[the effect of heterophilic antibodies on the result of the passive hemagglutination reaction in intestinal infections].when commercial erythrocytic diagnostic agents, prepared from sheep red cells, are used in the passive hemagglutination test with blood sera from patients with intestinal infections, the possibility of nonspecific reactions with heterophilic antibodies of human body should be borne in mind. to completely eliminate these antibody effects on the results of the test, titration of the tested serum should be started from 1:64, 1:80, or 1:100, depending on what titration scale is used.19911722535
biological and chemical studies on soluble protective antigen (spa) from culture supernatant fluids of salmonella enteritidis.the chemical and biological characteristics of soluble protective antigen (spa) separated from culture fluids of salmonella enteritidis strain 2547 were analysed. it was shown that spa has 3-hydroxy, nonpolar fatty acids by thin-layer chromatography. the fatty acids were identified as lauric, myristic, palmitic and 3-hydroxymyristic acid using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and mass chromatography. these fatty acids are common constituents of the lipid a obtained from s. enteritidis. spa w ...19902230368
enhancement of antigonadotropin response to the beta-subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone by carrier conjugation and combination with the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin.previous studies have demonstrated the control of fertility in monkeys on immunization with the beta subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone (beta-olh) along with freund's complete adjuvant (cfa). an eventual birth control vaccine would demand immunization without cfa. beta-olh linked to tetanus toxoid (tt) adsorbed on alum-induced antibody response in bonnet monkeys with detoxified sodium phthalyl derivative of salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide added only in the first injection. the antibo ...19862424791
[the most frequent infectious causes of abortion in sheep in north bavaria with special reference to chlamydia and salmonella infections].between 1980 and 1987 1153 ovine fetuses and placentas were examined after abortion. in 68.5% of the cases a cause of abortion could be diagnosed as follows: 43.5% chlamydia psittaci var. ovis, 10.7% salmonella abortus ovis, 3.7% coxiella burnetii, 3.3% listeria monocytogenes and 0.4% campylobacter fetus intestinalis. hemolyzing escherichia coli and streptococci, yersinia pseudotuberculosis, salmonella typhimurium, salmonella enteritidis, corynebacterium pyogenes and other facultative pathogens ...19892503908
a possible correlation between histological changes in regional subcutaneous tissue induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides and their adjuvant activities.previously it was demonstrated that klebsiella pneumoniae o3 lipopolysaccharide (ko3 lps) exhibited much stronger adjuvant action on antibody response to subcutaneously (s.c.) injected sheep red blood cells or deaggregated bovine serum albumin than did other kinds of lps, the r-form lps lacking the o-specific polysaccharide chain of ko3 lps (r-lps), and the lipid a fractionated from ko3 lps. we compared histological changes in the regional subcutaneous tissues of mice injected subcutaneously (s. ...19892586346
[ovine salmonellosis caused by salmonella abortus ovis].salmonella enteritidis subsp. enteritidis ser. abortus ovis, a sheep-adapted serotype, causes a contagious infectious disease with abortion as the main symptom, sometimes accompanied with mortality of lambs. this auxotrophic gram-negative bacterium ranks among the main causes of ovine abortions in some countries of europe and of western asia. the disease tends toward an endemic pattern with a multi-annual rhythm in the frequency of abortions. bacteremia leads to bacterial colonization of the fet ...19883069037
salmonella carrier state and biological characteristics of the infectious agent.salmonella carrier state (42.6%-s. enteritidis and 34.4%-s. dublin) was demonstrated in subjects after acute salmonellosis as well as in healthy persons infected with salmonella as a result of occupational exposure to poultry (8.8% in humans exposed to chickens and 6.1% in those exposed to ducks) and sheep (2.8%). the carrier state was accompanied by intermittent pain in the epigastrium, diminished appetite, diarrhoea etc. most of the carrier subjects with a history of salmonellosis exhibited, u ...19883294287
[virulence of the microbial preparation bactorodencide for various animal species].the virulence of the biological preparation for plant protection bactorodencite is studied in 6 species of wild and domestic animals and game. its high specificity concerning rodents is established at the highest rate in ratus norvegicus and inbred mice - c57 black. indocile to s. enteritidis var. issatschenko (active start of the bactorodencite) are the grey pigeons, hens, ducks, pheasants, lambs and pigs. the time for clearing the organism of the indocile animals depends on the quantity (dose) ...19873327060
salmonella serotypes from animals in new york state, 1978-1983.the salmonella serotypes isolated during 1978 to 1983 at the diagnostic and clinical laboratories of the new york state college of veterinary medicine from animal sources in new york state were reviewed and compared to earlier data from new york state animals and to national data for both human and animal sources. a total of 255 salmonella strains were studied from the six year period and included 33 serotypes. salmonella enteritidis ser typhimurium continued to be the most commonly reported ser ...19863940747
studies on the immune response in chickens. iv. generation of hapten-specific memory and absence of increase in carrier-specific helper memory in antibody response to sheep red blood cell antigen and its hapten-conjugate.the role of carrier recognition in the hapten-specific antibody response of chickens to hapten (tnp) conjugate of sheep red blood cells (srbc) was studied. the anti-tnp antibody response to the challenge with either tnp-srbc or dnp conjugate of salmonella enteritidis (dnp-sal) of chickens previously primed with tnp-srbc was definitely higher than that of unprimed chickens. injection of tnp-chicken red blood cells, which did not provoke any significant primary anti-tnp response, also induced the ...19836220933
[erythrocyte antigen for the rapid intravital diagnosis of fowl typhoid and pullorum disease].a stable erythrocyte antigen was obtained for the rapid diagnosis of typhoid and pullorum disease in birds, which was tested under laboratory and field conditions. it was found that with the use of whole blood or serum taken from birds that had been either experimentally infected or had died of spontaneous infection of salmonella gallinarum and salmonella enteritidis the erythrocyte antigen was substantially superior to the routinely used colour ordinary test-antigen in terms of time consumed, i ...19836364560
effect of surgical trauma on various aspects of the immune response in rats.the effects of a standard laparotomy on different aspects of the immune response were studied in wistar r/a rats. when the antigen was administered at the time of operation, antibody synthesis against sheep red blood cells (srbc), a thymo-dependent antigen was significantly stimulated. the same phenomenon was observed when a soluble antigen extracted from srbc was injected during the surgical procedure. on the contrary, late antibody production induced by formalinized salmonella enteritidis or e ...19846365568
comparison of enterotoxin production by salmonella enteritidis in laboratory media, milk & meat. 19846373584
[effect of levamisole on the formation of agglutinins against salmonellosis in weaned lambs].in order to follow up the effect of levamizol on the titer of agglutinins a killed vaccine of salmonella abortus ovis; s. enteritidis, and s. typhimurium strains was used under protection of antidenaturating agents (80 per cent sac charose) and levamizol ici at the rate of 10 mg per kg body mass. experiments were carried out with a total of 20 rabbits and 36 weaned lambs, divided into groups and injected with vaccine, vaccine and levamizol simultaneously, vaccine with levamizol following on the ...19846390935
the role of hypothalamic centres in the immune specific response.four groups of rats were bilaterally lesioned in the anterior, lateral, tuberal and mammillary areas of hypothalamus. seven days later these rats, as well as controls, were immunized concomitantly with three antigens: salmonella enteritidis, sheep red blood cells and myxovirus influenzae a (h3n2). the primary and the secondary response were tested. the bacterial and erythrocytic antigens, with marked immunogenetic capacity, produced immune responses, which were not significantly influenced by hy ...19846441174
reticuloendothelial system depression with hemolyzed blood and susceptibility to endotoxin shock and thermal injury.the present study was carried out to determine if the reticuloendothelial system (res) depression induced by the injection of hemolyzed blood and components of hemolyzed blood was associated with an increase in susceptibility to endotoxin shock and thermal injury. hemolyzed blood and the particulate stroma fraction, but not the soluble supernatant fraction of hemolyzed blood, depressed res phagocytic function at a dose of 0.3 ml/100g in rats. hemolyzed washed red blood cells (rbc) and hemolyzed ...19817023739
[occurrence of enteritis-causing salmonellae in food and in domestic animals in 1991].the control of salmonellae in foods and animals in germany, 1991, is based on voluntary contributions of veterinary institutions, e. g. governmental investigation centres, universities, agricultural institutions and slaughter-house laboratories. the results of questionnaire-based evaluations are presented (s. a. hartung, 1993 a). also reported were 101 outbreaks involving 2272 cases of salmonellosis (fig. 1), of which 92% were caused by s. enteritidis. 46% of the cases were caused by egg and egg ...19938375318
survival of salmonella enteritidis during the manufacture of feta cheese made of pasteurized ewe's milk.the behaviour of salmonella enteritidis during the feta cheese making process was investigated. two lots of pasteurized whole ewe's milk were inoculated to contain 10(6) cfu/ml of s. enteritidis (strain as1 and as2) and were processed into feta cheese following standard procedures. all samples were examined for s. enteritidis both quantitatively and qualitatively, while moisture, fat, water activity and ph were also measured. s. enteritidis was enumerated in duplicate samples by surface plating ...19938451880
[the immunotropic properties of the deoxyribonucleic acid from salmonidae milt].the study of the immunotropic action of dna from salmon milt showed that it increased the antiinfectious resistance of mice to escherichia coli and salmonella enteritidis, stimulated the antibody response to the thymus-dependent corpuscular antigen (sheep erythrocytes), increased the production of the antibody forming cells (afc) in the murine spleen and intensified the absorptive and digestive activities of the cells of the mononuclear phagocytes. the immunotropic properties of the dna permitte ...199910635415
phage types of salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis isolated in south africa from 1991-1995.a total of 615 strains of salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis (se), received from 1991-1995 at the onderstepoort veterinary institute (ovi), were phage typed. most se isolates (54,7%) originated from poultry followed by humans (28,5 %) and poultry eggs (9,6 %). phage type 34 was the most prevalent (40,5 %) of all isolates, followed by phage type 4 (33,8 %). other phage types identified were 1, lb, 4a, 7, 7a, 9a, 14, 24, 24var and 35 (in total 2,4% of isolates). most isolates of se were recei ...200011028749
bacterial food-borne many countries of the world, bacterial food-borne zoonotic infections are the most common cause of human intestinal disease. salmonella and campylobacter account for over 90% of all reported cases of bacteria-related food poisoning world-wide. poultry and poultry products have been incriminated in the majority of traceable food-borne illnesses caused by these bacteria, although all domestic livestock are reservoirs of infection. in contrast to the enzootic nature of most salmonella and campyl ...200011189717
antimicrobial resistance in salmonellae from humans, food and animals in spain in 1998.we studied 1710 salmonella: spp. isolates from human (1051), food (421) and animal (238) sources. they were tested by the disc diffusion method for susceptibility to 12 different antimicrobial agents. the incidence of resistance and multiple resistance (mr) among the salmonella strains of different origins, the relationship between their most frequent serotypes and phage types (pts) and their antimicrobial resistance patterns were determined. in general, the incidence of resistance and mr was si ...200111222564
antimicrobial resistance in salmonella isolated from animals and their environment in england and wales from 1988 to 1999.resistance to 16 antimicrobial agents was monitored in 109,125 salmonella cultures isolated from animals, their environment and feedstuffs between 1988 and 1999. the sensitivity of the 6512 isolates of salmonella enterica enterica serotype dublin to all the antimicrobial agents tested varied from 98.2 per cent in 1997 to 99.7 per cent in 1990 and 1996. in contrast, among 28,053 isolates of salmonella enterica enterica serotype typhimurium, there was a marked decrease in their sensitivity to all ...200212054133
associations of interferon-gamma genotype and protein level with antibody response kinetics in chickens.although previous studies have demonstrated an association between interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) promoter genotype and antibody response kinetics in chickens, the protein levels that may mediate such a gene-trait association have not been determined. the objective of this study, therefore, was to determine the correlation of circulating ifn-gamma levels with both the ifn-gammaifn-gamma promoter polymorphisms and antibody response in order to evaluate the potential role of ifn-gamma protein in med ...200212495047
adjuvant effects of sugar cane extracts (sce) in chickens.the effects of sugar cane extracts (sce) on immune responses in chickens were studied. two- or 10-month-old chickens orally administered sce (500 mg/kg/day), for 3 consecutive days before immunized with sheep red blood cells, brucella abortus and salmonella enteritidis organisms, showed significantly increased and prolonged antibody responses to these antigens, compared to control chickens without sce. furthermore, chickens orally administered sce also revealed enhanced delayed type hypersensiti ...200312576716
chicken mhc class i and ii gene effects on antibody response kinetics in adult chickens.the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) plays an important role in regulation of the immune response. the mhc class i and ii genes were selected as candidates to investigate associations with vaccine response to salmonella enteritidis and kinetics of antibody response to sheep red blood cell (srbc) and brucella abortus. primary antibody response after s. enteritidis vaccination at day 10, and antibody response to srbc and killed b. abortus after immunization at 19 and 22 weeks were measured i ...200312743657
a comparison of antimicrobial susceptibilities in nontyphoidal salmonellas from humans and food animals in england and wales in 2000.a joint study by the public health laboratory service and the veterinary laboratories agency of resistance to antimicrobials in isolates of salmonella enterica serotypes enteritidis, typhimurium, hadar, and virchow from humans and food-producing animals in england and wales in 2000 has demonstrated that resistance was most common in typhimurium, particularly in strains of definitive phage type (dt) 104. however resistance was also common in other phage types, particularly dts 193 and 208 and pha ...200312820804
epidemiology of salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis and typhimurium in animals and people in scotland between 1990 and 2001.two serovars of salmonella which are currently of particular importance in both human and animal infections are salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis phage type 4 (pt4) and typhimurium definitive type 104 (dt104). this paper describes the trends in the relationships between the levels of infection of people and a range of farm animal species with these two serovars and explores some of the reasons behind them. in 1996, there was a peak of 520 reports of s typhimurium dt104 infection in people ...200314620550
differential effects of lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid on the primary antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin of chickens selected for high or low antibody responses to sheep red blood cells.various bacterial components are potent activators of the innate immune system and probably (in)directly determine subsequent specific immune responses. therefore, effects of i.v. administered salmonella enteriditis-derived lipopolysaccharide (lps) and staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid (lta), respectively, on the primary antibody (ab) response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (klh) were studied in cocks from 2 lines divergently selected for high (h line) and low (l line) ab responses t ...200415285504
comparison of immunosuppression in dry and lactating awassi ewes due to water deprivation seminomadic farming practice, dry and lactating ewes are exposed to different degrees of water deprivation, leading to stress followed by various disease outbreaks. this study compares quantitatively the immunosuppression to salmonella enteritidis (se) fimbriae (14 and 21 kda) and other major polypeptides (28.9, 37.7, 42.9, 68.0, 92.6 and 96.8 kda) in water-deprived dry and lactating ewes. sixteen dry and lactating multiparous awassi ewes were divided into four treatment groups (a, a', b and ...200515727291
a fatal disease outbreak in sheep associated with salmonella enteritidis ser havana.a disease outbreak with a mortality rate of 50% in a mob of wether lambs is described. salmonella enteritidis ser havana and pathogenic levels of trichostrongylus sp. were implicated as causal agents.198216030881
salmonella in uncooked retail meats in new zealand.a national quantitative survey of salmonella in five types of uncooked retail meats in new zealand was undertaken from august 2003 to may 2005 to establish baseline proportionality data. the overall prevalence of salmonella in 1,108 meat samples was 1.1% (95% confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.9). low prevalences of salmonella in each meat type were observed, with 3% (1.2 to 6.1) in chicken, 1.3% (0.3 to 3.8) in lamb and mutton, 0.5% (0 to 3.0) in unweaned veal, 0.4% (0 to 2.4) in beef, and 0% (0 to ...200717612064
gastrointestinal microbial ecology and the safety of our food supply as related to salmonella.salmonella causes an estimated 1.3 million human foodborne illnesses and more than 500 deaths each year in the united states, representing an annual estimated cost to the economy of approximately $2.4 billion. salmonella enterica comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. with this genetic and environmental diversity, serotypes are adapted to live in a variety of hosts, which may or may not manifest with clinical illness. thus, salmonella presents a multifaceted threat to food production and safety. s ...200817878279
trends in phage types and antimicrobial resistance of salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis isolated from animals in great britain from 1990 to 2005.surveillance data for salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis incidents and isolations from food animals in great britain from 1990 to 2005 were analysed to detect any trends and provide the basis for a comparison between phage types (pt) and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns in human beings and animals. during 2001 to 2005 there was a decrease in incidents involving most species except ducks. only the numbers of incidents involving pts 6, 6a, 9b and 14b (in ducks) and pts 6a and 13a (in mammal ...200818441349
immune recovery effects of immunopotentiator from pantoea agglomerans 1 (ip-pa1) on low antibody productions in response to salmonella enteritidis vaccine and sheep red blood cells in dexamethasone-treated stressed chicken models.considering the usefulness of the immunopotentiator from pantoea agglomerans 1 (ip-pa1), which is a purified lipopolysaccharide (lps) derived from symbiotic gram-negative bacteria of food crops, in controlling immunosuppression in poultry husbandry, in this study, we examined its immune-recovery effects in dexamethasone-treated stressed chicken models. three-week-old chickens daily administered 10 microg/kg of dexamethasone for 35 days to induce stress showed more whole body weight loss; relativ ...201020035113
the antimicrobial effect of oregano essential oil, nisin and their combination against salmonella enteritidis in minced sheep meat during refrigerated storage.the antimicrobial effect of oregano essential oil (eo) at 0.6 or 0.9%, nisin at 500 or 1000 iu/g, and their combination against salmonella enteritidis was studied in minced sheep meat during storage at 4 degrees or 10 degrees c for 12 days. sensory evaluation showed that the addition of oregano eo at 0.6 or 0.9% in minced sheep meat was organoleptically acceptable, and attribute scores were higher for the eo at 0.6 than 0.9%. according to compositional analysis of the oregano eo, the phenols car ...201020060188
characterization of antimicrobial resistant salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis and typhimurium isolates from animal and food in southern the last two decades, the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, among them salmonella, has become a serious health hazard worldwide, and specifically the high incidence of multidrug resistance has been encountered widely in many european countries. this study examines the antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella enterica strains typhimurium and enteritidis isolated in campania and calabria region (southern italy) from animal and food of animal origin. the relationship o ...201020401533
ovine serum immunoglobulin has immunomodulatory effects in growing rats gavaged with salmonella this study, we aimed to determine whether orally administered ovine serum ig modulate aspects of immunity and associated gut microflora in growing rats challenged with salmonella enteritidis. the 4 groups consisted of rats fed a casein-based control diet (bd; ungavaged) and 3 groups of rats gavaged with 1 × 10(7) viable salmonella enteritidis and fed a bd diet, a bd diet containing freeze-dried ovine ig (fdoi), or a bd diet containing inactivated ovine ig (ioi). the rats were randomly allocat ...201121411611
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