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a surveillance of human influenza virus in swine in southern taiwan.from september 1970 to december 1971, samples were taken monthly from farm pigs, piglets and abattoir pigs in southern taiwan for virus isolations and serologic studies. a total of 10 strains of hemagglutinating agent were isolated in january and july 1971, following 2 epidemics of human influenza occurring in december 1970 and june 1971, respectively. three strains were antigenically confirmed as influenza a similar to a/hong kong/68 virus.1977885670
on the susceptibility of the domestic pig to the hong kong subtype of human influenza a virus. 19744456998
influenza virus a/swine-outbreaks in domestic pigs and antibody findings in human sera.in the last years, the occurrence of influenza viruses a/h1n1 (hsw1n1) in pig stocks of different countries has been increasingly reported. in general, the isolated viruses were related to the influenza virus a/new jersey/8/76 h1n1 (hsw1n1). human infections were not reported in these outbreaks. since march 1981, very limited influenza outbreaks in several pig stocks of the gdr with high morbidity and very low lethality have been observed. the illness took an uncomplicated path and generally sub ...19836316691
isolation and characterization of h4n6 avian influenza viruses from pigs with pneumonia in canada.in october 1999, h4n6 influenza a viruses were isolated from pigs with pneumonia on a commercial swine farm in canada. phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of all eight viral rna segments demonstrated that these are wholly avian influenza viruses of the north american lineage. to our knowledge, this is the first report of interspecies transmission of an avian h4 influenza virus to domestic pigs under natural conditions.200010982381
isolation and characterization of novel h3n1 swine influenza viruses from pigs with respiratory diseases in korea.pigs can play an important role in the genetic reassortment of influenza viruses and as a reservoir for another lineage of influenza viruses that have the ability to reassort and be transmitted between species. in march and april 2006, novel h3n1 influenza a viruses were isolated from pigs with respiratory diseases at two different commercial swine farms in korea. genetic and phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of all eight viral rna segments showed that the novel h3n1 swine influenza viruses ...200616928961
[transmission of agents of the porcine respiratory disease complex (prdc) between swine herds: a review. part 2--pathogen transmission via semen, air and living/nonliving vectors].the transmission of prdc-pathogens (prrsv, influenza virus a, pcv2, m. hyopneumoniae, a. pleuropneumoniae) between swine herds, which was summarized in the first part of the review, mainly occurs via pig movement. the risk of pathogen transmission by insemination with contaminated semen plays only a relevant role in the infection with prrsv and pcv2. a risk of the aerogen transmission of pathogens between herds within a distance of 2 to 3 km is described for m. hyopneumoniae and prrsv. evidence ...200717970334
epidemiological survey of swine influenza a virus in selected wild boar populations in germany.the aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological situation of swine influenza virus (siv) infections in different wild boar populations in germany based on a serological surveillance in some bundeslaender (federal states) in connection with virological investigations in wild boar shot in northern germany (mecklenburg-western pomerania, district of nordvorpommern). altogether, 1245 sera from wild boar were tested using the hemagglutination inhibition test. the established seroprevalence ...200818440732
domestic pigs have low susceptibility to h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.genetic reassortment of h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (hpai) with currently circulating human influenza a strains is one possibility that could lead to efficient human-to-human transmissibility. domestic pigs which are susceptible to infection with both human and avian influenza a viruses are one of the natural hosts where such reassortment events could occur. virological, histological and serological features of h5n1 virus infection in pigs were characterized in this study. two ...200818617994
population dynamics of swine influenza virus in farrow-to-finish and specialised finishing herds in the netherlands.influenza virus infections with subtypes h1n1, h3n2 and h1n2 are very common in domestic pigs in europe. data on possible differences of population dynamics in finishing pigs in farrow-to-finish herds and in specialised finishing herds are, however, scarce. the presence of sows and weaned piglets on the same premises may, however, affect the exposure of finishing pigs to influenza viruses. in a longitudinal study on 14 farrow-to-finish herds and 15 finishing herds, groups of pigs were followed b ...200919181461
mutations in the ns1 c-terminal tail do not enhance replication or virulence of the 2009 pandemic h1n1 influenza a virus.the 'classical' swine h1n1 influenza a virus lineage was established after the devastating 1918 human pandemic virus entered domestic pig herds. a descendent of this lineage recently re-emerged in humans as the 2009 pandemic h1n1 virus. adaptation in pigs has led to several changes in the multifunctional viral ns1 protein as compared with the parental 1918 virus, most notably a k217e substitution that abolishes binding to host crk/crkl signalling adapters, and an 11 aa c-terminal truncation. usi ...201020237225
avian influenza vaccination in chickens and pigs with replication-competent adenovirus-free human recombinant adenovirus 5.protective immunity to avian influenza (ai) virus can be elicited in chickens by in ovo or intramuscular vaccination with replication-competent adenovirus (rca)-free human recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (ad5) encoding ai virus h5 (adtw68.h5) or h7 (adcn94.h7) hemagglutinins. we evaluated bivalent in ovo vaccination with adtw68.h5 and adcn94.h7 and determined that vaccinated chickens developed robust hemagglutination inhibition (hi) antibody levels to both h5 and h7 ai strains. additionally, w ...201020521636
comparative pathology of select agent influenza a virus infections.influenza a virus infections may spread rapidly in human populations and cause variable mortality. two of these influenza viruses have been designated as select agents: 1918 h1n1 virus and highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus. knowledge of the pathology of these virus infections in humans, other naturally infected species, and experimental animals is important to understand the pathogenesis of influenza, to design appropriate models for evaluation of medical countermeasures, and to mak ...201020682805
reassortant between human-like h3n2 and avian h5 subtype influenza a viruses in pigs: a potential public health risk.human-like h3n2 influenza viruses have repeatedly been transmitted to domestic pigs in different regions of the world, but it is still uncertain whether any of these variants could become established in pig populations. the fact that different subtypes of influenza viruses have been detected in pigs makes them an ideal candidate for the genesis of a possible reassortant virus with both human and avian origins. however, the determination of whether pigs can act as a "mixing vessel" for a possible ...201020830295
pandemic a/h1n1/2009 influenza virus in swine, cameroon, 2010.although swine origin a/h1n1/2009 influenza virus (hereafter "ph1n1″) has been detected in swine in 20 countries, there has been no published surveillance of the virus in african livestock. the objective of this study was to assess the circulation of influenza a viruses, including ph1n1 in swine in cameroon, central africa. we collected 108 nasal swabs and 98 sera samples from domestic pigs randomly sampled at 11 herds in villages and farms in cameroon. ph1n1 was isolated from two swine sampled ...201121963416
prevalence of antibodies to selected viral pathogens in wild boars (sus scrofa) in croatia in 2005-06 and 2009-10.we determined prevalence of antibody to selected viral pathogens important for domestic pigs and livestock in 556 wild boar (sus scrofa) sera collected during 2005-06 and 2009-10 in four counties in croatia. these counties account for an important part of the croatian commercial pig production and have a high density of wild boars. samples were tested for antibodies to porcine parvovirus (ppv), aujeszky's disease virus (adv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), swine influenza virus, porcine respi ...201222247381
identification and characterization of h2n3 avian influenza virus from backyard poultry and comparison with novel h2n3 swine influenza virus.in early 2007, h2n3 influenza virus was isolated from a duck and a chicken in two separate poultry flocks in ohio. since the same subtype influenza virus with hemagglutinin (h) and neuraminidase (n) genes of avian lineage was also identified in a swine herd in missouri in 2006, the objective of this study was to characterize and compare the genetic, antigenic, and biologic properties of the avian and swine isolates. avian isolates were low pathogenic by in vivo chicken pathogenicity testing. seq ...201122312981
serological evidence for influenza virus infection in korean wild boars.serum samples from 1,011 wild boars hunted in 2012 were collected for serological surveillance for 4 subtypes (pandemic a (h1n1) 2009 and classical h1n1, h1n2 and h3n2) of swine influenza virus (siv). samples from 12 of the boars were identified as positive for siv (pandemic a (h1n1) 2009, n=9; classical h1n1, n=2; and h1n2, n=1) by a hemagglutination inhibition test (hi test) and a nucleoprotein (np)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (np-elisa). although the overall seroprevalence of siv ...201425298239
new polymorphism of the influenza virus resistance mx1 gene in iberian domestic pigs.mx1 (myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1, interferon-inducible protein p78) gene has been implicated in the resistance to a wide range of rna viruses including influenza a in several species such as sus scrofa. in the present study a 28-bp deletion in exon 14 of the mx1 gene has been identified in iberian domestic pigs but not in other domestic breeds neither in wild boars. the mutation produces a frameshift giving a protein with 6 amino acid substitutions and the extension of the c-termina ...027774491
companion animals as a source of viruses for human beings and food production animals.companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viru ...201627522300
pathogen presence in european starlings inhabiting commercial piggeries in south australia.the majority of bacterial diarrhea-causing illnesses in domestic pigs result from infection with escherichia coli, salmonella spp., or campylobacter spp. these bacterial enteropathogens also correspond with the most-common bacteria isolated from wild birds. additionally, viral pathogens such as avian influenza virus (aiv), west nile virus (wnv, including kunjin disease), and newcastle disease virus (ndv) may also be carried and transmitted by birds in australia. introduced european starlings (st ...201627309283
prevalence of and risk factors associated with viral and bacterial pathogens in farmed european wild boar.the aim of this study was to estimate in farmed european wild boars the prevalence of and risk factors associated with a range of common porcine viral and bacterial infections, namely, porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), swine influenza virus (siv), aujeszky's disease virus (adv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), swine vesicular disease virus (svdv), coronavirus causing transmissible gastroenteritis (tgev), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), m ...201222516920
complete genome sequence of an h10n5 avian influenza virus isolated from pigs in central china.an avian h10n5 influenza virus, a/swine/hubei/10/2008/h10n5, was isolated from pigs in the hubei province of central china. homology and phylogenetic analyses of all eight gene segments demonstrated that the strain was wholly of avian origin and closely homologous to the eurasian lineage avian influenza virus. to our knowledge, this is the first report of interspecies transmission of an avian h10n5 influenza virus to domestic pigs under natural conditions.201223166264
influenza a virus infection in japanese wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax).serum samples were collected from 385 wild boars between 2010 and 2013 to examine the seroprevalence of influenza a virus (iav) in japan. antibodies against iav were identified using a commercial kit in 13 wild boars (3.4%). to identify the serotypes, positive sera were examined by virus-neutralization test using representative serotypes and strains. three wild boars in yamaguchi and four in tochigi showed the highest antibody titers against the pandemic h1n1 2009 virus and classical swine h1n1 ...201728321029
rapid detection and subtyping of european swine influenza viruses in porcine clinical samples by haemagglutinin- and neuraminidase-specific tetra- and triplex real-time rt-pcrs.a diversifying pool of mammalian-adapted influenza a viruses (iav) with largely unknown zoonotic potential is maintained in domestic swine populations worldwide. the most recent human influenza pandemic in 2009 was caused by a virus with genes originating from iav isolated from swine. swine influenza viruses (siv) are widespread in european domestic pig populations and evolve dynamically. knowledge regarding occurrence, spread and evolution of potentially zoonotic siv in europe is poorly underst ...201627397600
a novel m2e-multiple antigenic peptide providing heterologous protection in mice.swine influenza viruses (swivs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality in domestic pigs, resulting in a significant economic burden. moreover, pigs have been considered to be a possible mixing vessel in which novel strains loom. here, we developed and evaluated a novel m2e-multiple antigenic peptide (m2e-map) as a supplemental antigen for inactivated h3n2 vaccine to provide cross-protection against two main subtypes of swivs, h1n1 and h3n2. the novel tetra-branched map was constructed by fus ...201627051342
evaluation of the zoonotic potential of a novel reassortant h1n2 swine influenza virus with gene constellation derived from multiple viral sources.in 2011-2012, contemporary north american-like h3n2 swine influenza viruses (sivs) possessing the 2009 pandemic h1n1 matrix gene (h3n2pm-like virus) were detected in domestic pigs of south korea where h1n2 siv strains are endemic. more recently, we isolated novel reassortant h1n2 sivs bearing the eurasian avian-like swine h1-like hemagglutinin and korean swine h1n2-like neuraminidase in the internal gene backbone of the h3n2pm-like virus. in the present study, we clearly provide evidence on the ...201526051886
epidemiological survey of swine influenza a virus in the wild boar population of two italian provinces.an epidemiological survey was carried out in order to obtain a better understanding of the role of wild boars in the epidemiology of the influenza virus.201324224815
genomic analysis of influenza a virus from captive wild boars in brazil reveals a human-like h1n2 influenza virus.influenza is a viral disease that affects human and several animal species. in brazil, h1n1, h3n2 and 2009 pandemic h1n1 a(h1n1)pdm09 influenza a viruses (iav) circulate in domestic swine herds. wild boars are also susceptible to iav infection but in brazil until this moment there are no reports of iav infection in wild boars or in captive wild boars populations. herein the occurrence of iav in captive wild boars with the presence of lung consolidation lesions during slaughter was investigated. ...201424238665
emergence of h3n2pm-like and novel reassortant h3n1 swine viruses possessing segments derived from the a (h1n1)pdm09 influenza virus, korea.human-to-swine transmission of the pandemic h1n1 2009 [a(h1n1)pdm09] virus in pig populations resulted in reassortment events with endemic swine influenza viruses worldwide.201324034626
experimental infection of european starlings (sturnus vulgaris) and house sparrows (passer domesticus) with pandemic 2009 h1n1 and swine h1n1 and h3n2 triple reassortant influenza viruses.european starlings (sturnus vulgaris) and house sparrows (passer domesticus) are common peridomestic passerine birds that are often associated with domestic animal production facilities. this association provides a potential means for pathogen transmission between facilities. we inoculated european starlings and house sparrows with three non-avian influenza virus strains: two swine isolates (h1n1 and h3n2) and one human isolate representing the h1n1 pandemic strain that originated from swine. no ...201323568924
review: influenza virus in pigs.influenza virus disease still remains one of the major threats to human health, involving a wide range of animal species and pigs play an important role in influenza ecology. pigs were labeled as "mixing vessels" since they are susceptible to infection with avian, human and swine influenza viruses and genetic reassortment between these viruses can occur. after the h1n1 influenza pandemic of 2009 with a swine origin virus, the most recent research in "influenzology" is directed at improving knowl ...201323523121
restored pb1-f2 in the 2009 pandemic h1n1 influenza virus has minimal effects in swine.pb1-f2 is an 87- to 90-amino-acid-long protein expressed by certain influenza a viruses. previous studies have shown that pb1-f2 contributes to virulence in the mouse model; however, its role in natural hosts-pigs, humans, or birds-remains largely unknown. outbreaks of domestic pigs infected with the 2009 pandemic h1n1 influenza virus (ph1n1) have been detected worldwide. unlike previous pandemic strains, ph1n1 viruses do not encode a functional pb1-f2 due to the presence of three stop codons re ...201222379102
[serological detection of emerging viral infections in wild boars from different hunting regions of southern germany].wild boars represent a possible virus reservoir for notifiable diseases of farm animals, including aujeszky's disease (ad) and classical swine fever (csf). monitoring of the epidemiological situation in the wild boar population is especially relevant in countries that are officially free from these diseases. apart from oie-notifiable diseases, other viral agents that are widely distributed and play a significant role in farm animals, such as the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viru ...201222331288
pandemic influenza: a zoonosis?in the last two decades, influenza a viruses have been found to occur throughout the animal kingdom, mainly in birds, notably aquatic ones, in which infection is largely intestinal, waterborne, and asymptomatic. the domestic duck of southern china, raised in countless numbers all year round mainly as an adjunct to rice farming, is the principal host of influenza a viruses. studies based on hong kong h3n2 viruses from southern china suggest that pandemic strains originate from the domestic duck t ...19921609163
serological evidence for avian h9n2 influenza virus infections among romanian agriculture workers.in recent years, wild birds have introduced multiple highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 virus infections in romanian poultry. in 2005 hpai infections were widespread among domestic poultry and anecdotal reports suggested domestic pigs may also have been exposed. we sought to examine evidence for zoonotic influenza infections among romanian agriculture workers. between 2009 and 2010, 363 adult participants were enrolled in a cross-sectional, seroepidemiological study. confined animal f ...201323999337
complete genome sequence of an avian-like h4n8 swine influenza virus discovered in southern china.we report here the complete genomic sequence of an avian-like h4n8 swine influenza virus containing an h5n1 avian influenza virus segment from swine in southern china. phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of all eight viral rna segments demonstrated that these are wholly avian influenza viruses of the asia lineage. to our knowledge, this is the first report of interspecies transmission of an avian h4n8 influenza virus to domestic pigs under natural conditions.201222879613
domestic pigs are susceptible to infection with influenza b viruses.influenza b virus (ibv) causes seasonal epidemics in humans. although ibv has been isolated from seals, humans are considered the primary host and reservoir of this important pathogen. it is unclear whether other animal species can support the replication of ibv and serve as a reservoir. swine are naturally infected with both influenza a and c viruses. to determine the susceptibility of pigs to ibv infection, we conducted a serological survey for u.s. midwest domestic swine herds from 2010 to 20 ...201525673727
dynamics of virus shedding and antibody responses in influenza a virus-infected feral swine.given their free-ranging habits, feral swine could serve as reservoirs or spatially dynamic 'mixing vessels' for influenza a virus (iav). to better understand virus shedding patterns and antibody response dynamics in the context of iav surveillance amongst feral swine, we used iav of feral swine origin to perform infection experiments. the virus was highly infectious and transmissible in feral swine, and virus shedding patterns and antibody response dynamics were similar to those in domestic swi ...201526297148
a comprehensive microbiological safety approach for agarose encapsulated porcine islets intended for clinical trials.the use of porcine islets to replace insulin-producing islet β-cells, destroyed during the diabetogenic disease process, presents distinct challenges if this option is to become a therapeutic reality for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. these challenges include a thorough evaluation of the microbiological safety of the islets. in this study, we describe a robust porcine islet-screening program that provides a high level of confidence in the microbiological safety of porcine islets suitable for ...201627862363
genetic characterization of swine influenza viruses isolated in japan between 2009 and 2012.eleven swine influenza viruses (sivs) isolated from pigs in japanese institutions between 2009 and 2012 were genetically characterized. seven h1n1 were shown to have originated from a(h1n1)pdm09 viruses. two h1n2 viruses contained h1 and n2 genes of japanese h1n2 siv origin together with internal genes of a(h1n1)pdm09 viruses. two h3n2 viruses isolated during animal quarantine were identified as triple reassortant h3n2 viruses maintained among pigs in north america. this study shows that a(h1n1) ...201222924526
survey for selected pathogens in wild pigs (sus scrofa) from guam, marianna islands, usa.pigs (sus scrofa) were introduced to guam in the 1600's and are now present in high densities throughout the island. wild pigs are reservoirs for pathogens of concern to domestic animals and humans. exposure to porcine parvovirus, transmissible gastroenteritis, and leptospira interrogans has been documented in domestic swine but data from wild pigs are lacking. the close proximity of humans, domestic animals, and wild pigs, combined with the liberal hunting of wild pigs, results in frequent oppo ...201728622856
us feral swine were exposed to both avian and swine influenza a viruses.influenza a viruses (iavs) in swine can cause sporadic infections and pandemic outbreaks among humans, but how avian iav emerges in swine is still unclear. unlike domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have many opportunities for iav exposure through contacts with various habitats and animals, including migratory waterfowl, a natural reservoir for iavs. during 2010--2013, 8,239 serum samples were collected from feral swine across 35 us states and tested against 45 contemporary antigeni ...201728733290
influenza surveillance in animals: what is our capacity to detect emerging influenza viruses with zoonotic potential?a survey of national animal influenza surveillance programmes was conducted to assess the current capacity to detect influenza viruses with zoonotic potential in animals (i.e. those influenza viruses that can be naturally transmitted between animals and humans) at regional and global levels. information on 587 animal influenza surveillance system components was collected for 99 countries from chief veterinary officers (cvos) (n = 94) and published literature. less than 1% (n = 4) of these compon ...201525268692
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