1:100 dilution enabled effective e. coli o157:h7 detection by eia and isolation by sorbitol-macconkey agar with cefixime-tellurite.200515812051
microbial food borne pathogens. escherichia coli o157:h7.escherichia coli o157:h7 has emerged in the past 20 years as a pathogen of public health importance. although most e. coli are normal flora in the colons of humans and other warm-blooded animals, several strains are capable of causing disease in humans. in recent years, e. coli o157:h7 and other shiga-like toxin-producing strains have been transmitted via foods and caused disease ranging from bloody diarrhea, and in more severe cases, hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombocytopenic purpura. the r ...19989532666
petting zoo-associated escherichia coli 0157:h7--secondary transmission, asymptomatic infection, and prolonged shedding in the classroom. 200415536809
magnetic nanoparticle-antibody conjugates for the separation of escherichia coli o157:h7 in ground beef.the immunomagnetic separation with magnetic nanoparticle-antibody conjugates (mncs) was investigated and evaluated for the detection of escherichia coli o157:h7 in ground beef samples. mncs were prepared by immobilizing biotin-labeled polyclonal goat anti-e. coli antibodies onto streptavidin-coated magnetic nanoparticles. for bacterial separation, mncs were mixed with inoculated ground beef samples, then nanoparticle-antibody-e. coli o157:h7 complexes were separated from food matrix with a magne ...200516161677
colonization of 8-week-old conventionally reared goats by escherichia coli o157 : h7 after oral inoculation.enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli o157 : h7 infections of man have been associated with consumption of unpasteurized goat's milk and direct contact with kid goats on petting farms, yet little is known about colonization of goats with this organism. to assess the contribution of flagella and intimin of e. coli o157 : h7 in colonization of the goat, 8-week-old conventionally reared goats were inoculated orally in separate experiments with 1x10(10) c.f.u. of a non-verotoxigenic strain of e. coli ...200515824429
growth and survival of escherichia coli o157:h7 during the manufacture and ripening of raw goat milk lactic cheeses.the behaviour of escherichia coli o157:h7 was studied during the manufacture and ripening of raw goat milk lactic cheeses. cheese was manufactured from raw milk in the laboratory and inoculated with e. coli o157:h7 to a final concentration of 10, 100 and 1000 cfu ml(-1). e. coli o157:h7 was counted by ct-smac (mac conkey sorbitol agar with cefixim and tellurite) and o157:h7 id throughout the manufacturing and ripening processes. when the milk was inoculated with 10, 100 or 1000 cfu ml(-1), count ...200516055219
shiga-toxigenic escherichia coli o157 in agricultural fair livestock, united states.agricultural fairs exhibiting livestock are increasingly implicated in human shiga-toxigenic escherichia coli o157:h7 (stec o157:h7) outbreaks. to estimate livestock stec o157:h7 prevalence at us fairs, we collected 2,919 fecal specimens at 29 county fairs in 2 states and at 3 state fairs in 2002. fly pools were also collected. stec o157:h7 was isolated from livestock at 31 (96.9%) of 32 fairs, including 11.4% of 1,407 cattle, 1.2% of 1,102 swine, 3.6% of 364 sheep and goats, and 5.2% of 154 fly ...200616704838
failure to detect transmission of escherichia coli o157:h7 from orally dosed nannies to sucking kids at foot. 200516299368
interdigitated array microelectrode based impedance biosensor coupled with magnetic nanoparticle-antibody conjugates for detection of escherichia coli o157:h7 in food samples.an impedance biosensor based on interdigitated array microelectrode (idam) coupled with magnetic nanoparticle-antibody conjugates (mnac) was developed and evaluated for rapid and specific detection of e. coli o157:h7 in ground beef samples. mnac were prepared by immobilizing biotin-labeled polyclonal goat anti-e. coli antibodies onto streptavidin-coated magnetic nanoparticles, which were used to separate and concentrate e. coli o157:h7 from ground beef samples. magnitude of impedance and phase a ...200717045791
genotypic and phenotypic diversity of lactococcus lactis isolates from batzos, a greek pdo raw goat milk cheese.the genotypic and phenotypic variability of 40 lactococcus lactis isolates obtained from three cheese-making trials of batzos cheese made one in each, winter, spring and summer was investigated. rapd-pcr, plasmid profiling and pfge were used to study the genetic variability and distinguish closely related isolates. results showed a high degree of heterogeneity among strains. according to pfge data, all strains except one were clustered together (at a similarity level of approximately 50%) with t ...200717241681
zoonoses associated with petting farms and open zoos.the popularity of open farms and petting zoos has increased markedly over the last 5 years, with most children in developed countries now having the opportunity to visit such a facility at some stage in their childhood, either through school or family visits. the open access policy of these establishments allows visitors to be in direct contact with animals such as sheep (lambs), goats, cats (kittens), dogs (puppies), and birds and to have the opportunity to feed such animals. this contact may l ...200818052811
outbreak of escherichia coli 0157:h7 related to animal contact at a petting zoo.to determine the cause of an outbreak of escherichia coli 0157:h7 related to animal exposures so that further transmission could be prevented.200218159389
attaching-effacing lesions associated with escherichia coli o157:h7 and other bacteria in experimentally infected conventional neonatal goats.four conventionally reared goats aged 6 days were inoculated orally with approximately 10(10) colony-forming units (cfu) of a non-verotoxigenic strain of escherichia coli o157:h7. all remained clinically normal. tissues were sampled under terminal anaesthesia at 24 (two animals), 48 and 72 h post-inoculation (hpi). e. coli o157:h7 was cultured from the ileum, caecum, colon and rectum of all animals, but the number of bacteria recovered at these sites varied between animals. attaching-effacing (a ...200515737345
low incidence of foodborne pathogens of concern in raw milk utilized for farmstead cheese production.overall milk quality and prevalence of four target pathogens in raw milk destined for farmstead cheesemaking was examined. raw milk samples were collected weekly from june to september 2006 from 11 farmstead cheese operations manufacturing raw milk cheese from cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk. samples were screened for listeria monocytogenes, staphylococcus aureus, salmonella, and escherichia coli o157:h7 both quantitatively (direct plating) and qualitatively (pcr). overall, 96.8% of samples had ...200818724751
adaptation of escherichia coli o157:h7 to acid in traditional and commercial goat milk amasi.acid resistance of escherichia coli o157:h7 strains ut 10 and ut 15 were determined in traditional amasi fermented for 3 days at ambient temperature (ca 30 degrees c) and commercial amasi fermented at 30 degrees c for 24h and stored at 7 degrees c for 2 days. escherichia coli o157:h7 counts in commercial amasi were detected at 2.7 log(10)cfu/ml after 3 days while those in traditional amasi could not be detected after the same period. there was no significant difference (p< or =0.05) in the survi ...200919028306
stx2vha is the dominant genotype of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli o157:h7 isolated from patients and domestic animals in three regions of china.shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli(stec) o157: h7 strains were isolated from domestic animals and patients from xuzhou city, jiangsu province, china and the bordering anhui and henan provinces and were examined for the stx genotype. of 390 strains, 277 were identified as genotype stx2vha ; 41, stx2 ; 51, stx2-stx1 ; 1, stx2-stx2vha-stx1 ; 5, stx2-stx2vha ; and 15 were un-typeable. of the 277 stx2vha-bearing isolates, 116 were isolated from goats; 42, cattle; 38, hens, and 35 from pigs. the s ...200516365526
occurrence of escherichia coli o157:h7 in retail raw meat products in ethiopia.escherichia coli o157:h7 (e. coli o157:h7) is now recognized as a major cause of diarrhoea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome worldwide. consumption of raw or undercooked meat of bovine origin has been the most common means of transmitting this organism.200819745509
occurrence of escherichia coli o157:h7 in faeces, skin and carcasses from sheep and goats in ethiopia.to determine the occurrence and proportion of escherichia coli o157:h7 in faeces, skin swabs and carcasses before and after washing, from sheep and goats in ethiopia.201019895421
pheno-genotypic characterisation of escherichia coli o157:h7 isolates from domestic and wild ruminants.shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) o157:h7 represents a major public health concern worldwide, with ruminants recognised as their main natural reservoir. the aim of this work was to determine the phenotypic features and genetic relationships of 46 e. coli o157:h7 isolates obtained from sheep, cattle and deer faeces and from unpasteurised goat milk in spain over a period of 11 years. characterisation was performed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), phage typing and pulsed-field gel el ...201019914011
microbiological quality of raw milk used for small-scale artisan cheese production in vermont: effect of farm characteristics and practices.this study 1) evaluated the overall milk quality and prevalence of 4 target pathogens (listeria monocytogenes, staphylococcus aureus, salmonella spp., and escherichia coli o157:h7) in raw milk used for small-scale artisan cheesemaking and 2) examined specific farm characteristics and practices and their effect on bacterial and somatic cell counts (scc). raw milk samples were collected weekly from 21 artisan cheese operations (6 organic) in the state of vermont that manufactured raw-milk cheese f ...201020059912
low prevalence of escherichia coli o157:h7 in horses in ohio, usa.manure from draft animals deposited in fields during vegetable and fruit production may serve as a potential source of preharvest pathogen contamination of foods. to better quantify this risk, we determined the prevalence of escherichia coli o157:h7 in horses. between june and september 2009, freshly voided fecal samples were collected from horses stabled on 242 separate premises in ohio, usa. overall, the prevalence of e. coli o157:h7 was 1 of 242 (0.4% prevalence, 95% confidence interval [ci] ...201021219723
prevalence of escherichia coli o157:h7 on hides and faeces of ruminants at slaughter in two major abattoirs in nigeria.aim:ôçé to determine the occurrence of escherichia coli o157: h7 in hides and faeces of slaughtered ruminants in nigeria. methods and results:ôçé a total number of 320 animals were sampled from january to december covering the wet and harmattan seasons. samples were obtained from the hides and faeces of animals at slaughter. the iso (iso 16654:2001, microbiology of food and animal feedingstuffs - horizontal method for the detection of escherichia coli o157) method for enrichment and isolation of ...201121722147
intranasal immunisation with stx2b-tir-stx1b-zot protein leads to decreased shedding in goats after challenge with escherichia coli o157:h7.ruminants are an important reservoir of escherichia coli o157:h7. to reduce e coli o157:h7 excretion by these animals could play a key role in prevention and control of human infections. in the present study, the authors used 12 three-month-old goats to evaluate the efficacy of intranasal administration of the stx2b-tir-stx1b-zot protein. these goats were inoculated on days 0 and 21 and infected with 10(10) colony-forming units (cfu) of e coli o157:h7 by oral inoculation on day 36. faecal sheddi ...201122186381
influence of colostrum deprivation and concurrent cryptosporidium parvum infection on the colonization and persistence of escherichia coli o157 : h7 in young lambs.escherichia coli o157 : h7 and cryptosporidium parvum infections of man have been associated with direct contact with small ruminants. colostrum protects neonates against gastrointestinal pathogens, and orphan lambs, which are common on petting farms, may be deprived of this protection. in a recent study, it was demonstrated that high shedding of e. coli o157 : h7 by an 8-week-old goat kid was associated with coincidental c. parvum infection. furthermore, both pathogens were co-located in the di ...200616772407
escherichia coli o157:h7 colonization in small domestic ruminants.enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 was first implicated in human disease in the early 1980s, with ruminants cited as the primary reservoirs. preliminary studies indicated cattle to be the sole source of e. coli o157:h7 outbreaks in humans; however, further epidemiological studies soon demonstrated that e. coli o157:h7 was widespread in other food sources and that a number of transmission routes existed. more recently, small domestic ruminants (sheep and goats) have emerged as important ...200919207740
isolation of lactoferrin from milk of different species: calorimetric and antimicrobial studies.lactoferrin (lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein found in different biological fluids of mammals and in neutrophils. it has been proposed to be involved in many functions, including protection from pathogens. in this work, purification of lactoferrin using an ion-exchange chromatography (sp-sepharose) was attempted for the milk of the following animals: sheep (ovis aries), goat (capra hircus), camel (camelus bactrianus), alpaca (lama pacos), elephant (elephas maximus) and grey seal (halichoerus ...200818387837
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