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influenza virus in ruminants: a review.the host range and pathology of influenza viruses in ruminants is not yet known. however, based on published results of serological and viral studies the following epidemiological features are documented. positive serology using the complement-fixation technique has been reported for a2/japan/305/57, sw/15, sw/shope/58, a/equi/prague/57, and b/johannesburg/59 in the united states and against a and b viruses in italy. using the hemagglutination inhibition test, positive findings have been reporte ...19846390588
retrospective analysis of serum and nasal mucus from cattle in northern ireland for evidence of infection with influenza a virus.eighty-four pairs of acute and convalescent serum samples collected in 1998 and 1999 from 17 outbreaks of respiratory disease, milk drop syndrome or diarrhoea in cattle were tested by haemagglutination inhibition against human influenza viruses a/eng/333/80 (hin1) and a/eng/427/88 (h3n2). antibodies to these viruses were present in the convalescent sera of 56.5 per cent and 58.8 per cent cattle tested, respectively, with 56 per cent of the animals seroconverting to one or both viruses. titres we ...200211878437
significant rising antibody titres to influenza a are associated with an acute reduction in milk yield in cattle.sporadic cases of an acute fall in milk production, "milk drop", were investigated in a holstein friesian dairy herd in devon. the investigation was a case control study with two controls per case. paired blood samples demonstrated that rising antibody titres to human influenza a/england/333/80 (h1n1) and human influenza a/eng/427/88 (h3n2) were associated with an acute fall in milk production. rising titres to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvd), infect ...200817851097
recent zoonoses caused by influenza a viruses.influenza is a highly contagious, acute illness which has afflicted humans and animals since ancient times. influenza viruses are part of the orthomyxoviridae family and are grouped into types a, b and c according to antigenic characteristics of the core proteins. influenza a viruses infect a large variety of animal species, including humans, pigs, horses, sea mammals and birds, occasionally producing devastating pandemics in humans, such as in 1918, when over twenty million deaths occurred worl ...200011189716
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