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[immune complex binding by erythrocytes and its significance in the destruction of these cells during immunization].immunization of balb/c mice by sheep red blood cells and salmonella typhi vaccine has been shown to augment the immune complexes in plasma and erythrocytes in blood fixing the immune complexes on their surface. the inactivation of immune complexes in immunized mice by intravenous injection of the antiserum against aggregated immunoglobulins decreases the hemoglobin in blood serum. the data obtained show that the fixation of immune complexes on erythrocytes is one of the reasons of erythrocytes d ...19863814662
improvement of the indirect hemagglutination assay for salmonella typhi vi antibodies by use of glutaraldehyde-fixed erythrocytes.glutaraldehyde-fixed sheep erythrocytes sensitized with vi antigen were shown to be usable for at least 1 year in the indirect hemagglutination assay for vi antibodies. the use of fixed sensitized erythrocytes improves the practicality of the indirect hemagglutination assay by (i) eliminating the need to sensitize cells each time the test is performed; (ii) reducing waste of the purified vi antigen; and (iii) reducing test-to-test variation.19853935664
comparison of the haemodynamic effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition and nitric oxide scavenging in endotoxaemic sheep.the present study compared the effects of nitric oxide (no) synthase inhibition and no scavenging with haemoglobin in endotoxaemic sheep.19989503222
the adjuvant effect of pertussis endotoxin protein in modulating the immune response to cholera toxoid in mice.endotoxin protein represents a group of immunobiologically active p polypeptides which are associated with the lipopolysaccharide endotoxin in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. to study the adjuvant effect of endotoxin protein, cf-1 mice were immunized intraperitoneally with graded doses of glutaraldehyde-inactivated cholera toxoid with and without endotoxin protein prepared from bordetella pertussis, salmonella typhi or vibrio cholerae. immune responsiveness was assessed by measurin ...19852872108
role of nitric oxide in sepsis-associated pulmonary edema.transient pulmonary hypertension after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (nos) does not alter pulmonary reflection coefficients or lymph flows in endotoxemic sheep. to test the effects of persistent pulmonary hypertension induced by n omega-nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-name) and of inhaled no on pulmonary edema, 18 sheep (three groups) were chronically instrumented with pulmonary artery catheters, femoral arterial fiberoptic thermistor catheters, and tracheostomy. the awake, spontaneously b ...19999872846
haemagglutination system for the simultaneous detection of lps and anti lps antibodies of s.typhi.in view of the limitations of widal test for the diagnosis of typhoid, haemagglutination test using sensitized sheep red blood cells was designed at our laboratory. the test gave only 1.8% positivity at 1:40 dilution among 500 normal persons. eighteen of the 30 culture proven cases gave the ha test positive while the positivity was 62.5% among suspected cases of typhoid. thus, the anti lps haemagglutination test showed a sensitivity of 60% and specificity of 98.2%. the positive predictive value ...19979491679
haemodynamic effects of dopexamine and nitric oxide synthase inhibition in healthy and endotoxaemic sheep.chronically instrumented awake healthy sheep (n = 6) received the synthetic catecholamine, dopexamine, during or without a background infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. l-nitro-arginine-methylester (l-name). three days later, hypotensive-hyperdynamic circulation was induced and maintained by continuous infusion of salmonella typhosa endotoxin (10 ng/kg per min). after 24 h of continuous endotoxin infusion, the dopexamine l-name protocol was repeated. in healthy and endotoxaemic ani ...19979314033
effect of onion extract on immune response in rabbits.a total of 40 nzw rabbits were selected for this study to see the effect of onion extract on immune response following antigenic challenge. these animals were randomly divided into four groups, each composed of ten rabbits. group i and ii were challenged with typhoid h (th) antigen and groups iii and iv with sheep red blood cells (srbc). groups i and iii were considered as control and ii and iv as treated groups. the latter two groups were treated with onion extract orally. the immunosuppressive ...19969103661
regulation of ram scrotal temperature during heat exposure, cold exposure, fever and exercise.1. we measured body core and scrotal temperatures (tbody and tscrotum, respectively) of rams during 5 h of hot (40 degrees c) and cold (6 degrees c) exposure, for 6 h following intravenous injections of saline (0.9% nacl) or 0.4 micrograms kg-1 of the purified lipopolysaccharide endotoxin of salmonella typhosa (lps), during 40 min of treadmill exercise, and for several days in their pens. 2. at 20-23 degrees c ambient temperature there were significant, but out of phase, circadian variations in ...19968910226
nitric oxide synthase inhibition restores vasopressor effects of norepinephrine in ovine hyperdynamic sepsis.to investigate the hypothesis that nitric oxide synthase (nos) inhibition restores the vasopressor response to norepinephrine (ne) in ovine hyperdynamic sepsis, eight sheep were chronically instrumented. in the non-septic portion of the study, ne was titrated to achieve an increase in mean arterial pressure (map) by 15 mm hg ("small dose"). small-dose ne was repeated 1 h after administration of the nos inhibitor ng-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-name; bolus 5 mg/kg, followed by 1 mg.kg-1.h-1). ...19968895277
muscarinic cholinergic receptors of rat lymphocytes: effect of antigen stimulation and local brain lesion.expression of muscarinic cholinergic receptors (m-achr) on thymocytes and lymphocytes supports a hypothesis of direct interaction between autonomic innervation and the immune system. using a muscarinic antagonist, [3h]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3h]qnb), we revealed different characteristics of m-achr expression in lymphocytes isolated from the spleen, peripheral blood or thymus of wistar rats. to further explore the mechanisms controlling m-achr expression in lymphocytes we have addressed two que ...19947489341
[erythrocyte tanning and the characteristics of protein sensitins]. 19827080743
[increase in the number of antibody-secreting cells and cells secreting non-specific immunoglobulins following mouse immunization with t-dependent and t-independent antigens].balb/c mice were immunized with sheep red blood cells (t-dependent antigen) or with vi-antigen salmonella typhi (t-independent antigen). the kinetics of the development of antibody-forming and nonspecific immunoglobulin-forming cells (afc and nifc) was examined. it was shown that both antigens induce an increase in the nifc number. the time course of afc and nifc growth during the primary and secondary immune responses appeared to be similar. simultaneous injection of both antigens resulted in t ...19816975132
[a reactivity to polyclonal stimulation of immunogenesis with salmozan after its repeated administration].the injection of 100 micrograms of salmozan (polysaccharide isolated from salmonella typhi somatic o-antigen) or 50 micrograms of escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide into mice induced a considerable increase in the number of antibody-forming cells in the spleen in response to the injection of sheep red blood cells (srbc) 2-3 days later. this polyclonal effect was essentially weaker if the animals previously received 500 micrograms of salmozan (9-10 days prior to the injection of srbc). the absen ...19836362293
complexing of bacterial lipopolysaccharide with lung surfactant.lipopolysaccharides (lps) from escherichia coli, salmonella typhi, klebsiella pneumoniae, serratia marcescens, or pseudomonas aeruginosa were mixed with pulmonary surfactant to investigate their in vitro interaction. after 6 h of incubation at 37 degrees c, lps-surfactant mixtures were examined by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. the e. coli lps-surfactant mixture was examined by immunoelectron microscopy with protein a-colloidal gold. the binding that occurred between lps and the surfac ...19863754848
the effect of some thymic extracts on antibody formation in rats and mice.the influence of some thymic extracts tp1 and tp2 on the number of hemolytic plaque-forming cells (pfc) in the mouse spleen, on the titre of serum antibodies, s-typhy antiflagelar agglutinins and anti-influenza antibodies, was investigated. the results have shown that the hemolytic plaque-forming cells in the mouse spleen increase significantly, 2.3 times under the influence of the tp2 thymic extract in rap mice inoculated with sheep red cells. in wistar rats, inoculated with a formol-inactivate ...19863643647
ocimum sanctum--a preliminary study evaluating its immunoregulatory profile in albino rats.a methanol extract and an aqueous suspension of ocimum sanctum leaves were investigated for their immunoregulatory profile to antigenic challenge of salmonella typhosa and sheep erythrocytes by quantifying agglutinating antibodies employing the widal agglutination and sheep erythrocyte agglutination tests and e-rosette formation in albino rats. the data of the study indicate an immunostimulation of humoral immunologic response as represented by an increase in antibody titre in both the widal and ...19883253489
rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever.a reverse passive haemagglutination test (rpha) was designed for the detection of salmonella typhi antigen and rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever. two per cent fresh sheep rbc's were coated with 32 micrograms/ml of immunoglobulin. the minimal detectable level of the antigen was 1250 micrograms/ml. cross reactions were observed with the samples of patients suffering from salmonella paratyphi a and pseudomonas infections. the rpha established was used for the detection of s. typhi antigen in culture ...199810773905
[immunomodulating properties of salmozan and its effect on the functional activity of macrophages].the effect of salmozan on the resistance of mice to listeria monocytogenes infection, the formation of delayed hypersensitivity (dh) to sheep red blood cells in the animals, as well as changes in some functional activity characteristics of macrophages have been studied. the study has revealed that salmozan enhances anti-infectious resistance, suppresses the dermal manifestations of dh, and decreases the level of 5'-nucleotidase in peritoneal macrophages, stimulating their phagocytic activity. th ...19882842987
[the neutrophil receptor apparatus in typhoid fever].in 157 typhoid fever patients and 36 practically healthy persons the content of neutrophils forming complement-dependent rosettes (neac rosette-forming cells), as well as rosettes with sheep red blood cells (ne rosette-forming cells) and with typhoid erythrocyte diagnosticum (ns rosette-forming cells), has been studied. the data obtained in this investigation indicate that antigen-binding neutrophils play an active functional role in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever at its acute stage. the valu ...19892476899
comparison of passive haemagglutination test with widal agglutination test for serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in an endemic area.a passive haemagglutination test, using sheep red blood cells sensitised with salmonella typhi lipopolysaccharide, was compared with the widal test for the serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in an endemic area. the results obtained on sera from 152 patients with bacteriologically confirmed typhoid and 183 patients who did not have typhoid were analysed in terms of sensitivity, specificity, simplicity, and rapidity of the respective tests. the passive haemagglutination test was found to be mo ...19862424936
comparison of endotoxins and cutaneous burn toxin as immunosuppressants.endotoxins of e. coli, s. typhosa and ps. aeruginosa were injected i.p. into mice a few days before administration of the antigen sheep erythrocytes (se). antibody-forming cells (afc) to se were later enumerated in relation to dose of endotoxin given. in comparison a toxic lipid protein isolated from burned skin (cutaneous burn toxin or cbt) was similarly applied and found to be more inhibitory of the immune response than any of the three endotoxins. considering the 50 per cent inhibitory doses ...19902112393
il-1 gene expression in lymphoid tissues.we examined the expression of il-1 mrna in vivo by in situ hybridization. rna probes for murine il-1 alpha and il-1 beta were used to detect il-1 mrna in frozen sections of spleen, lymph node, and thymus of mice injected with salmonella typhi lps or srbc. no il-1 was detected in lymphoid tissues from un-injected mice. this lack of expression correlated with the absence of il-1 biologic activity. however, after lps injection, il-1 alpha and beta mrna expression was found in macrophages of the red ...19911987277
inhibition of chemotaxis of neutrophil leukocytes to interleukin-8 by endotoxins of various bacteria.the effects of endotoxins from various bacteria (escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, vibrio cholerae, shigella flexneri, salmonella typhosa, and pseudomonas aeruginosa) on chemotaxis of neutrophil leukocytes to formyl peptide and interleukin-8 were tested in an improved chemotaxis assay involving a "sparse-pore" polycarbonate (nuclepore) membrane in a boyden-type chamber. the possible chemotactic activity of the endotoxins themselves were tested by the same technique. in addition, the effec ...19911937782
opposite effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis of two bone marrow-derived macrophage cell lines, bdm-1 and bdm-1w3.we have reported the isolation and characterization of three factor-dependent macrophage cell lines from bone marrow cells of c3h/hen mice. we have since isolated a subclone, bdm-1w3, from one of these cell lines. we found previously that bdm-1w3 has a different sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps) for growth than its parental cell line, bdm-1. in this report, we show that lps inhibits bdm-1w3 phagocytosis of antibody-coated sheep erythrocytes (fc-mediated phagocytosis), whereas it ...19911813146
induction of antibody response by antigen conjugates and e. coli lipopolysaccharide in mice tolerant to dextran b-512.three groups of mice were made tolerant to dextran (dex) with one of three schedules: a) an immunogenic dose of 10 micrograms three times a week for 26 weeks; b) an immunogenic dose of 50 micrograms three times a week for two weeks, and c) a single tolerogenic dose of 10 mg. prior to tolerance induction, continuous administration of 10 micrograms dex induced a predominantly igm antibody response. the tolerant mice were then challenged with immunogenic doses of the dextran conjugates dex-salmonel ...19901701285
[immunomodulating action of heteropolysaccharides isolated from camomile flowers].administration of heteropolysaccharides from the camomile flower clusters to rats which failed to perform a physical load (swimming) resulted in stimulation of development of the immune response to srbcs. however, it did not influence development of the immune response to a bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the rats. a short-term exposure of the swimming animals to high doses of the heteropolysaccharides increased development of the immune response induced by their lipopolysaccharide. a long-term ...19921417336
[study and preparation of vi-pha reagent and its application for detection of salmonella typhi carriers].purified s. typhi vi antigen is sensitized with equal volume of tannic acid treated formalational sheep erythrocytes (srbc) at a final concentration of 1 microgram/ml. the vi-passive hemagglutination assay (vi-pha) diagnostic reagent is developed to detect vi antibodies to s. typhi for the detection of chronic carriers after typhoid fever and the screening s. typhi healthy carriers from food-handlers, which is characterized with high sensitivity, strong specificity and good stability. this vi-ph ...19921413737
evaluation of modified passive haemagglutination assay for vi antibody estimation in salmonella typhi infections.a simple passive haemmagglutination assay (pha) was developed to detect vi antibodies, to improve the diagnosis of typhoid fever by small laboratories. the vi capsular antigen of salmonella typhi was extracted by alternate alcohol and acetone precipitation. formalin fixed, sheep red blood cells treated with chromium chloride were sensitised with this vi antigen and antibodies detected and measured by pha. the test had a sensitivity of 83.3% among 30 cases of typhoid fever confirmed by culture. t ...19921401194
early multiple organ failure after recurrent endotoxemia in the presence of vasoconstrictor-masked hypovolemia.critically ill patients who develop multiple organ failure during systemic inflammatory states are often predisposed to hypovolemia and vasoconstrictor therapy. although numerous investigations have evaluated the sequelae of systemic inflammation, no data are available on the contribution of chronic vasoconstrictor-masked hypovolemia to organ dysfunction and morphology.200312627003
effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on hemodynamics and global oxygen transport in ovine endotoxemia.besides providing effective analgesia, thoracic epidural anesthesia (tea) has been shown to decrease perioperative morbidity and mortality. because of its vasodilatory properties in association with the sympathetic blockade, however, tea may potentially aggravate cardiovascular dysfunctions resulting from sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. the objective of the present study was to assess the effects of tea on hemodynamics, global oxygen transport, and renal function in ovine end ...200617117138
hemodynamic effects of thoracic epidural analgesia in ovine hyperdynamic endotoxemia.thoracic epidural analgesia (tea) is increasingly used for perioperative analgesia. if patients with tea develop sepsis or systemic inflammatory response subsequent to extended surgery the question arises if it would be safe to continue tea with its beneficial effects of improving gastrointestinal perfusion and augmenting tissue oxygenation. a major concern in this regard is hemodynamic instability that might ensue from tea-induced vasodilation. the objective of the present study was to assess t ...200717720115
effects of two different dosing regimens of terlipressin on organ functions in ovine endotoxemia.to test the hypothesis that a continuous infusion of the vasopressin analog terlipressin is associated with less organ dysfunction as compared to intermittent bolus infusion in an ovine sepsis model.201021190124
effects of balanced crystalloid vs. 0.9% saline-based vs. balanced 6% tetrastarch infusion on renal function and tubular integrity in ovine endotoxemic shock.conflicting data exist on the renal effects of hydroxyethyl starch preparations. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of balanced crystalloids, as well as 0.9% saline-based and balanced 6% tetrastarch solutions, on renal function and ultrastructural morphologic correlates of acute kidney injury in an established model of ovine endotoxemic shock.201121220997
continuous versus bolus infusion of terlipressin in ovine endotoxemia.in patients with sepsis, hemodynamic support is often complicated by a tachyphylaxis against conventional vasopressor agents. bolus infusion of terlipressin, a vasopressin analog, has been reported to increase mean arterial pressure in patients with catecholamine-resistant septic shock. however, bolus infusion of terlipressin may be associated with severe side effects, including pulmonary vasoconstriction and impairment of oxygen delivery. we hypothesized that continuous low-dose infusion of ter ...200717589382
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