effects of fescue toxicosis on reproduction in livestock.fescue toxicosis in livestock is due to ingestion of endophyte (acremonium coenophialum) -infected tall fescue. understanding mechanisms responsible for decreased calving and growth rates, delayed onset of puberty, and impaired function of corpora lutea in heifers at puberty consuming endophyte-infected fescue is an emerging field in reproductive toxicology. the condition decreases overall productivity through a reduction in reproductive efficiency, reduced weight gains, and lowered milk product ...19921526927
physiological and digestive effects of neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue fed to lambs.the digestive responses and degradation of ergovaline and production of lysergic acid in the rumen of sheep offered neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue straw at 2 ergovaline levels were investigated. six crossbred wethers (56 +/- 3.0 kg of bw) were used in a randomized crossover design involving 2 treatments, for a total of 6 observations per treatment. the experiment consisted of two 28-d feeding periods with a 14-d washout period between them. the treatments were 1) tall fescue stra ...200717296774
alterations in bovine serum biochemistry profiles associated with prolonged consumption of endophyte-infected tall fescue.tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) is a forage grass that is widely used in pastures in the eastern us for cattle, sheep and horses. the endophytic fungus neotyphodium coenophialum is endemic in tall fescue pastures in the us. the turfgrass industry intentionally infects fescue cultivars with strains of the fungus to impart desirable growth and disease tolerance qualities to the plants. in contrast, ergot and pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxins produced by fungus-infected plants have been incriminated ...199910349700
dopaminergic-like activity in toxic fescue alters prolactin but not growth hormone or thyroid stimulating hormone in ewes.studies were conducted to determine the specificity and cause of altered pituitary hormone secretion when ewes ingest endophyte-infected (acremonium coenophialum) gi-307 tall fescue (toxic fescue). plasma concentrations of prolactin (prl) but not growth hormone (gh) or thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh) in ewes grazing toxic fescue were significantly lower (p less than .01) than concentrations measured in ewes grazing orchardgrass (og). comparing hormone secretory responses of ewes grazing each g ...19873507894
novel endophyte-infected tall fescue for growing beef cattle.tall fescue (festuca arundinacea, shreb.) is the predominant cool-season, perennial grass in the eastern half of the united states, and the majority is infected with the endemic endophyte (e+) neotyphodium coenophialum, resulting in millions of dollars in revenues lost to the beef industry. endophyte-free (e-) tall fescue was initially tapped as a "silver bullet" for the solution to fescue toxicosis, but drought intolerance and overgrazing have often resulted in nearly complete stand losses in 3 ...200415471817
the effect of the endophyte (acremonium coenophialum) and associated toxin(s) of tall fescue on serum titer response to immunization and spleen cell flow cytometry analysis and response to mitogens.experiments were conducted with rats and mice to evaluate the effect of the consumption of endophyte (acremonium coenophialum) and associated toxin(s) infected tall fescue on humoral and cellular aspects of immune function. treatment diets were: (1) rodent chow (rc) or (2) rodent chow mixed 1:1 (w/w) with endophyte infected (e+) or (3) non-infected (e-) tall fescue seed. rats fed the e+ diet in experiment 1 (43 days) exhibited a lower (p less than 0.05) serum titer to sheep red blood cell (srbc) ...19902264288
influence of dietary endophyte (neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) seed on fecal shedding of antibiotic resistance-selected escherichia coli o157:h7 in ewes.the objectives were to determine the effects of short-term feeding of a toxic endophyte (neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue seed (festuca arundinacea, cultivar 'kentucky 31') on fecal shedding and intestinal concentrations of escherichia coli o157:h7 and the concentrations of prolactin, cortisol, and nefa in experimentally inoculated ewes. twelve ewes (mean bw = 46 +/- 2 kg) were fed a diet containing either high endophyte-infected (hi-e) or low endophyte-infected (lo-e) tall fescue ...200717178802
toxic factors in tall fescue.tall fescue ( festuca arundinacea schreb .), a well adapted perennial grass grown in the transition zone of the u.s., frequently produces toxic symptoms and(or) reduced animal performance. specific syndromes associated with tall fescue include fescue foot, summer syndrome and fat necrosis. summer syndrome is related to high environmental temperatures rather than an increase of toxic compound(s) during the summer months. recent studies have related the summer syndrome to the presence of an endoph ...19846373703
metabolic and endocrine responses of lambs fed acremonium coenophialum-infected or noninfected tall fescue hay at equivalent nutrient intake.ten hampshire x western wether lambs (means weight = 30.1 kg) equipped with ruminal and abomasal cannulas were fed either low-acremonium coenophialum (ac) kentucky-31 (less than 1% infected) or high-ac g1-307 (greater than 95% infected) varieties of tall-fescue (tf) hay of similar nutrient composition in a completely randomized design. lambs were housed in metabolism crates at 21 +/- 1 degrees c and fed 552 g dm/d of ground hay at 0800 and 2000. a 10-d adaptation preceded 7 d of sample collectio ...19912066321
influence of consumption of endophyte-infested tall fescue hay on performance of heifers and lambs.two experiments were conducted to evaluate performance and physiological responses of heifers and lambs to neotyphodium coenophialum-infested tall fescue hay fed under european rearing conditions. endophyte-free (e-) or 100% endophyte-infested (e+) hay was derived from the same cultivar (cv. clarine) so that the effect of the endophytic fungus could be clearly separated from a possible cultivar effect. in exp. 1, starting in june 1996, 20 age- and body weight-paired holstein dairy heifers were a ...200010709926
tasco-forage: i. influence of a seaweed extract on antioxidant activity in tall fescue and in ruminants.seaweed (ascophyllum nodosum) is a known source of plant growth regulators, and application to turfgrasses has increased activity of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (sod) and specific vitamin precursors. increased antioxidant activity in both plants and animals diminishes oxidative stress. two pasture experiments investigated effects of tasco-forage (a proprietary seaweed-based product) applied to tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) on antioxidant activity in plants and in ruminants that graz ...200111325175
the effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue consumption and use of a dopamine antagonist on intake, digestibility, body temperature, and blood constituents in sheep.two experiments were conducted with lambs that consumed endophyte-infected (acremonium coenophialum) tall fescue diets under elevated temperature and humidity and supplemented with the dopamine antagonist metoclopramide (m). in exp. 1, 12 ruminally cannulated wethers (average weight 49 kg) were allotted by weight to either an endophyte-free diet (e-) or endophyte-infected diet (e+; 1,170 ppb of ergovaline), or e+ supplemented with m (15 mg/kg of lamb bw; e+m). ad libitum dm intake and digestibil ...19938454539
acremonium in fescue and ryegrass: boon or bane? a review.acremonium coenophialum morgan-jones and gams, an endophytic fungus commonly found in tall fescue (festuca arundinacea schreb.), has been identified as the cause of poor performance of beef cattle and horses on tall fescue. ryegrass staggers, a neurological disorder of sheep, has been linked to the presence of a similar fungus, a. lolii latch, christensen and samuels, in perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne l.). renovation of endophyte-infected (e+) pastures with endophyte-free (e-) cultivars of t ...19957608023
managing replacement stock within the environment of the south--plant, soil, and animal interactions: a review.the south extends from the atlantic coast and the gulf of mexico north through virginia and kentucky and west to the 100th meridian, which extends through texas and oklahoma. the soils, environment, and range of adapted forage species offer many and varied opportunities for designing forage-livestock systems for rearing replacement stock. anti-quality factors of concern when using forages for replacement stock include the presence of acremonium coenophialum (morgan-jones and gams) in tall fescue ...19938270541
reduced blood flow to peripheral and core body tissues in sheep and cattle induced by endophyte-infected tall fescue.four wethers and 14 steers (environmentally heat stressed, 32 degrees c, 60% relative humidity) were evaluated for changes in blood flow induced by endophyte-infected tall fescue. concentration of the ergopeptide ergovaline was used as an indicator of diet toxicity due to the endophytic fungus acremonium coenophialum. blood flow to specific tissues was measured using radiolabeled microspheres. wethers received one of two dietary treatments for 30 d before determination of tissue blood flow: 1) a ...19912066313
effects of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate on fescue toxicosis and mineral absorption.the possibility of supplementing livestock diets with an aluminosilicate to protect them from fescue toxicosis was investigated. an in vitro study showed that hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (hscas) removed greater than 90% of the ergotamine from aqueous solutions at ph 7.8 or lower, indicating a high affinity of ergotamine for hscas in vitro. rats fed diets containing tall fescue seed infested (e+) with the endophytic fungus acremonium coenophialum had lower (p less than .05) feed intak ...19921328128
effects of endophyte status of tall fescue tissues on the earthworm (eisenia fetida).a cryptic fungal endophyte, neotyphodium coenophialum, infects most tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) pastures in the united states. cattle, sheep, and horses that consume the endophyte-infected grass can suffer fescue toxicosis caused by toxic alkaloids in the infected plants. the effects of the endophyte on mammalian herbivores have been well documented, but less is known regarding the quality of the grass (infected vs noninfected) as a food material for soil invertebrates. we conducted 21-d t ...200111392146
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