an emergent poxvirus from humans and cattle in rio de janeiro state: cantagalo virus may derive from brazilian smallpox vaccine.the biological properties of poxvirus isolates from skin lesions on dairy cows and milkers during recent exanthem episodes in cantagalo county, rio de janeiro state, brazil, were more like vaccinia virus (vv) than cowpox virus. pcr amplification of the hemagglutinin (ha) gene substantiated the isolate classification as an old world orthopoxvirus, and alignment of the ha sequences with those of other orthopoxviruses indicated that all the isolates represented a single strain of vv, which we have ...200011080491
acam2000: a newly licensed cell culture-based live vaccinia smallpox vaccine.due to concern over i) expiration of currently available calf-lymph vaccine (dryvax); ii) calf lymph as a vaccine (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [bse], other possible contaminations and animal welfare); and iii) use of variola as a weapon for bioterrorism, a new and safer vaccinia-based smallpox vaccine derived from new cell culture-based technology was proposed. federally funded work by acambis, inc. resulted in fda approval for acam2000 in august 2007.200818363519
real-time pcr assay to identify variants of vaccinia virus: implications for the diagnosis of bovine vaccinia in brazil.naturally occurring infections of vaccinia virus (vacv) have been recognized in brazil during the past 10 years. human brazilian vaccinia virus (bvv) infections typically occur as a zoonosis transferred from affected dairy cows to their handlers. outbreaks have caused notable economic losses to the rural community in the region. the origins of bvv are unclear but previous analyses have shown that at least two distinct clades of bvv exist. the aim of this study was to develop a rapid and inexpens ...200818602170
in vitro activity of cidofovir against the emerging cantagalo virus and the smallpox vaccine strain ioc.the antiviral effect of cidofovir was evaluated against two strains of vaccinia virus: the field strain cantagalo virus (ctgv) and the smallpox vaccine ioc. the drug severely inhibited virus replication, revealing an ec(50) (drug concentration required to inhibit 50% of virus replication) of 7.68 microm and 9.66 microm, respectively, for ctgv and vaccine strain ioc. similarly, other field isolates of cantagalo-like viruses recently collected in distinct outbreaks were equally sensitive to the dr ...200918804965
zoonotic vaccinia virus: clinical and immunological characteristics in a naturally infected patient.vaccinia virus was used as vaccine to eradicate smallpox. we report a zoonotic case of vaccinia virus infection in a 30-year-old patient who became infected after handling sick dairy cattle. the patient had inflamed lesions and systemic symptoms. laboratory findings were indicative of down-modulated immune responses to the virus.200919115976
one more piece in the vacv ecological puzzle: could peridomestic rodents be the link between wildlife and bovine vaccinia outbreaks in brazil?despite the fact that smallpox eradication was declared by the world health organization (who) in 1980, other poxviruses have emerged and re-emerged, with significant public health and economic impacts. vaccinia virus (vacv), a poxvirus used during the who smallpox vaccination campaign, has been involved in zoonotic infections in brazilian rural areas (bovine vaccinia outbreaks - bv), affecting dairy cattle and milkers. little is known about vacv's natural hosts and its epidemiological and ecolo ...200919838293
optimization of peptide-based elisa for serological diagnostics: a retrospective study of human monkeypox infection.abstract although smallpox has been eradicated, other diseases caused by virulent orthopoxviruses such as monkeypox virus (mpv) remain endemic in remote areas of western and central sub-saharan africa, and represent a potential biothreat due to international travel and/or inadvertent exposure. unfortunately, extensive antigenic cross-reactivity among orthopoxviruses presents a challenge to serological diagnosis. we previously reported a 20mer peptide-based elisa that identified recent mpv infe ...201222217169
vaccinia virus in humans and cattle in southwest region of sao paulo state, brazil.a new outbreak of vaccinia virus was observed in southwest region of são paulo state, brazil. the disease was observed in four small dairy farms with manual milking. lesions were detected in cattle and in humans previously vaccinated and not vaccinated against smallpox. although several reports of vaccinia virus outbreaks have been occurring in brazil, it was not yet reported in this region. this outbreak reinforces the viral circulation in our country. the disease in persons previously vaccinat ...200818981497
[discussion about vaccines from animal origin at the mexican national academy of medicine in the xix century].this is a recount about the prevailing ideas in mexico during the second half of the xix century for introducing the use of vaccines of animal origin; thus, the thoughts of men like agustín andrade, angel iglesias y domínguez, lino ramírez, fernando malanco and luis e. ruiz, who emphasized this work.200516091165
long-term protective immunity to rinderpest in cattle following a single vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the virus haemagglutinin protein.a recombinant vaccine, produced by using a highly attenuated smallpox vaccine (lc16mo) as a vector and which expresses the rinderpest virus (rpv) haemagglutinin protein, has been developed. the properties of this vaccine, including its heat stability, efficacy in short-term trials, safety and genetic stability, have been confirmed in an earlier report. in the present study, the duration of the protective immunity generated by the vaccine in cattle was examined for up to 3 years following the adm ...200010811927
natural human infections with vaccinia virus during bovine vaccinia outbreaks.bovine vaccinia is an exanthematic disease caused by vaccinia virus (vacv). this zoonosis has been associated with several cases of bovine infection, particularly in milk herds. farmers, milkers and their close contacts developed lesions on the hands, forearms, legs and face accompanied by fever, headache, malaise, myalgia and axillary, inguinal and cervical lymphadenopathy. vacv infections have a significant public health impact due to their occupational character, high frequency of transmissio ...200919243990
sensitive and selective viral dna detection assay via microbead-based rolling circle amplification.we report a sensitive and efficient magnetic bead-based assay for viral dna identification using isothermal amplification of a reporting probe.200818694640
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