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seroconversion of pigs in contact with dogs exposed to canine coronavirus.in order to determine if canine coronavirus (ccv) could be transmitted to pigs, two dogs were inoculated orally with virulent ccv. after 24 h, the dogs were moved to an isolation room that contained three three-day-old pigs. a wire mesh fence, allowing close contact between the animals, separated the dogs from the pigs. the dogs and pigs were observed for 14 days for clinical signs of disease. samples of blood were obtained from dogs and pigs immediately before the dogs were inoculated with viru ...19921316800
antigenic variation among transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) and porcine respiratory coronavirus strains detected with monoclonal antibodies to the s protein of tgev.five nonneutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mab) generated to the virulent miller strain of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) and specific for the s protein were characterized. competition assays between purified and biotinylated mab indicated that mab 75b10 and 8g11 mapped near a new subsite, designated v and 2 mab, 44c11 and 45a8, mapped to a previously designated subsite d. a fifth mab mapped between subsites v and e. these mab were tested with 3 previously characterized mab to subsi ...19921379786
differentiation between transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus using a cdna probe.a plasmid, pg3bs, containing a cdna clone from the 5' coding region of the peplomer glycoprotein gene appears to be specific for enteric transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) strains and for live-attenuated tgev vaccines. this cdna probe is used to differentiate porcine respiratory coronavirus (prcv) isolates from tgev field and vaccine strains by a slot blot hybridization assay. probe pg3bs also hybridizes to canine coronavirus (ccv) rna but does not hybridize to antigenically related feli ...19911645595
antigenic analysis of feline coronaviruses with monoclonal antibodies (mabs): preparation of mabs which discriminate between fipv strain 79-1146 and fecv strain 79-1683.we prepared 31 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against either fipv strain 79-1146 or fecv strain 79-1683, and tested them for reactivity with various coronaviruses by indirect fluorescent antibody assay (ifa). sixteen mabs which reacted with all of the 11 strains of feline coronaviruses, also reacted with canine coronavirus (ccv) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev). in many of them, the polypeptide specificity was the recognition of transmembrane (e1) protein of the virus. we succeeded i ...19911653482
characterization of monoclonal antibodies against feline infectious peritonitis virus type ii and antigenic relationship between feline, porcine, and canine coronaviruses.seven monoclonal antibodies (mabs) with neutralizing activity against feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) strain 79-1149 (type ii) were prepared. when the polypeptide specificity recognized by these monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was investigated by western immunoblotting, all of the mabs reacted with peplomer glycoprotein (s) of the virus. by competitive binding assay these mabs were found to recognize at least 3 different epitopes. the reactivity of these mabs with 6 viruses classified as ...19911706593
differentiation of transmissible gastroenteritis virus from porcine respiratory coronavirus and other antigenically related coronaviruses by using cdna probes specific for the 5' region of the s glycoprotein gene.two cdna clones prepared from the virulent miller strain of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) were identified, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. the clones were nonoverlapping and located in the 5' region of the s glycoprotein gene. their nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences were compared with published sequences of the attenuated purdue strain of tgev and feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv). tgev clone pe21 contained 381 bp of the s glycoprotein gene and h ...19911847152
immunization against feline coronaviruses.feline infectious peritonitis (fip) is caused by one of several strains of feline coronaviruses which are grouped into 2 general types of viruses. infection of cats with fip virus results in production of serum antibodies which may be protective in conjunction with cell mediated immunity, may provided no protection at all, or may produce an immune enhancement to subsequent exposure to another fip virus or a recrudescence of the original infecting virus. attempts at immunization of cats against f ...19872829570
immune response in sows given transmissible gastroenteritis virus or canine coronavirus.twelve pregnant sows were inoculated oral-nasally 8 weeks before farrowing with attenuated transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), tissue culture-adapted canine coronavirus (ccv), or fluids from mock-infected culture (controls). a 2nd dose of the same inoculum, one-half oral-nasally and one-half intramammarily, was given 6 weeks later. neutralizing antibodies for tgev and ccv were demonstrated in sera, colostrum, and milk whey from the virus-vaccinated sows. homologous geometric mean neutral ...19863014928
an immunoelectron microscopic and immunofluorescent study on the antigenic relationship between the coronavirus-like agent, cv 777, and several coronaviruses.a possible antigenic relationship between the porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus-like agent (cvla) and 6 known coronaviruses was examined by immunoelectron microscopy (iem) and by immunofluorescence (if). cvla did not show cross reactivity with infectious bronchitis virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), canine coronavirus (ccv) hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (hev), neonatal calf diarrhea coronavirus (ncdcv) or feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv). antigenic relatio ...19816166280
antigenic relationships among homologous structural polypeptides of porcine, feline, and canine coronaviruses.transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine (tgev), feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv), and canine coronavirus were studied with respect to their serological cross-reactivity in homologous and heterologous virus neutralization, immune precipitation of radiolabeled tgev, electroblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using individual virion polypeptides prepared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. tgev was neutralized by feline anti-fipv serum, and the reaction was potentiated ...19826182101
an enteric coronavirus infection of cats and its relationship to feline infectious peritonitis.an enteric coronavirus that is antigenically closely related to feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) is ubiquitous in the cat population. this virus has been designated feline enteric coronavirus to differentiate it from fipv. the virus is shed in the feces by many seropositive cats; in catteries it is a cause of inapparent to mildly severe enteritis in kittens 6 to 12 weeks of age. the virus may produce a more severe enteritis in young specific-pathogen-free kittens. feline enteric corona ...19816267960
macrotiter assay for coronavirus-neutralizing activity in cats using a canine continuous cell line (a-72).a heterologous neutralization assay for feline infectious peritonitis virus serology was developed using a single continuous cell line of canine origin, a-72, which is susceptible to cytopathic infection with both transmissible gastroenteritis virus of pigs and canine coronavirus. of several coronavirus isolates tested, the 1-71 isolate of canine coronavirus demonstrated the most effective neutralization by serum and body fluids of cats with histopathologically confirmed feline infectious perito ...19836319813
genomic relationship of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus to bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus oc43 as studied by the use of bovine coronavirus s gene-specific probes.the genomic relationship of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (hev) to bovine coronavirus (bcv) and human coronavirus (hcv) strain oc43 was examined by dot blot hybridization assays. two bcv s gene-specific probes were generated by polymerase chain reaction from the avirulent l9-strain of bcv. probes were located in the s1 and the s2 region of the peplomeric (s) glycoprotein gene. the s1 probe (726 bp) hybridized with bcv and hcv-oc43, but not with hev under moderate stringency hy ...19957646353
molecular cloning and sequence determination of the peplomer protein gene of feline infectious peritonitis virus type i.cdna clones spanning the entire region of the peplomer (s) gene of feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) type i strain ku-2 were obtained and their complete nucleotide sequences were determined. a long open reading frame (orf) encoding 1464 amino acid residues was found in the gene, which was 12 residues longer than the orf of the fipv type ii strain 79-1146. the sequences of fipv type i and mainly -tpv type ii were compared. the homologies at the n- (amino acid residues 1-693) and c- (resi ...19957733820
further characterization of aminopeptidase-n as a receptor for coronaviruses.we recently reported that porcine aminopeptidase-n (papn) acts as a receptor for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev). in the present work, we addressed the question of whether tgev tropism is determined only by the virus-receptor interaction. to this end, different non-permissive cell lines were transfected with the porcine apn cdna and tested for their susceptibility to tgev infection. the four transfected cell lines shown to express papn at their membrane became sensitive to infection. ...19937911642
nucleotide sequence and expression of the spike (s) gene of canine coronavirus and comparison with the s proteins of feline and porcine coronaviruses.we have cloned, sequenced and expressed the spike (s) gene of canine coronavirus (ccv; strain k378). its deduced amino acid sequence has revealed features in common with other coronavirus s proteins: a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids at the amino terminus (the putative signal sequence), another hydrophobic region at the carboxy terminus (the membrane anchor), heptad repeats preceding the anchor, and a cysteine-rich region located just downstream from it. like other representatives of the same ...19948021609
cloning, sequencing and expression of the s protein gene from two geographically distinct strains of canine coronavirus.the gene encoding the spike (s) protein from two geographically distinct strains (american and british) of canine coronavirus (ccv) was cloned and sequenced. the nucleotide sequence revealed open reading frames of 1443 or 1453 amino acids, respectively. structural features include an n-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence, a hydrophilic cysteine-rich cluster near the c-terminus, two heptad repeats and 29 or 33 potential n-glycosylation sites. pairwise comparisons of s amino acid sequences from t ...19958607285
comparison of the amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the peplomer, integral membrane and nucleocapsid proteins of feline, canine and porcine coronaviruses.complete nucleotide sequences were determined by cdna cloning of peplomer (s), integral membrane (m) and nucleocapsid (n) genes of feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) type i strain ku-2, ucd1 and black, and feline enteric coronavirus (fecv) type ii strain 79-1683. only m and n genes were analyzed in strain ku-2 and strain 79-1683 which still had unknown nucleotide sequences. deduced amino acid sequences of s, m and n proteins were compared in a total of 7 strains of coronaviruses, which i ...19968839428
feline aminopeptidase n serves as a receptor for feline, canine, porcine, and human coronaviruses in serogroup i.two members of coronavirus serogroup i, human respiratory coronavirus hcv-229e and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), use aminopeptidase n (apn) as their cellular receptors. these viruses show marked species specificity in receptor utilization, as hcv-229e can utilize human but not porcine apn, while tgev can utilize porcine but not human apn. to determine whether feline apn could serve as a receptor for two feline coronaviruses in serogroup i, feline infectious peritonitis viru ...19968970993
characterization of determinants involved in the feline infectious peritonitis virus receptor function of feline aminopeptidase n.feline aminopeptidase n (fapn) is a major cell surface receptor for feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), human coronavirus 229e (hcv 229e) and canine coronavirus (ccv). by using chimeric molecules assembled from porcine, human and feline apn we have analysed the determinants involved in the coronavirus receptor function of fapn. our results show that amino acids 670-840 of fapn are critically involved in its fipv and tgev receptor function where ...19989634079
differences in virus receptor for type i and type ii feline infectious peritonitis virus.feline infectious peritonitis viruses (fipvs) are classified into type i and type ii serogroups. here, we report that feline aminopeptidase n (apn), a cell-surface metalloprotease on the intestinal, lung and kidney epithelial cells, is a receptor for type ii fipv but not for type i fipv. a monoclonal antibody (mab) r-g-4, which blocks infection of felis catus whole fetus (fcwf-4) cells by type ii fipv, was obtained by immunizing mice with fcwf-4 cells which are highly susceptible to fipv. this m ...19989645192
molecular analysis of the coronavirus-receptor function of aminopeptidase n.aminopeptidase n (apn) is a major cell surface for coronaviruses of the serogroup i. by using chimeric apn proteins assembled from human, porcine and feline apn we have identified determinants which are critically involved in the coronavirus-apn interaction. our results indicate that human coronavirus 229e (hcv 229e) is distinct from the other serogroup i coronaviruses in that determinants located within the n-terminal parts of the human and feline apn proteins mediate the infection of hcv 229e, ...19989782265
feline aminopeptidase n is a receptor for all group i coronaviruses.human coronavirus hcv-229e and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), both members of coronavirus group i, use aminopeptidase n (apn) as their cellular receptors. these viruses show marked species specificity in receptor utilization as they can only use apn of their respective species to initiate virus infection. feline and canine coronaviruses are also group i coronaviruses. to determine whether feline apn could serve as a receptor for feline coronaviruses (fcovs), we cloned the cd ...19989782266
the s gene of canine coronavirus, strain ucd-1, is more closely related to the s gene of transmissible gastroenteritis virus than to that of feline infectious peritonitis virus.to gain insight into the genetic relationships among six canine coronavirus (ccv) strains, the variable region of the spike (s) protein gene was sequenced. the ccv strains were: two atcc reference strains, the insavc-1 vaccine strain, the national veterinary services laboratories (ames, ia) challenge strain, and two california field isolates (ucd-1 and ucd-2) from the 1970s. all six strains, downstream of the nucleocapsid (n) protein gene, had sufficient size for an orf 7b, and thus, none were t ...199910475084
feline and canine coronaviruses are released from the basolateral side of polarized epithelial llc-pk1 cells expressing the recombinant feline aminopeptidase-n cdna.in this study feline (fecv and fipv) and canine (ccov) coronavirus entry into and release from polarized porcine epithelial llc-pk1 cells, stably expressing the recombinant feline aminopeptidase-n cdna, were investigated. virus entry appeared to occur preferentially through the apical membrane, similar to the entry of the related porcine coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) into these cells. however, whereas tgev is released apically, feline and canine coronaviruses were found ...200111402864
mutational analysis of aminopeptidase n, a receptor for several group 1 coronaviruses, identifies key determinants of viral host range.feline coronavirus (fcov), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (tgev), canine coronavirus (ccov), and human coronavirus hcov-229e, which belong to the group 1 coronavirus, use aminopeptidase n (apn) of their natural host and feline apn (fapn) as receptors. using mouse-feline apn chimeras, we identified three small, discontinuous regions, amino acids (aa) 288 to 290, aa 732 to 746 (called r1), and aa 764 to 788 (called r2) in fapn that determined the host ranges of these coronavirus ...200717093189
molecular characterisation of the virulent canine coronavirus cb/05 strain.this paper characterises a virulent strain (cb/05) of canine coronavirus (ccov) isolated from the internal organs of pups that had died of a systemic disease without evidence of other common canine pathogens. high viral rna titres were detected in the internal organs by a real-time rt-pcr assay specific for ccov type ii. sequence analysis of the 3' end (8.7kb) of the genomic rna of strain cb/05 revealed conserved structural as well as non-structural proteins, with the exception of a truncated fo ...200717275120
gain, preservation, and loss of a group 1a coronavirus accessory glycoprotein.coronaviruses are positive-strand rna viruses of extraordinary genetic complexity and diversity. in addition to a common set of genes for replicase and structural proteins, each coronavirus may carry multiple group-specific genes apparently acquired through relatively recent heterologous recombination events. here we describe an accessory gene, orf3, unique to canine coronavirus type i (ccov-i) and characterize its product, glycoprotein gp3. whereas orf3 is conserved in ccov-i, only remnants rem ...200818667517
recombinant canine coronaviruses related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine are circulating in dogs.four canine coronavirus type ii (ccov-ii) strains were identified in the guts and internal organs of pups which had died of acute gastroenteritis. the ccov-ii strains were strictly related to porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) in the n-terminal domain of the spike protein, whereas in the other parts of the genome, a higher genetic relatedness to recent ccov-ii isolates was observed. experimental infection of dogs with a tgev-like isolate induced mild gastroenteritis without any s ...200919036814
an elisa based on recombinant spike protein s for the detection of antibodies to transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine-like canine coronaviruses.recombinant canine coronaviruses, resembling the transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine (tgev) in a 5' fragment of the s glycoprotein, have been detected recently and showed to be present in canine populations. the 5' fragment of the s protein (s') of a tgev-like canine coronavirus (ccov), strain 174/06, was expressed in an escherichia coli cell-free system. the purified recombinant polypeptide was employed to develop an elisa test for the detection of tgev-like ccov-specific antibodies in ...201019878695
antigenic homology among coronaviruses related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus.the antigenic homology of 26 coronavirus isolates, of which 22 were antigenically related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), was determined with 42 monoclonal antibodies. type, group, and interspecies specific epitopes were defined. two group specific mabs distinguished the enteric tgev isolates from the respiratory variants. an antigenic subsite involved in neutralization was conserved in porcine, feline, and canine coronavirus. the classification of the human coronavirus 229e in a ...19901689525
genomic organization and expression of the 3' end of the canine and feline enteric coronaviruses.the genomic organization at the 3' end of canine coronavirus (ccv) and feline enteric coronavirus (fecv) was determined by sequence analysis and compared to that of feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) of swine. comparison of the latter two has previously revealed an extra open reading frame (orf) at the 3' end of the fipv genome, lacking in tgev, which is currently designated orf 6b. both ccv and fecv possess 6b-related orfs at the 3' ends of ...19921329312
genomic organization and expression of the 3' end of the canine and feline enteric coronaviruses.the genomic organization at the 3' end of canine coronavirus (ccv) and feline enteric coronavirus (fecv) was determined by sequence analysis and compared to that of feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) of swine. comparison of the latter two has previously revealed an extra open reading frame (orf) at the 3' end of the fipv genome, lacking in tgev, now designated orf 6b. both ccv and fecv possess 6b-related orfs. the ccv orf 6b is colinear with ...19938209715
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