structure and genetic variability of envelope glycoproteins of two antigenic variants of caprine arthritis-encephalitis define the structure of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) env gene and characterize genetic changes which occur during antigenic variation, we sequenced the env genes of caev-63 and caev-co, two antigenic variants of caev defined by serum neutralization. the deduced primary translation product of the caev env gene consists of a 60- to 80-amino-acid signal peptide followed by an amino-terminal surface protein (su) and a carboxy-terminal transmembrane protein (tm) separated by an ...19911656067
recombinant gp135 envelope glycoproteins of caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus variants inhibit homologous and heterologous variant-specific neutralizing antibodies.the envelope (env) genes of two antigenic variants of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev), defined by serum neutralization, were expressed in vaccinia virus. recombinant gp135 envelope glycoprotein competitively inhibited neutralizing activity of serum from caev-infected goats, indicating gp135 is a dominant target antigen of caev neutralizing antibody. in addition, type-specific neutralizing activity of goat serum directed against one variant was inhibited by both homologous and heterol ...19911718084
characterization of a vaccinia-derived recombinant hiv-1 gp160 candidate vaccine and its immunogenicity in chimpanzees.the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv-1) envelope glycoprotein gp160 was produced in large-scale microcarrier cultures of vero cells, using a system involving coinfection with two recombinant vaccinia viruses. the immunogenicity of this material was studied in conjunction with a number of different adjuvant formulations, and chimpanzees were then immunized with gp160 in conjunction with al(oh)3, al(oh)3 and sodium deoxycholate, and a lipid-based adjuvant. the al(oh)3-gp160 vaccine formulation el ...19911845126
[rabies, a public health problem].in west-europe, rabies is mostly reported in foxes, and in less extend in different domestic animals including dogs, cats, cattle, sheep, goats and horses. the contamination to humans occurs through contact with rabid animals by bite, scratch and even contact with the wound. this paper reports upon the current situation of rabies disease in belgium and the prophylactic means routinely applied and those actually under experiment. in 1988, 514 animals were found positive, among which 366 foxes (71 ...19892610551
large-scale production and purification of a vaccinia recombinant-derived hiv-1 gp160 and analysis of its immunogenicity.the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv-1) envelope gene was expressed in large-scale microcarrier cultures of vero cells using a system involving coinfection with two recombinant vaccinia viruses. one recombinant contained the bacteriophage t7 rna polymerase gene under control of a vaccinia virus promoter. the second contained the hiv-1 gp160 gene flanked by t7 promoter and termination sequences. the protein was expressed on the surface of infected cells, and it was shown to have a molecular weig ...19892713166
a comparison of the genome organization of capripoxvirus with that of the orthopoxviruses.comprehensive comparisons of genome organizations for poxviruses of different genera have not previously been reported. here we have made such a comparison by cross-hybridizing genome fragments from capripoxvirus ks-1 and vaccinia virus wr (vv). this showed that a 100- to 115-kilobase (kb) centrally placed section is essentially colinear in organization in the two viruses and that a small region has translocated between the ends of one or other of the genomes during their divergence. no cross-hy ...19892795717
caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus (caev) challenge of goats immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing caev surface and transmembrane envelope glycoproteins.this study evaluated infection and disease following caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus (caev) challenge of goats with existent immune response to caev surface and transmembrane envelope glycoproteins. six saanen goats were vaccinated three times with recombinant vaccinia virus rwr63 expressing glycoproteins encoded by the caev-63 envelope gene. two goats were immunized with rwrsc11, a control vaccinia virus derived from the psc11 vaccinia expression plasmid without the caev envelope gene ...19947810058
genetically engineered vaccines for animal viral diseases. 19948050940
protection of goats against peste des petits ruminants with a vaccinia virus double recombinant expressing the f and h genes of rinderpest virus.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a viral disease of goats and sheep characterized by necrotizing and erosive stomatitis, enteritis and pneumonia. the causative agent, pprv, is a member of the family paramyxoviridae and the genus morbillivirus. other members of the genus include rinderpest (rpv), measles, canine distemper and phocid distemper viruses. ppr has a very high rate of morbidity and mortality, and effective control of this disease is of economic importance in africa, asia and the mid ...19938212844
caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus su is the ligand for infection of caprine synovial membrane cells.infection of goat synovial membrane (gsm) cells by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) was inhibited by incubation of cells with caev gp 135 envelope glycoprotein (su) expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus. incubation of cells with protein expressed by a control recombinant vaccinia virus without the caev envelope gene did not inhibit caev infection. removal of recombinant su from blocking medium by adsorption with anti-su igg/protein g-sepharose complexes resulted in loss of caev inhi ...19938390759
immunizing effect of vaccinia virus expressing the nucleoprotein of rinderpest virus on systemic rinderpest virus infection in rabbits.a recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing the nucleoprotein (np) of rinderpest virus (rpv) was examined in rabbits for the involvement of the np protein in protection from the rpv infection. despite their production of anti-np antibody, the rvv-immunized rabbits succumbed to the rpv challenge, although there was a slight delay in the onset of disease after the low-dose challenge. on the other hand, the animals immunized with rvv expressing the hemagglutinin (h) protein of the rpv were comple ...19989611679
ovine diseases. orf.orf virus is an epitheliotropic dna parapoxvirus with a worldwide distribution that induces acute pustular lesions in the skin of sheep, goats and man. genetic mapping and sequencing of the orf virus genome have revealed that orf virus has a typical poxvirus distribution of genes, with those essential for viral dna synthesis, replication and packaging located in the central region, and those involved in virulence concentrated in the terminal regions. the immune and inflammatory response to orf v ...19989689744
orf virus encodes a homolog of the vaccinia virus interferon-resistance gene e3l.a homolog of the vaccinia virus (vac) interferon resistance gene e3l has been discovered in orf virus strain nz-2, a parapoxvirus that infects sheep, goats and humans. the gene is located 20 kb from the left terminus of the orf virus genome and is transcribed towards this terminus. rnase protection studies have been used to define the limits of the gene and northern analysis revealed that it is expressed early in infection. the predicted amino acid sequence of the orf virus protein shares 31% id ...19989857983
immune response to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus surface protein induced by coimmunization with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus envelope gene and caprine interleukin-12.the objective of this study was to determine if interleukin (il)-12 can focus an antigen specific type 1 immune response characterized by activation of th1 lymphocytes and production of igg2 antibodies in vivo. saanen goats co-immunized with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing caprine il-12 (rrb-il12) and the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) envelope (env) gene (rwr-63) were evaluated for development of immune responses to the caev env encoded surface glycoprotein (su). immune res ...200010775783
immunization with plasmid dna expressing the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus envelope gene: quantitative and qualitative aspects of antibody response to viral surface glycoprotein.saanen goats were vaccinated intradermally with plasmid dna expressing caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) rev-env (penv) or tat-rev-env (ptat-env) or vaccinia virus expressing caev env (rwr-63). sera from all vaccinated goats immunoprecipitated caev surface (su) and transmembrane (tm) glycoproteins with a dominant response to su. antibody response to caev su induced by plasmid dna was relatively biased toward igg2, whereas vaccinia rwr-63 induced predominantly igg1 antibodies to su. dif ...200111166887
[smallpox and smallpox virus--200 years since the first vaccination in norway].in december 1801, the first vaccination against smallpox in norway took place. vaccine material came from denmark, england, ireland, and other countries; it was also obtained from a few local cowpox cases. what mattered was the effect, not the origin. several reports indicate that variola virus itself, the cause of smallpox, was also used for human vaccination after passages through cows and horses. a vaccine institute for production of vaccine in calves was established in kristiania in 1891. co ...200111808015
the genomes of sheeppox and goatpox viruses.sheeppox virus (sppv) and goatpox virus (gtpv), members of the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae, are etiologic agents of important diseases of sheep and goats in northern and central africa, southwest and central asia, and the indian subcontinent. here we report the genomic sequence and comparative analysis of five sppv and gtpv isolates, including three pathogenic field isolates and two attenuated vaccine viruses. sppv and gtpv genomes are approximately 150 kbp and are strikingly similar t ...200212021338
genomes of the parapoxviruses orf virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus.bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) and orf virus (orfv), members of the genus parapoxvirus of the poxviridae, are etiologic agents of worldwide diseases affecting cattle and small ruminants, respectively. here we report the genomic sequences and comparative analysis of bpsv strain bv-ar02 and orfv strains ov-sa00, isolated from a goat, and ov-ia82, isolated from a sheep. parapoxvirus (ppv) bv-ar02, ov-sa00, and ov-ia82 genomes range in size from 134 to 139 kbp, with an average nucleotide com ...200414671098
glycosylation of immunodominant linear epitopes in the carboxy-terminal region of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus surface envelope enhances vaccine-induced type-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses.this study evaluated type-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies induced by immunization with modified surface glycoproteins (su) of the 63 isolate of caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus (caev-63). epitope mapping of sera from caev-infected goats localized immunodominant linear epitopes in the carboxy terminus of su. two modified su (su-m and su-t) and wild-type caev-63 su (su-w) were produced in vaccinia virus and utilized to evaluate the effects of glycosylation or the delet ...200415308714
a real time pcr assay for the detection and quantification of orf virus.a real time quantitative pcr assay based on taqman technology was developed for orf virus (orfv) dna quantification in clinical samples, infected cells and organotypic cultures. this method was based on the amplification of a 70 bp fragment from the orfv b2l gene (orthologue of the vaccinia virus copenhagen f13l gene) that encodes the major envelope protein. both intra- and inter-assay variability were well within +/-0.25 log(10) s.d. showing the high efficiency and reproducibility of the assay. ...200616430972
the structure of a putative scaffolding protein of immature poxvirus particles as determined by electron microscopy suggests similarity with capsid proteins of large icosahedral dna viruses.orf virus, the prototype parapoxvirus, is responsible for contagious ecthyma in sheep and goats. the central region of the viral genome codes for proteins highly conserved among vertebrate poxviruses and which are frequently essential for viral proliferation. analysis of the recently published genome sequence of orf virus revealed that among such essential proteins, the protein orfv075 is an orthologue of d13, the rifampin resistance gene product critical for vaccinia virus morphogenesis. previo ...200717670837
differential diagnosis of orf viruses by a single-step pcr.the complete nucleotide sequence of the a32l gene (named after vaccinia virus, corresponding with open reading frame 108 of the orf virus and encoding an atpase) of the orf virus was studied using samples of orf virus from infected goats, which were collected from six outbreaks in central taiwan. dna sequence analysis of the a32l genes of these and isolates from other countries showed sequence heterogeneity (base pair variation and deletion) in the 3'-terminal regions. this finding led to the de ...200919409929
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of semliki forest virus replicon-based dna vaccines encoding goatpox virus structural proteins.goatpox, caused by goatpox virus (gtpv), is an acute feverish and contagious disease in goats often associated with high morbidity and high mortality. to resolve potential safety risks and vaccination side effects of existing live attenuated goatpox vaccine (av41), two semliki forest virus (sfv) replicon-based bicistronic expression dna vaccines (pcsm-aal and pcsm-baa) which encode gtpv structural proteins corresponding to the vaccinia virus proteins a27, l1, a33, and b5, respectively, were cons ...200919559453
use of the capripoxvirus homologue of vaccinia virus 30 kda rna polymerase subunit (rpo30) gene as a novel diagnostic and genotyping target: development of a classical pcr method to differentiate goat poxvirus from sheep poxvirus.sheep poxvirus (sppv), goat poxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) are capripoxviruses (capvs) responsible for causing severe poxvirus disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. serological differentiation of capvs is not possible and strain identification has relied on the implicitly accepted hypothesis that the viruses show well defined host specificity. however, it is now known that cross infections can occur and authentication of identity based on the host animal species ...201021115310
immune responses of patients to orf virus infection.orf is a disease of sheep and goats which is caused by a parapox virus. it can be transmitted to humans, and is considered an occupational hazard by those handling sheep. in this paper we present the first report of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to naturally acquired orf virus infection in humans. lymphoproliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients to an orf virus antigen were vigorous soon after infection, but rapidly declined. orf virus antibody le ...19948186108
localization at high resolution of antibody-induced mobilization of vaccinia virus hemagglutinin and the major histocompatibility antigens on the plasma membrane of infected cells.we examined the consequence of simultaneous or independent binding of monospecific antibody to the hemagglutinin (ha) of vaccinia virus and the a-, b- and -determinants of hla on hela or raji cells or kkdk determinants of h-2 on l929 cells. the bound antibodies were marked by goat-anti-mouse (gam) or goat-anti-rabbit (gar) fluorochrome conjugates suitable for light microscopy and gam or gar gold conjugates, used in electron microscopy. specificity and amount of antibody adsorbed was ascertained ...19827130903
molecular analysis of contagious pustular dermatitis virus: a simplified method for viral dna extraction from scab material.a new simplified method of dna extraction of contagious pustular dermatitis virus directly from scab material of natural and experimental infections is described. scabs are suspended in buffer solution and an enriched core suspension is obtained after treatment with detergent, quelants and centrifugation. dna is isolated after proteinase digestion and phenolchloroform extraction. viral dna and fragments with sizes ranging from 23-25 kb were observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. this dna was u ...19911816256
mva rop2 vaccinia virus recombinant as a vaccine candidate for toxoplasmosis.toxoplasma gondii is the aetiological agent of toxoplasmosis and is the most frequent and best known of the parasitic diseases. in the united states, a serological survey from the third national health and nutrition examination survey found that an estimated 23% of adolescents and adults have laboratory evidence of infection with t. gondii. although toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic or shows self-limited symptoms in adults, in pregnant women infections can cause severe health problems to the fetus i ...200415151145
improved technique for transient expression and negative strand virus rescue using fowlpox t7 recombinant virus in mammalian cells.the suitability of recombinant t7 polymerase produced using either the highly attenuated mva strain of vaccinia (mva-t7) or fowlpox virus (fp-t7) for transient expression and negative strand virus rescue was compared in two mammalian cell lines (mdbk and vero) and in primary cells of bovine, ovine and caprine origin. such primary cells are more permissive for the growth of wild type strains of morbilliviruses, such as rinderpest virus and peste des petits ruminants virus. mva-t7 was found to be ...200010996645
molecular genetic analyses of parapoxviruses pathogenic for humans.the current members of the genus parapoxvirus are orf virus (orfv), bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv), pseudocowpoxvirus (pcpv) and parapoxvirus of red deer in new zealand (pvnz). bpsv and pcpv are maintained in cattle while orfv is maintained in sheep and goats, but all three are zoonoses. only the recently reported pvnz has yet to be recorded as infecting humans. tentative members of the genus are camel contagious ecthyma virus, chamois contagious ecthyma virus and sealpoxvirus. the separ ...19979413523
camel contagious ecthyma (pustular dermatitis).in 1979, pustular dermatitis caused by a virus belonging to the family poxviridae , genus parapoxvirus , was observed among camels in some areas of mongolia . the morbidity in adults ranged from 10 to 80%, of 2 to 3-month-old suckling camels between 50-70% and it reached 100% in 1-year-old animals. in the beginning, pustules developed around the mouth followed by papular elevations and scab formation. the virus designated camel contagious ecthyma (cce) grew on the chorionallantoic membrane (cam) ...19846145344
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