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protein g-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-mpb70 antibodies in bovine tuberculosis.mpb70 is a highly species specific protein which is secreted from mycobacterium bovis during culture. to investigate whether antibodies against mpb70 can be used as an indicator of infection with m. bovis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed, based on the use of biotinylated protein g, to provide a common indicator for antibody formation in different species. during experimental infection with m. bovis in cattle, a characteristic pattern of anti-mpb70 antibody production was obser ...19902191012
genetic and other effects on antibody and cell mediated immune response in swine leucocyte antigen (sla)-defined miniature pigs.miniature pigs of eight swine leucocyte antigens (sla) haplotypes were immunized with sheep erythrocytes (srbc), hen egg white lysozyme (hewl) and the synthetic peptide (t, g)-a--l to induce antibody. bacillus calmette geurin (bcg) and dinitrochlorobenzene (dncb) were used to induce cell mediated immune response (cmi). analysis of variance by least squares was used to assess the effects of sla haplotype, sire, dam, litter and sex of pig on the magnitude of the primary and secondary antibody resp ...19892527014
enhanced recovery of murine alveolar macrophages: morphological and functional characteristics following intravenous injection of heat-killed mycobacterium bovis bcg.the kinetics of induction of the bronchoalveolar cell population (i.e., alveolar macrophages [am], lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes) was studied in mice inoculated intravenously with heat-killed mycobacterium bovis bcg. injection of bcg at 100 and 500 micrograms but not at 10 micrograms per mouse resulted in an increase in the total number of bronchoalveolar cells (threefold) and in the number of am (sixfold) recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage in a time-dependent manner, as compare ...19863510978
cells responsible for tumor surveillance in man: effects of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and biologic response modifiers.currently, the most probable theory of tumor surveillance is neither the existence of any tumor-specific, antigen-dependent, t-cell-mediated cytotoxic effect that could eliminate spontaneous tumors in man and that could be used for some kind of vaccination against tumors, nor the complete absence of any surveillance or defense systems against tumors. what is probable is the cooperation of a number of antigen-independent, relatively weakly cytotoxic or possibly only cytostatic humoral and cellula ...19853916661
novel heterophile chicken antigen: immunohistochemical localization using antisera to mycobacterium smegmatis and possible association with lymphocyte maturation.a novel heterophile antigen shared by mycobacterium smegmatis and chicken tissues was demonstrated by the indirect immunoperoxidase method using antisera raised in rabbits immunized with a complete freund's adjuvant containing killed mycobacterium smegmatis as an immunostimulating component. this antigen was strongly expressed in medullary lymphocytes of the thymus and bursa of fabricius, but was undetectable in lymphoid cells of the cortical regions of these organs. only a few lymphocytes stain ...19863519537
a quantitative lymphocyte localization assay.multiple lesions (up to 100 sites) were induced in the skin of sheep using either allogeneic lymphocytes or, in bcg-sensitized animals, tuberculin. cells recovered from an indwelling lymph catheter draining a prescapular lymph node were labeled with 111-indium, returned to venous blood, and allowed to circulate for 3 hours. sheep were killed, and the skin lesions and lymph nodes were removed and counted in a gamma spectrometer. high levels of radioactivity (up to 38,000 cpm/lesion) were recovere ...19863456009
nonspecific immunomodulating effects of bcg vaccine on antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.the effects of bcg vaccine on antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxic (adcc) activity of spleen lymphocytes were examined after bcg treatment. a modified plaque assay method, using sheep red blood cells (srbc) as targets and igg antibodies from rabbit anti-srbc serum, was applied. the changes of adcc activity were different in spleen lymphocytes according to the route and the timing of the administration of the vaccine. following i.p. administration we observed an immunosuppressive effect in ...19863297873
relationship between ineffective antigen presentation by murine alveolar macrophages and their immunosuppressive function.murine alveolar macrophages (am) have been shown to be inefficient at providing accessory function for initiation of the in vitro plaque-forming cell (pfc) response. in the present study am, which were obtained either from untreated mice (resident am) or mice injected i.v. with bcg (activated am) potently suppressed the pfc response of spleen cells from animals previously primed with sheep erythrocytes (srbc). addition of am at a concentration of 10% with respect to spleen cells resulted in grea ...19883133308
cell surface receptors for sulphated polysaccharides: a potential marker for macrophage subsets.the expression of a diverse array of receptors for sulphated polysaccharides on lymphocytes has been demonstrated by parish & snowden (1985). this paper presents evidence to suggest that other cell types, namely macrophages, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, mast cells and fibroblasts, can bind similar polysaccharides. using a rosetting assay and eleven structurally unique polysaccharides, each cell type was observed to bind a characteristic array of these polysaccharides. analysis of the polysaccha ...19863011656
role of activation in alveolar macrophage-mediated suppression of the plaque-forming cell response.alveolar macrophages (am) are highly suppressive of the in vitro plaque-forming cell (pfc) response of spleen cells obtained from mice primed with sheep erythrocytes. comparison of macrophage populations obtained from disparate anatomical sites revealed that although in both cases there was a cell-concentration-dependent suppression of the pfc response, resident am or am activated as a result of intravenous injection of mycobacterium bovis bcg were equally suppressive at the doses examined. alth ...19882830191
induction of non-specific immunosuppression in mice by mycobacterial infections and its relationship to macrophage activation.the development of non-specific immunosuppression during the infection of different strains of mice with three mycobacterial species was evaluated by studying the immune response to a heterologous antigen (sheep red blood cells) and comparing it with the induction of non-specific resistance to a listeria monocytogenes challenge. it was shown that early (at 15 days) immunosuppression developed in mycobacterium avium-susceptible mouse strains infected with a high inoculum dose [2.5 x 10(8) colony ...19892762766
two types of suppressor t cells that inhibit delayed-type hypersensitivity to mycobacterium intracellulare in mice.mycobacterium intracellulare mino grows progressively in the organs of c57bl/6 mice. when c57bl/6 mice were injected with strain mino, very weak or almost no delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) to the specific antigen, m. intracellulare purified protein derivative, was observed. the dth response was enhanced by cyclophosphamide pretreatment, indicating that some suppression mechanism(s) might be involved in dth. in cell transfer experiments it was shown that two types of suppressor t cells, affe ...19892465271
pathophysiology of the periparturient egg rise in sheep: the role of prolactin.the involvement of prolactin in the periparturient rise in the faecal nematode egg count in sheep was investigated. ostertagia circumcincta larvae (5000 third stage larvae three times weekly) were administered to adult immune ewes from three weeks before parturition to three weeks afterwards. ten ewes were injected twice daily with 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine (bromocriptine), an antagonist of prolactin secretion, for two weeks starting two days after lambing while 10 ewes remained untreated. brom ...19902359881
early production of a chemotactic factor to t lymphocytes by peritoneal macrophages.supernatant fluids (snf) were obtained from peritoneal exudate adherent cells stimulated in vitro with sheep red blood cells (srbc) or bcg, and snf collected at 6 and 24 hr were able to induce the migratory responses of rat leukocytes from the spleen and peripheral blood. the production of these snf was dependent on protein active synthesis upon in vitro antigenic stimulation. the chemotactic activity from 6-hr snf was inhibited by using several proteolytic enzymes and temperatures. we found the ...19902302737
uveitis induced by various cross-reactive antigens in guinea pigs.in order to investigate possible immunopathogenic mechanisms in the recurrence of uveitis, cross-reactive proteins were tested for their capacity to induce experimental uveitis. guinea pigs were immunized with porcine serum albumin (psa) in complete freund's adjuvant (cfa) by subcutaneous injection. fourteen or 28 days after the immunization, psa, bovine (bsa), sheep (ssa), equine (esa), rabbit (rsa) serum albumin, bovine gamma globulin (bcg) or ovalbumin (oa) was injected into the vitreous. uve ...19902090986
activated macrophages in highly irradiated cercariae-induced immunity to schistosoma japonicum in rats.the results of studies on the schistosomulicidal activity of activated peritoneal and alveolar macrophages (pm phi and am phi) from rats immunized with highly irradiated (50 krad.) schistosoma japonicum cercariae are reported. the authors have examined the activation of these macrophages in terms of spreading, adhesion and ingestion of sheep erythrocytes and pinocytosis of horse-radish peroxidase. using three criteria, peritoneal macrophages and alveolar macrophages from immunized rats and from ...19911903881
immunogenetics of bcg-induced anergy in mice. control by igh- and h-2-linked genes.we previously reported that bcg-induced anergy in mice (evaluated by delayed hypersensitivity to sheep erythrocytes) is unigenic and influenced by genes linked to the immunoglobulin heavy chain allotype (igh). using congenic mice (either h-2k or h-2b), we could not detect h-2-linked control of anergy. the current study re-examines this issue by using both bxd (h-2b or h-2d) and bxh (h-2b or h-2k) recombinant inbred (ri) mice as well as h-2 recombinant mice of different haplotypes. bxd ri (h-2b) ...19836409803
lytic, agglutinating, and opsonizing effect of alpha 2-macroglobulin on sheep red blood cells.mouse alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2m) induced agglutination and lysis of sheep red blood cells depending on temperature and time of incubation in vitro. when these erythrocytes (e) were treated with a subagglutinanting dose of alpha 2m, they were adhered to and phagocytosed by thioglycollate-elicited and bcg-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages. phagocytosis was not observed when resident peritoneal macrophages were tested. alpha 2m also was able to dissociate sheep red blood cells previously ...19901694517
bcg-induced chronic pulmonary inflammation and splenomegaly in mice: suppression of pha-induced proliferation, delayed hypersensitivity to sheep erythrocytes, and chronic pulmonary inflammation by soluble factors from adherent spleen cells. 19816452952
flow cytometric analysis of cd2 modulation on human peripheral blood t lymphocytes by dharmendra preparation of mycobacterium leprae.it has been reported previously that mycobacterium leprae modulated cd2 on human peripheral blood t lymphocytes and that this modulation was accompanied by a marked reduction in the proliferative response of these cells to mitogens and antigens. in this study, we report that treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals with dharmendra preparation of m. leprae inhibited their ability to form rosettes with sheep red blood cells. flow cytometric analysis of dharmendra le ...19911673263
serum albumin values from healthy cattle, sheep and horses determined by the immediate bromocresol green reaction and by agarose gel electrophoresis.serum albumin concentrations were measured by the immediate reacting bromocresol green (bcg) method and by agarose gel electrophoresis in healthy cattle, sheep and horses. no statistically significant differences were found between the values obtained by the two methods. the immediate reacting bcg method is quicker and cheaper when used under the conditions described.19836622845
sensitization or tolerance to mycobacterium leprae antigen by route of injection.aqueous suspensions of heat-killed mycobacterium leprae in a dose of 10(7) organisms were highly immunogenic when injected intradermally (i.d.). the same dose of bacteria did not sensitize when given intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intravenously (i.v.), and did so only minimally at best when given subcutaneously. the i.d. route was the most immunogenic for sheep erythrocytes also. m. leprae injected i.p. or i.v. stimulated immune tolerance to m. leprae challenge i.d. in older mice (greater than or e ...19826754621
validity of delayed-type hypersensitivity and graft-versus-host reaction in testing of immunomodulators.assessment of cell-mediated immunity (cmi) is an integral part of preclinical studies of pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics. even if several tests to determine cmi are available, their interpretation is fraught with uncertainty whether identical results can be expected for each of these particular tests after the challenge with different immunomodulatory substances. this dilemma has been addressed by investigating the changes in two basic tests of cmi in vivo, i.e. delayed-type hypersensitivity (dt ...19921597252
immunization of colorectal cancer patients with modified ovine submaxillary gland mucin and adjuvants induces igm and igg antibodies to sialylated tn.tn and sialylated tn (stn) are blood group-related epitopes expressed on mucins of colon carcinoma and other epithelial tumors and are, therefore, potential targets for immunological control. we have immunized 20 colorectal cancer patients at high risk for recurrence with a vaccine consisting of partially desialylated ovine submaxillary gland mucin (modified osm) which contains both tn and stn determinants. six patients were treated with modified osm alone (group 1), eight patients were treated ...19921394190
some biochemical and functional characteristics of macrophages activated by tetrahymena pyriformis.phagocytosis, enzyme activities and capacity to release hydrogen peroxide (h2o2) and superoxide anion (o2-) of peritoneal macrophages from mice inoculated with tetrahymena pyriformis, a free-living ciliate, were examined in comparison with resident and bcg-activated macrophages. fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes was markedly increased in tetrahymena-activated macrophages to the same level as that seen in bcg-activated ones. tetrahymena-activated macrophages showed an increa ...19846092875
successful transplantation of soy bean agglutinin-fractionated, histoincompatible, maternal marrow in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency and bcg infection.a successful transplantation of soybean agglutinin (sba) and sheep red blood cell (srbc)-fractionated, maternal marrow in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) is reported. the engraftment of hla-haplotype mismatched marrow cells was obtained without apparent graft versus host disease (gvhd). with immunological reconstitution the patient recovered from a bcg infection, which might have been caused by a bcg inoculation before his bone marrow transplantation.19853886386
effect on cardiopulmonary changes of gram-negative endotoxemia in sheep after type-specific, cross-reactive, and nonspecific immune stimulation.the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of prior nonspecific immune stimulation (bcg), cross-reactive immunization (e coli j5 0111 whole cells [j5 wc], and core glycolipid [j5 cgl]), and type-specific immunization (serratia marcescens core glycolipid [sm cgl]) on the cardiopulmonary variables and white blood cell counts of awake, monitored sheep following iv serratia marcescens endotoxin. comparison of cardiac output, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, pu ...19863516436
the igm receptor in mouse peritoneal macrophages.purified samples of igm free of igg and alpha 2-macroglobulin contaminants were obtained from mice sera. resident peritoneal mouse macrophages poorly phagocytose sheep red blood cells (e) sensitized with purified mouse igm anti-e. conversely 62.5% of thioglycollate-elicited macrophages and 10.11% of bcg stimulated peritoneal cells phagocytose igm sensitized sheep red blood cells. the monomeric and polymeric forms of igm blocked almost completely the phagocytosis of erythrocytes opsonized with ho ...19883168325
macrophage-lymphocyte interaction in the formation of delayed-type hypersensitivity.macrophage-lymphocyte interaction was studied on 121 cba mice during a 2-hour contact of lymph-node cells of non-immune mice with a monolayer of peritoneal macrophages of bcg-immunized mice and subsequent intravenous administration of 4.10(7) pre-incubated lymphocytes to syngenic recipients. sensitivity to tuberculin was demonstrated in the recipients by means of blast-transformation reaction of spleen cells (stimulation index was evaluated according to incorporation of 3h-thymidine--si = 1.32 + ...19892625551
transglutaminase levels and immunologic functions of bcg-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages isolated by centrifugal elutriation.bcg-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages were separated into three subpopulations by counterflow centrifugal elutriation. the three subpopulations were characterized on the basis of the level of a protein cross-linking enzyme, tissue transglutaminase. subpopulation-3 consisted of large cells (greater than 95% esterase positive and greater than 90% viable) and had at least a fivefold higher transglutaminase activity (35 +/- 6 nmol/hr/mg) as compared to macrophages in subpopulation-1 (6 +/- 2 nmo ...19892565358
[tuberculosis in scandinavia--finland families' black sheep].the incidence of tuberculosis in the nordic countries is one of the lowest in the world: denmark 5.1, iceland 6.4, norway 6.9 and sweden 6.5; whereas in finland it is around the mean for europe, 28.9 per 100,000 (1988). the immigrants are the risk group because they usually come from countries with a high prevalence. the bcg-vaccination at birth is still used in finland. other nordic countries vaccinate mainly the risk groups. revaccination is no longer indicated. after the discontinuation of th ...19902270194
chromatographic purification and characterization of antigens a and d from mycobacterium paratuberculosis and their use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in sheep.the protein antigens a and d were purified from culture filtrates and sonic extracts of laboratory strains of mycobacterium paratuberculosis by salt precipitation and chromatography. the characterization of antigen a is shown here, and both antigens were evaluated along with lipoarabinomannan antigen in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for the serodiagnosis of ovine paratuberculosis. after anion-exchange (deae-5pw) and hydrophobic (phenyl-5pw) chromatography using high-perform ...19911761688
adjuvant-free immunological manipulation of livestock.mice and sheep were immunised to growth hormone release inhibiting hormone (ghrih) using a number of systems which avoided conventional adjuvants. ghrih was linked directly, or via a horse igg carrier, to algin or purified protein derivative of tuberculin. a conjugate of ghrih and flagella from salmonella dublin was also prepared. complexes were administered with or without lipopolysaccharide from s typhosa 0901 in a two-injection schedule. animals receiving conjugates containing purified protei ...19846147886
subpopulations of pig blood e-rosette-forming lymphocytes and thymus-dependent null cells: separation by nylon wool columns, rosette formation and macrophage-dependent mitogen and antigen responsiveness.pig peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations were characterized by their adherence to nylon wool. thus whilst b cells, defined by surface ig and fc receptor, were predominantly adherent, thymus-dependent null cells and the t cells forming rosettes with sheep red blood cells in dextran (ds+) were predominantly non-adherent. there was a direct relationship between the size of the non-adherent fraction and the proportion of the total ds+ cells which were in the non-adherent fraction. using nylon ...19826173333
[the role of immune rna in the immunotherapy of malignant brain tumor (author's transl)].at present, nonspecific immunotherapy using bcg or picibanil is popular as an immunotherapy for malignant brain tumor. on the other hand, specific immunotherapy using lymphocytes which play an important role in the passive transmission of tumor immunity is also performed. but this therapy has some disadvantage such as the problem of blocking factor or histocompatibility. to compensate for this disadvantage, specific immunotherapy using the chemical mediater, immune rna, extracted from immunized ...19826178420
a study of the interaction between bromocresol green dye and bovine, ovine and equine serum globulins.in human medicine it has been shown that the bromocresol green (bcg) dye-binding method for the determination of serum albumin is not entirely specific, the dye reacting also with certain human serum globulins. this causes over-estimation of albumin when reaction times are prolonged beyond 30 seconds. in the present study, serum albumin values obtained from three animal species by the "immediate", i.e. less than 30 seconds, bcg reaction were compared with those by the 10-minute bcg reaction. alb ...19846202048
negative and positive immunobiological responses in mice pretreated with bacillus calmette-guérin cell wall.spleen cells from c57bl/6 mice injected i.p. with bacillus calmette-guérin cell walls (bcgcw) showed strongly depressed response to the t-cell mitogen phytohemagglutinin-p in vitro. mitogen reactivity of normal spleen cells could be suppressed by the addition of spleen cells from bcgcw-treated mice. the suppressor cells mediating this effect appeared to belong to the plastic-adherent, radioresistant, and non-t-cell populations, maybe macrophages. spleen cells from mice which had been passively t ...19846228292
functional characteristics of the macrophage receptors for igg-fc and c3: failure to detect c3 receptor-mediated extracellular cytolysis by mouse peritoneal macrophages.the ability of several immunologic ligands to mediate extracellular cytolysis of sheep erythrocytes (e) by mouse macrophages was studied. e coated with rabbit igg (eigg), but not nonsensitized e or e coated with rabbit igm (eigm), were lysed and phagocytized by resident peritoneal macrophages as well as by macrophages activated in vivo with either bcg or corynebacterium parvum or in vitro with lymphokine. eigm incubated with mouse serum to deposit the third component of complement (c3) onto e (e ...19846231109
extraction and localization by electron microscopy of an immunosuppressor fraction from mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg).bcg has been used all over the world to immunize against tuberculosis. nevertheless in certain areas (south india) bcg vaccines failed to show any protective efficacy. furthermore immunosuppressive cell populations have been reported in experimental mycobacterial infection in mice. the present work reports the localization and isolation of an immunosuppressor fraction from bcg. this lipid fraction called wdb inhibited the skin reactivity of delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) to the test antigen ...19902180442
influence of dietary protein type on the immune system of mice.the effect of graded amounts of dietary lactalbumin (l), casein (c), soy (s), wheat (w) protein and purina rodent chow (stock diet) on the immune responsiveness of c3h/hen mice has been investigated by measuring the specific humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells (srbc), and horse red blood cells (hrbc) as well as the nonspecific splenic cell responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin (pha) and concanavalin a (con a) after stimulation with mycobacterium bovis, strain bcg. the nutritional eff ...19836864340
an analysis, using monoclonal antibodies, of the role of interferon-gamma in ovine immune responses.a mab (ifn-9) which neutralizes biologically active ovine and bovine ifn-gamma was used to deplete levels of the cytokine in vivo in sheep and examine the consequences for immune responses to adjuvanted antigen and skin reactivity to bacillus-calmette-guerin (bcg). groups of sheep were immunized with ovalbumin in the adjuvants, quil a or dextran sulphate (mw 500,000; dxs), both of which elicit production of ifn-gamma. mab anti-ifn-gamma or an isotype control mab (anti-carbonic anhydrase positive ...19957797234
[mode of action of an oil-coupled bcg-cell wall preparation]. 19826949759
experimental maedi virus infection in sheep: early cellular and humoral immune response following parenteral inoculation.the early immune response (19 weeks) in sheep inoculated parenterally with maedi virus was studied, using the lymphocyte transformation test, immunodiffusion test, complement-fixation test, and neutralization test. cellular immune responses were detected between 3 and 7 weeks after the sheep were inoculated. antibodies were detected by immunodiffusion test in 3 of 5 animals in weeks 7 to 11 and by complement-fixation test in weeks 15 to 19. neutralizing antibodies were not detected. there was no ...19826280524
effects of acute nitrogen dioxide exposure on cellular immunity after lung immunization.the effects of acute no2 exposure on antigen-specific cell-mediated lung immunity in fischer 344 rats were evaluated. animals were exposed for 24 hr to either room air or 5, 10, or 26 ppm no2 before intratracheal immunization with 10(8) sheep red blood cells (srbc). cellular immunity was evaluated by antigen-specific lymphocyte stimulation assays of pooled lymphoid cell suspensions from either the thoracic lymph nodes or spleens. elevated cellular immunity was observed after exposure to no2. the ...19836343070
a comparison of chemical and electrophoretic methods of serum protein determinations in clinically normal domestic animals of various ages.the biuret total protein method and a bromcresol green (bcg) albumin method were used on the abbott aba-100 chemistry analyzer to assay serum proteins in clinically normal cattle, sheep, ponies, pigs, and ducks. total proteins were also read on a refractometer and mylar supported cellulose acetate electrophoresis was performed. globulins and a/g ratios were calculated from the chemical method and the results compared with the electrophoretic method. total protein, albumin and a/g ratios in the p ...19827140303
lymphocyte subpopulations in lymph from bcg-vaccinated sheep injected with tuberculin ppd.the subpopulations of lymphocytes in efferent popliteal lymph from bcg-vaccinated sheep were studied during the delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) response to tuberculin purified protein derivative (ppd). there was an initial 'shutdown' or transitory decrease in cell output 12 h after the subcutaneous injection of ppd. during this time the output of lymphocytes with surface immunoglobulin (sig+), fc-receptors and those forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes in saline (e+) or in ficoll (efic+) ...19816455116
genetic basis of bcg-induced suppression of delayed hypersensitivity.bcg can either act as an adjuvant to potentiate immunological responses or, in some cases, can induce suppression. the reasons for these differential activities are not clear but may include routes and doses of administration, as well as variable host reactivity to the agent. in this study, we have used killed bcg administered intravenously to produce chronic granulomatous inflammation (cgi) in the lungs and spleen of inbred mice. we report that strains which develop cgi were usually anergic, as ...19816780914
expression of contact-dependent cytolytic activity by mycobacterium tuberculosis and isolation of the genomic locus that encodes the activity.we investigated the presence of cytolytic activity in the virulent h37rv and attenuated h37ra strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis and in the vaccine strain mycobacterium bovis bcg. the virulent strain h37rv expressed > 3-fold more contact-dependent cytolytic activity than the attenuated strain h37ra, and the vaccine strain m. bovis bcg did not produce cytolytic activity. we also isolated an approximately 3.2-kbp fragment of the m. tuberculosis h37rv genome that was capable of inducing this con ...19938500911
effect of bcg immunotherapy on cell-mediated cytotoxicity in bladder cancer patients following surgical treatment. 19816974423
isolation of a contact-dependent haemolysin from mycobacterium tuberculosis.contact-dependent haemolytic activity was observed with cells of mycobacterium tuberculosis h(37)rv and m. tuberculosis h(37)ra, but not with those of m. bovis, m. bovis bcg and m. africanum. culture filtrates of all these strains did not exhibit any haemolytic activity. m. tuberculosis h(37)rv was subsequently used for the isolation of haemolysin. haemolytic activity was retained in the cell debris even after sonication of the cells and treatment with tween 80 and lysozyme. solubilisation of ha ...19979126824
immunological control of male fertility.a notable feature of the male gametes is the presence in them of proteins that are "foreign" to the immune system of both male and the female. it is there that are considered responsible for the elicitation of auto- and iso-antibodies in certain natural infertility cases. by virtue of their dual application in both sexes the sperm antigens have interesting potential for exploration as possible agents for control of fertility.19817283528
characterization of a specific mycobacterium paratuberculosis recombinant clone expressing 35,000-molecular-weight antigen and reactivity with sera from animals with clinical and subclinical johne's disease.johne's disease is a chronic enteritis of ruminants associated with enormous worldwide economic losses for the dairy cow- and goat-rearing industries. management limitations and eradication programs for this disease have been hampered by the lack of a simple and specific diagnostic test for the detection of subclinical cases. we used a recombinant clone expressing a 35,000-molecular-weight mycobacterium paratuberculosis antigen (p35 antigen) from a previously constructed expression library of m. ...19979196196
production and testing of schistosoma japonicum candidate vaccine antigens in the natural ovine host.the objectives of this work were to clone and express chinese strain schistosoma japonicum antigens and evaluate their immunogenicity and protective efficacy in the natural ovine host in china. recombinant antigens selected for testing were: isoforms of glutathione s-transferase sj28gst and sj26gst; the large hydrophilic domain of sj23, the homologue of the protective s. mansoni membrane antigen sm23; and a 3' fragment of s. japonicum paramyosin. in addition, chinese strain s. japonicum native p ...19989682393
immunogenicity of recombinant bcg producing the gra1 antigen from toxoplasma gondii.toxoplasmosis is a major parasitic disease, responsible for foetopathy in humans and domestic animals, especially sheep. toxoplasma gondii infection generally protects immunocompetent hosts against subsequent reinfection, suggesting that efficacious vaccines can be developed against this disease. excreted/secreted t. gondii antigens have previously been shown to provide immunoprotection in small rodents, and protective immunity is thought to be cell-mediated. mycobacterium bovis bcg is known to ...199910067676
use of 51cr-labeled mononuclear cells for measuring the cellular immune response in mouse lungs.spleen cells labeled with 51cr were used in sensitized syngeneic mice to measure the degree of mononuclear cell infiltration into antigen-challenged tissues. with this method, increased cellular infiltration was found after footpad challenge of mice sensitized with sheep erythrocyte, escherichia coli, and bcg antigens. cellular response also was determined by using this technique in the lungs of mice sensitized with sheep erythrocytes and bcg. this procedure offers the opportunity to measure cel ...19817012018
influence of dietary proteins on the immune system of mice.the effect of graded amounts of dietary lactalbumin (l) and casein (c) hydrolyzates on the immune responsiveness of c3h/hen and dba/2 strain mice has been investigated by measuring both the specific humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells (srbc) and the nonspecific splenic cell responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin a and escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide after stimulation with mycobacterium bovis, strain bcg. the nutritional efficiency of these diets was similar at both 1 ...19827050321
dissociation of phagocytosis from stimulation of the oxidative metabolic burst in macrophages.we explored the relationship between phagocytosis and the triggering of oxidative metabolism using resident, lipopolysaccharide (lps)-elicited, and bacille calmette-guérin (bcg)-activated murine peritoneal macrophages. sheep erythrocytes (e) coated with igg [e(igg)], e coated with igm and complement [e(igm)c], and e treated with 1% glutaraldehyde (ge) were used as stimuli. all three types of macrophages released superoxide anion (o2-) during phagocytosis of e(igg). all macrophage types phagocyto ...19846319532
time course and histological differences between sheep red blood cells and tuberculin dth reactions in mice.delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) reactions induced with sheep red blood cells (1 x 10(8) srbc/mouse) or with attenuated viable mycobacterium bovis (4 x 10(6) bcg/mouse) inoculated subcutaneously and elicited, respectively, with srbc or protein-purified derivative (ppd), were studied regularly in separate groups of outbred mice and compared during a period of one year following immunization. the present report shows the existence of two distinct types of dth reactions. the srbc type consists o ...19846370093
efficacy of alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative method for treatment and disposal of infectious animal waste.the efficacy of alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative for incineration or autoclaving during treatment and disposal of infectious waste was evaluated by testing for the destruction of samples of pure cultures of selected infectious microorganisms during digestion of 114 to 136-kg loads of animal carcasses in an animal tissue digestor at the albany medical college. ten milliliter samples of pure cultures of each microorganism were divided among 3 dialysis bags made from narrow diameter dialysis t ...199812456159
effect of pasteurization on survival of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk.mycobacterium paratuberculosis (mptb) is the causative agent of johne's disease of ruminant animals including cattle, goats, and sheep. it has been suggested that this organism is associated with crohn's disease in humans, and milk is a potential source of human exposure to this organism. a total of 18, including 7 regular batch and 11 high temperature short time (htst) pasteurization experiments, were conducted in this study. raw milk or ultra-high temperature pasteurized milk samples were spik ...200212512593
antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of resveratrol on experimentally implanted tumor of h22 in balb/c mice.to study the antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of resveratrol on experimentally implanted tumor of h22 in balb/c mice.200312854144
comparison between immunopotency tests and specific active or passive acquired resistance against mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice induced with three different preparations of bcg pasteur vaccine.tests, exploring hallmarks of cell-mediated immunity (cmi), were used in order to compare immunogenecity of same numbers of viable units from three different preparations of bcg vaccine derived from the same strain. specific and non-specific cellular immune responses were assessed by several tests including, active and adoptive acquired resistance to mycobacterium tuberculosis, local and systemic granuloma formation. bcg persistence in the spleen, delayed type hypersensibility (dth) to tuberculi ...19836413106
intratumor immunochemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil emulsion and bcg in c3h/he mice transplanted with mh134.responses to intratumor immunochemotherapy by intralesional injections of bcg and 5-fluorouracil (5-fu) emulsion, prior to resection of a transplanted primary tumor, were investigated using a host-tumor system consisting of c3h/he mice and mh134. a significant prolongation of survival and suppression of lymph node metastasis were attained by the combined use of bcg and 5-fu emulsion, compared to treatment with either bcg or 5-fu emulsion alone. however, this did not alter the survival rate of th ...19826761229
immunogenetics of bcg-induced anergy in mice: control by genes linked to the igh complex.the genetics of bcg-induced anergy was studied in mice by evaluating delayed hypersensitivity to sheep erythrocytes. data obtained using congenic mice and by linkage analysis suggested that genes linked to the h-2 complex do not influence the development of anergy. however, studies in allotype-congenic partners (balb/c; balb.igb) indicated that anergy was influenced by genes linked to the immunoglobulin heavy chain complex (igh). breeding studies indicated that the gene influencing anergy is rec ...19826799576
lymphocyte traffic through chronic inflammatory lesions: differential migration versus differential retention.afferent lymphatics draining granulomas and efferent lymphatics from normal lymph nodes were cannulated in sheep. cells collected from these lymphatics were radiolabelled in vitro with 111in (afferent lymph cells) and 51cr (efferent lymphocytes) and both labelled cells were returned to the animal simultaneously by i.v. injection. the reappearance of these labelled cells in lymph, and the amount of 111in and 51cr in normal or antigenically stimulated lymph nodes, cutaneous inflammatory sites (fca ...19817337964
the influence of autologous erythrocytes on active t-cells rosetting with sheep red blood cells and on dna synthesis.the addition of autologous erythrocytes to a mixture of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and sheep red blood cells (srbc) alters the spontaneous rosetting reaction in the test detecting the active fraction of t lymphocytes (arfc). increase in rosetting is more often observed in mixtures containing smaller human red blood cell: lymphocyte ratios, while inhibition occurred in those containing a higher ratio. autologous erythrocytes also affected dna synthesis when added to three-day lymphocyte c ...19816975089
recognition and destruction of bacillus calmette-guerin-infected human monocytes.we have established a long-term culture system to study macrophages chronically infected with mycobacteria. monocytes are infected with bacillus calmette-guerin (bcg) and support exponential intracellular replication without profound perturbation of normal host cell function. we have used this system to investigate lymphokine-activated killer (lak)-mediated cytolysis. we have found that interleukin 2 stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes generates a cytotoxic activity against human monocyt ...19937684432
identification and purification of armadillo (dasypus novemcinctus) immunoglobulins: preparation of specific antisera to evaluate the immune response in these animals.in this work we describe the purification and characterization of armadillo immunoglobulins. the igm was precipitated using low-strength ionic solution and further purified by filtration through sephadex g-200. the igg was obtained in pure form by precipitation of serum with ammonium sulfate and deae-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. the purity of these immunoglobulins was evaluated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the results showed 28-kda light chains and 55-kda and 70-kda heavy cha ...19957730720
suppurative adenitis of preputial glands associated with corynebacterium mastitidis infection in mice.suppuration of the preputial gland in mice occurs as a septic complication of fight wounds around the external genitalia. currently reported bacterial isolates from these lesions are limited to staphylococcus aureus, pasteurella pneumotropica, and klebsiella oxytoca. in the context of a pilot experiment aimed at defining the aging phenotype of estrogen receptor beta knockout (berko) mice, 2 male mice (1 of the berko line and the other from the age- and sex-matched wild-type control group) were d ...201020122320
editor's choice: editorial commentary: low level inh-resistant bcg: a sheep in wolf's clothing? 201121148525
effects of the methanol extract residue (mer) tubercle bacillus fraction on the production of antibodies in vitro. ii. effects on macrophage and lymphocyte populations.the effect of the methanol extract residue (mer) fraction of bcg tubercle bacilli on the generation of primary antibody responsiveness in vitro to sheep red blood cells (srbc) was ascertained in cell reconstitution experiments, employing enriched populations of mouse macrophages and of t and b lymphocytes. in each of the antibody generation cultures one or another of the cell fractions had been exposed to mer, either by treatment of the donor animals or by preincubation with the agent for 48 hr ...19846373023
subchronic administration of technical pentachlorophenol to lactating dairy cattle: immunotoxicologic evaluation.eight lactating holstein-friesian dairy cattle were randomly allotted as pairs to eight a control or a treatment group fed technical pentachlorophenol (penta) from 6 +/-1 wk postpartum for about 135 d (0.2 mg/kg.d for 75-84 d followed by 2.0 mg/kg.d for 56-62 d). jugular blood was drawn periodically for immunologic studies. leukocyte differentials and lymphocyte subpopulations (e.g., t and b cells) were enumerated for each blood specimen. several in vitro and in vivo assays were conducted to eva ...19817200151
vaccination of sheep against schistosoma japonicum with either glutathione s-transferase, keyhole limpet haemocyanin or the freeze/thaw schistosomula/bcg vaccine.the protective potential of glutathione s-transferase (gst), keyhole limpet haemocyanin (klh) and the freeze/thaw (f/t) schistosomula/bcg vaccine was evaluated against schistosoma japonicum in the natural sheep host. groups of ten sheep each were vaccinated as follows: group i: 2 x f/t 30,000 schistosomula+bcg 3 x 10(8) organisms, with a 2 week interval between vaccinations (f/t 'low'). group ii: 3 x f/t 20,000 schistosomula+bcg 3 x 10(8), with 4 week interval (f/t 'high'). group iii: 2 x gst 0. ...19958533269
lactoferrin inhibits the effector phase of the delayed type hypersensitivity to sheep erythrocytes and inflammatory reactions to m. bovis (bcg).bovine lactoferrin (blf) given into mice, sensitized to srbc, together with the eliciting dose of antigen, inhibits very strongly the dth reaction measured after 24 h by foot pad swelling. administration of blf at 48 or 24 h before eliciting the dth reaction was not effective, however, blf suppressed the reaction when given at the peak of the inflammatory process. the effects of blf were strongest when the protein was injected intravenously. intraperitoneal or intramuscular administrations of bl ...19947487348
[the modulation of cellular immunity in vivo and in vitro under the action of purified staphylococcal anatoxin].purified staphylococcal toxoid modulates (mainly suppresses) cell-mediated immune response to heterogeneous antigens of animal origin (to sheep red blood cells as shown by the delayed hypersensitivity reaction) or bacterial origin (to bcg as shown by the splenocyte migration test). the direction and manifestation of modulation depend on the strain of mice, dose of the toxoid, dose and nature of the test antigen and the immunization schedule (intervals between the injections of the antigen).19938067075
regional localization of the ovine nramp gene to chromosome 2q41-->q42 by in situ hybridization.the murine ity/lsh/bcg locus belongs to a conserved region between mouse chromosome 1 and human chromosome 2. this gene governs mouse resistance to several intracellular pathogens. we have localized the gene on sheep chromosome 2q41-->q42 by radioactive in situ hybridization using a 2.1-kb fragment of the ovine equivalent of this gene.19957736775
the in vivo antibody response against exogenous antigens is not influenced by the mouse bcg (nramp1) gene.the mouse nramp1 (bcg) gene on chromosome 1 exerts pleiotropic effects on macrophage function. the gene is known to affect presentation of mycobacteria, and other antigens in vitro, so that macrophages carrying the resistant bcg allele better support the proliferation of antigen-specific t cells compared with macrophages of the sensitive phenotype. to determine whether the bcg allele could affect in vivo the antibody response to antigens not related to mycobacterial infections, we tested the pri ...19979176118
evaluation of defined antigen vaccines against schistosoma bovis and s. japonicum in bovines.our objective is to contribute to the development of defined antigen vaccines for schistosomiasis by evaluating the protective efficacy of schistosoma bovis and s. japonicum antigens in their natural bovine hosts. antigens under evaluation include some already identified as vaccine candidates: glutathione s-transferases (gsts); klh, which shares protective epitopes with the protective antigen gp38 of s. mansoni; and sj23, the analogue of the vaccine candidate sm23 antigen. in another approach, s ...19947825230
the modification of macrophage activity in experimental granulomas by cyclophosphamide.round glass coverslips were implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of mice previously immunized to sheep red cells (srbc) and the same antigen injected into the pocket where the coverslip lay. it was shown that when mice received a prior dose of cyclophosphamide (cy) the number of macrophages adherent to the glass increased, they showed more pre-mitotic dna synthesis and were more phagocytic via their fc and c3b surface receptors. however, when bcg was inoculated into similar coverslips pockets in ...19817252645
systemic or local co-administration of lactoferrin with sensitizing dose of antigen enhances delayed type hypersensitivity in mice.lactoferrin (lf), a major defense protein synthesized and stored in granulocytes has been implicated in maintaining immune homeostasis during an insult-induced metabolic imbalance. in this study, we demonstrated that lactoferrin augments the delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) response to specific antigens in mice. lactoferrin (lf) was given to mice orally or intraperitoneally (i.p. ) at the time of immunization, or subcutaneously (s.c.) in a mixture with the immunizing doses of the following an ...200011064098
external stenting with a new polyester mesh reduces neointimal hyperplasia of vein grafts in a sheep model.external stents placed around vein grafts have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing neointimal hyperplasia by preventing distension of the thin-walled vein grafts when exposed to arterial pressure. however, the ideal stent material has yet to be defined. the following study investigates the short- and long-term effects of an innovative polyester mesh stent designed with optimized adaptation of circumferential compliance.200717992655
rab10 regulates phagosome maturation and its overexpression rescues mycobacterium-containing phagosomes maturation.phagosome maturation follows a defined biochemical program and, in the vast majority of cases, the microbe inside the phagosome is killed and digested. although, an important number of pathogens, including mycobacterium tuberculosis, which kills around two million people every year, have acquired the ability to survive, and even replicate by arresting phagosomal maturation. to identify more of the machinery involved in phagocytosis and phagosomal maturation, we investigated the function of rab10 ...201020028485
optimizing hiv-1-specific cd8+ t-cell induction by recombinant bcg in prime-boost regimens with heterologous viral vectors.the desire to induce hiv-1-specific responses soon after birth to prevent breast milk transmission of hiv-1 led us to propose a vaccine regimen which primes hiv-1-specific t cells using a recombinant mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guérin (rbcg) vaccine. because attenuated live bacterial vaccines are typically not sufficiently immunogenic as stand-alone vaccines, rbcg-primed t cells will likely require boost immunization(s). here, we compared modified danish (aeras-401) and pasteur lysine ...201121932450
mycobacteria precipitate autoimmune rheumatic disease in nod mice via an adjuvant-like activity.nod mice spontaneously develop organ-specific autoimmunity and are widely used as a model for diabetes. nod mice also exhibit some features of non-organ specific autoimmune rheumatic disease such as thymocytotoxic and anti-nuclear autoantibodies and they develop haemolytic anaemia in senescence. a single dose of 2.6 x 10(7) heat-killed bacillus calmette-guerin (bcg) i.v. in 8-week-old nod mice prevented diabetes but precipitated a syndrome similar to systemic lupus erythematosus (sle), in which ...19948009175
tissue specificity of lymphocyte migration into sheep gingival tissue.t cells show a bias in their migration pathways: some migrate preferentially to peripheral lymph nodes, some to mucosal tissues and some to peripheral tissues such as skin. the aim here was to determine the types of t cells that migrate preferentially into inflamed gingival tissue and compare this migration to that found in inflamed subcutaneous and mucosal tissues. the experiments were designed so that the simultaneous 3 h localization of two, differentially radiolabelled, lymphocyte population ...200111420056
quantitative studies on the movement of fluid and lymphocytes through periodontal tissue and into the draining lymph.chronic lymph drainage techniques in sheep have been used to map the pathways and to quantify the fluid and cell traffic through periodontal tissues. the continuous collection of cervical and prescapular lymph has demonstrated that 65% of labelled protein tracer injected into the periodontal tissues could be found in lymph over a period of 7.5 hours. nearly 90% of the total radioactivity could be accounted for between the lymph and the tissue site. when silk was impregnated with radiolabelled al ...200211810708
[prevention of infectious diseases in the drepanocytic child].children with sickle cell anemia are more exposed to infection than healthy children. indeed, infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in children with sickle cell anemia, especially those aged 6 months to 5 years. phagocytosis is reduced in these children. polynuclear neutrophils reveal various poorly understood irregularities and are associated with a reduction of phagocytic power: zinc deficiency, reduced post-phagocytic oxidative metabolism, and a prevalence of neutrophil ...199212290182
bcg-induced immunomodulation of dth to heterologous erythrocytes leads to mac-1-independent myelomonocytic cell recruitment.bcg(mycobacterium bovis)-modulated delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) to sheep red blood cells (srbc) differs from that in nonmodulated mice with respect to kinetics of expression, cellular composition of inflammatory foci, and susceptibility to specific suppressor mechanisms. we investigated whether the differences between these two types of srbc-specific dth reactions are based on different t cell subpopulations involved or on differences in the mechanisms of myelomonocytic cell recruitment i ...19948200041
gene cloning, expression and vaccine testing of schistosoma japonicum sjfabp.a 600 bp dna fragment was amplified by pcr from an adult schistosoma japonicum cdna library. sequence analysis confirmed that this fragment contained an s. japonicum chinese mainland strain fatty acid binding protein (sj14fabp) gene. this gene was subsequently expressed in escherichia coli (e. coli) and in baculovirus/silkworm systems. the recombinant protein from e. coli was a 41 kda gst fusion protein (rsj14/gst), which could be purified by glutathione agarose affinity chromatography, with a y ...200415679632
bcg-activated nk cells regulate the antibody response to srbc and restore immune reactivity to ppd in bcg-infected mice.c57b1/6 mice show a significant increase in the number of natural killer (nk) cells in the peritoneal cavity, four days after intraperitoneal infection with mycobacterium bovis strain bcg. cell transfer experiments demonstrated that bcg-induced nk cells are able to depress the induction of antibody response to an unrelated antigen (i.e., sheep red blood cells) in recipient mice. the involvement of macrophages, b and t cells in the phenomenon was ruled out by using different purification steps. i ...19938370601
dna vaccines against mycobacterial diseases.plasmid dna vaccination is a very powerful and easy method for the induction of strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in mice. the technique has also been successfully applied for the definition of immunodominant, human t-cell epitopes using hla-transgenic mice. by virtue of its strong capacity to induce cd4(+)-mediated th1 and cd8(+)-mediated cytotoxic t-lymphocyte responses, this vaccine approach is particularly attractive for the prophylaxis of intracellular pathogens, such as myc ...200617661686
cloning, sequencing, and localization of an ovine fragment of the nramp gene, a candidate for the ity/lsh/bcg gene. 19947894181
novel recombinant bcg expressing perfringolysin o and the over-expression of key immunodominant antigens; pre-clinical characterization, safety and protection against challenge with mycobacterium tuberculosis.mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (tb), has infected approximately two billion individuals worldwide with approximately 9.2 million new cases and 1.6 million deaths annually. current efforts are focused on making better bcg priming vaccines designed to induce a comprehensive and balanced immunity followed by booster(s) targeting a specific set of relevant antigens in common with the bcg prime. we describe the generation and immunological characterization of re ...200919500523
[new capacities of the phagocytic test used in pediatric phthisiology].the paper presents the results of a study of the phagocytic activity of leukocytes (pal) in 98 healthy children, vaccinated with bcg, in different periods after immunization and in 68 children with tuberculous infection (39 children with tuberculosis and 29 mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected children). an improved procedure for studying pal was used, in which sheep erythrocytes of two types ("antigenic" and those with a complex of antigen + antibody + antigen), which may differentiate the phase ...200415315133
immunization with dna vaccines encoding different mycobacterial antigens elicits a th1 type immune response in lambs and protects against mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.paratuberculosis, or johne's disease, is a disease of domestic and wild ruminants that culminate with a chronic enteritis caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. the aim of this work was to evaluate the type of immune response, th1 or th2, induced by dna vaccinations in lambs of sarda breed. twenty-five lambs, serum negative for m. paratuberculosis, were selected at birth from equally serum negative mothers. the lambs were inoculated at 5 months of age with three different mycobac ...200616183174
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