hemagglutination by a human rotavirus isolate as evidence for transmission of animal rotaviruses to humans.human rotavirus strain ro1845, which was isolated in 1985 from an israeli child with diarrhea, has a hemagglutinin that is capable of agglutinating erythrocytes from guinea pigs, sheep, chickens, and humans (group o). hemagglutination was inhibited after incubation with hyperimmune sera or in the presence of glycophorin, the erythrocyte receptor for animal rotaviruses. these results suggest that ro1845 is an animal rotavirus that infected a human child.19921315327
homotypic and heterotypic serological responses to rotavirus neutralization epitopes in immunologically naive and experienced animals.gnotobiotic or specific-pathogen-free animals with no previous exposure to rotavirus were vaccinated with strain uk, serotype g6. the highest serological response was to homologous virus; significant but lower responses occurred to viruses with either vp4 or vp7 related to that of vaccine virus; responses to other viruses were of low titer or infrequent. adult cows vaccinated with uk virus produced increased titers of antibody to all rotavirus serotypes. the increases in titer to homologous viru ...19911723075
identification of bluetongue virus vp6 protein as a nucleic acid-binding protein and the localization of vp6 in virus-infected vertebrate cells.recently the insect baculovirus autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (acnpv) has been effectively adapted as a highly efficient vector in insect cells for the expression of various genes. a cdna sequence of rna segment 9 of bluetongue virus serotype 10 (btv-10, an orbivirus member of the reoviridae family) encoding a minor core protein (vp6) has been inserted into the bamhi site of the pacym1 transfer vector derived from acnpv. spodoptera frugiperda cells were cotransfected with the ...19902152806
some infectious causes of diarrhea in young farm animals.escherichia coli, rotaviruses, and cryptosporidium parvum are discussed in this review as they relate to enteric disease in calves, lambs, and pigs. these microorganisms are frequently incriminated as causative agents in diarrheas among neonatal food animals, and in some cases different strains or serotypes of the same organism cause diarrhea in humans. e. coli causes diarrhea by mechanisms that include production of heat-labile or heat-stable enterotoxins and synthesis of potent cytotoxins, and ...19902224836
effect of viral infection of fc receptors and immunologically nonspecific receptors of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes: an in vitro model.i describe the effect on phagocytic activity of the migration of bovine blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmnl) through collagen and a monolayer of pk-15 cells in vitro infected with rotaviruses (strain osu, rfc-17, sa-11), a picornavirus (strain svdv), bovine herpesvirus (bhv-1) and equine herpesvirus (ehv-1). the pmnl were examined before and after their migration as follows: (1) for ea rosette formation with sensitized sheep erythrocytes, (2) for phagocytic activity mediated through fc rece ...19892569805
occurrence and properties of fy(att25)+ escherichia coli associated with diarrhoea in calves.escherichia coli producing the adhesive antigen fy(att25) were isolated from 46 of 1341 (3.4 per cent) e coli isolated from calves on 20 of 164 (12.1 per cent) farms in scotland and england. twenty of the 46 calves had diarrhoea and in nine of these animals there were mixed infections with rotavirus, coronavirus, cryptosporidium and salmonella typhimurium. the f41 fimbrial adhesin was found on one of the fy(att25)+ e coli. this strain also produced heat stable enterotoxin. the remaining fy(att25 ...19872889286
isolation of ovine rotavirus in cell cultures. brief report.three cytopathic rotavirus strains were isolated in ma 104 cells from intestinal contents of lambs with diarrhea. pretreatment of virus with pancreatin and incorporation of a small amount of pancreatin in maintenance medium were important for establishment of the strains in these cells. the isolates showed marked cross reactions with bovine rotavirus in immunofluorescence, but no cross reaction with bovine, human, simian, equine, porcine and lapine rotaviruses in neutralization.19852982347
detection and quantitation of rotavirus using monoclonal antibody coupled red blood cells: comparison with elisa.a total of 125 faecal extracts from infants were tested by reverse passive haemagglutination (rph) using red cells coated with a monoclonal antibody against the major group-specific rotavirus antigen (vp 6). results were compared with those obtained using a rabbit anti-rotavirus capture, guinea pig anti-rotavirus detector-based elisa. the specificity of the assay was confirmed by use of 'normal' immunoglobulin coupled red cells and by inhibition with rabbit antiserum. the antibody-coated red cel ...19852997254
replication of atypical ovine rotavirus in small intestine and cell culture.colostrum-deprived lambs experimentally infected with an atypical ovine rotavirus isolated from naturally scouring animals, and a naturally infected colostrum-deprived lamb, were examined by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase labelling, and electron microscopy. a hyperimmune serum to the virus was produced in a gnotobiotic lamb and used to demonstrate antigen in the villous epithelial cells of the small intestine from infected animals. scanning and transmission electron microscopy of tissue ...19863005481
enzootic bovine rotavirus is not a source of infection in panamanian cattle ranchers and their families.vaccination of humans against rotavirus (rv) diarrhea may be accomplished by oral immunization with attenuated animal strains known to be antigenically very similar to human strains. to define better the degree of infectivity in nature of these animal strains for humans, we conducted surveillance for rv infection/diarrhea in 180 farm workers, their 161 family contacts, and the 566 animals (512 cattle, 35 pigs, and 19 sheep) on 14 farms in rural panama. no correlation between the high infection r ...19863009644
hemagglutination with ovine rotavirus. brief report.the virus was grown in ma 104 cells, a stable cell line derived from embryonic rhesus monkey kidney, and tested for hemagglutination (ha) with erythrocytes of a variety of species at 4 degrees c, room temperature and 37 degrees c. ha was observed at all temperatures with chicken, sheep, rabbit, guinea pig and human erythrocytes but not with horse, cattle, goat, swine and goose erythrocytes. ha reaction was inhibited by specific antiserum. some factors involved in the ha and ha-inhibition (hi) we ...19863015075
isolation of cytophatic strains of rotavirus from pigs.twenty-two rotavirus isolates were recovered from piglets suffering from diarrhea. the isolates readily propagated in ma-104 cell cultures where they induced typical cytopathic effects (cpe) and possessed the physicochemicals properties of the members of rotavirus genus, family reoviridae. the electron microscopy study, conducted in ma-104 infected cells, revealed virus particles which possessed the peculiar morphology of rotavirus. the isolates were neutralized by a reference porcine rotavirus ...19863018451
prevalence of antibody to group b (atypical) rotavirus in humans and animals.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for the detection of group b rotavirus antigen and antibody. the specificities of both assays were evaluated for antigens and serum specific for rotavirus groups a to d. serum collected in the united kingdom from different animal species exhibited the following high prevalence of group b rotavirus-specific antibody: pigs, 97%; cattle, 71%; sheep, 91%; and goats, 91%. in human serum, a lower prevalence of group b-specific antibody was detected; se ...19873029164
comparative pathology of infection by novel diarrhoea viruses.examination of diarrhoeic faeces in the electron microscope often reveals viruses that are presumed to be enteropathogenic. lesions caused by novel rotaviruses were similar to those of group a rotaviruses, but enterocyte syncytia were seen which are probably pathognomonic for novel rotaviruses. in adenovirus infection in piglets, mature enterocytes were infected and destroyed; intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in infected enterocytes. calici-like viruses infected mature enterocytes in calv ...19873036441
the diagnostic gap in diarrhoeal is well established that rotaviruses of group a are the most important cause of severe diarrhoea in children. the causes of most cases of infectious diarrhoea still remain unidentified, however, and there must be other viruses to be found. 'novel' rotaviruses have recently been discovered, mainly in animals (serogroups b and c in pigs and humans, d in birds, and one or more further groups in sheep and other mammals). except for the group b virus which has caused widespread outbreaks of quite ...19873036443
novel rotaviruses in animals and man.novel (non-group a) rotaviruses have many of the morphological, biochemical and biological properties described originally for group a rotaviruses but they do not share the same group antigens. by negative-stain electron microscopy, novel rotaviruses have the characteristic rotavirus morphology, although with some novel rotaviruses the characteristic single- and double-shelled particles may not be readily apparent. comparison of novel rotaviruses in serological tests has revealed the existence o ...19873036446
[epidemiology of diarrhea caused by escherichia coli and rotavirus in calves and lambs in morocco].an epidemiological survey on e coli and rotavirus associated diarrheas in one to twenty five days old calves and lambs was made in three regions: rabat-kenitra, marrakech and agadir. isolated e coli k99 stains have been studied of a biochemical, serotypical (o antigen) and antibiotypical point of view. the identification of rotavirus was made by elisa test. persistence of k99 antigen and heat stable toxin a was examined after a conservation of 5 weeks at - 18 degrees c. the frequency of e coli k ...19883041900
comparison of direct electron microscopy and enzyme immunoassay for the detection of rotaviruses in calves, lambs, piglets and electron microscopy (em) and enzyme-immunoassay (rotazyme) results for the detection of rotaviruses in 346 enteric specimens from calves, lambs, piglets and foals were compared. the rotazyme test was at least 3 times more sensitive than direct em in diagnosing infection. rotavirus antigen was demonstrated by rotazyme in 22% of 280 scour samples and in 27% of 66 samples from non-scouring animals. there was an association between diarrhoea and higher amounts of rotavirus antigen. this preva ...19883041953
bovine rotavirus serotypes and their significance for immunization.neutralization assays on calf fecal rotavirus with antisera to two previously described bovine rotavirus serotypes allowed the isolation of four rotaviruses belonging to a distinct third serotype. in a survey of 85 calf isolates, 80 rotaviruses belonged to serotype 1 (91%), 1 belonged to serotype 2 (1%), and 4 belonged to serotype 3 (5%). serotypes 1 and 2 were shown to not cross-protect in a passive immunization experiment in gnotobiotic lambs. ingestion of specific antiserum protected against ...19846092421
the commonest rotaviruses from neonatal lamb diarrhoea in england and wales have atypical electropherotypes. 19846093328
serological comparison of canine rotavirus with various simian and human rotaviruses by plaque reduction neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition the plaque reduction neutralization test, the cu-1 strain of canine rotavirus was similar, if not identical, to three strains (no. 14, no. 15, and p) of the tentatively designated third human rotavirus serotype. in addition, strain cu-1 demonstrated a one-way antigenic relationship with two other strains (m and b) of the third human rotavirus serotype. the cu-1 strain of canine rotavirus hemagglutinated human group o, rhesus monkey, dog, sheep, and guinea pig erythrocytes. a two-way antigenic ...19836190752
sialodacryoadenitis in the rat: effects of immunosuppression on the course of the disease.eight-week-old outbred male and female crl:cd(sd)br rats were treated with prednisolone (pr) or cyclophosphamide (cy) and were inoculated intranasally with sialodacryoadenitis (sda) virus. the course of the disease was compared with nonimmunosuppressed, sda virus-inoculated rats of the same stock. criteria used to compare sda in the 3 groups, included histologic changes in salivary and lacrimal glands, immunofluorescent microscopy of paraffin-embedded tissues, serum amylase levels, and antibody ...19846208823
lactose tolerance in lambs with rotavirus has been suggested that lactose malabsorption is an important factor in producing the diarrhoea of acute rotavirus infection. accordingly, the lactose tolerance of gnotobiotic newborn lambs, infected with lamb rotavirus, has been investigated by clinical studies and tissue enzyme assays. although lactase activity is low in affected areas of the small intestine, rotavirus infected lambs are not lactose intolerant as assessed by the measurement of reducing substances in the faeces, or by the cl ...19816260597
experimental escherichia coli and rotavirus infection in lambs.colostrum-deprived lambs were infected with either enteropathogenic escherichia coli(o9:k30:k99) or rotavirus or a mixture of the e coli and rotavirus. e coli doses of 10(6) and above consistently produced diarrhoea, as did experimental rotavirus infection. when both of the agents were administered, the mortality rate was higher, although the duration of diarrhoea was no greater than that observed when either of the two agents was administered alone.19816265999
diarrhea in lambs: experimental infections with enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, rotavirus, and cryptosporidium sp.thirteen gnotobiotic lambs, aged from a few hours to 8 days, were inoculated orally with single infections of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) (four animals), lamb rotavirus (five animals), and cryptosporidium (four animals). six gnotobiotic and two specific-pathogen-free lambs were co-inoculated with either rotavirus and etec (four animals), rotavirus and cryptosporidium (two animals), or etec and cryptosporidium (two animals). lambs 4 days of age and older became only subclinically infe ...19816268543
twenty-five years of progress in understanding major infectious diseases of dairy cattle. 19816268673
igg1 antibody in milk protects lambs against rotavirus diarrhoea.newborn gnotobiotic lambs were fed a diet of diluted evaporated milk supplemented either with normal ewes' milk or with milk obtained from ewes injected parenterally during gestation with rotavirus. lambs fed 150 ml per day of milk collected 5 days after lambing from normal ewes were susceptible to rotavirus infection and diarrhoea, while lambs fed milk from vaccinated ewes collected either 5 or 12 days after lambing were protected. analysis of the milk by column chromatography showed the anti-r ...19816283719
serotyping and subgrouping of rotavirus strains by the elisa test.a method is described for the serotyping and subgrouping of rotaviruses by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (elisa). for the isolates tested "blind" under code in parallel the serotyping results obtained by elisa and serum neutralization of fluorescent focus formation were the same. after absorption of the typing antisera with purified heterotypic rotavirus, up to 128-fold differences in titres between isolates were observed in the elisa test. the results of serotyping and subgrouping, by elis ...19826293413
human rotavirus detection by agglutination of antibody-coated erythrocytes.we sensitized sheep erythrocytes (srbc) with antibodies against human rotavirus strain wa (srbc-antiwa) and antibodies against calf rotavirus strain ncdv (srbc-antincdv). these were readily agglutinated in the presence of homologous antigens, i.e., human rotavirus and calf rotavirus. by the hemagglutination of srbc-antiwa and srbc-antincdv (reverse passive hemagglutination [rpha]), titration of rotavirus in extracts from feces of children suffering from diarrhea (61 specimens) was carried out. w ...19836308039
detection of rotavirus antibody by inhibition of reverse passive hemagglutination.a reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition (rphi) test was developed for detecting rotavirus antibody in patients' sera. sheep erythrocytes coated with guinea pig antibody against nebraska calf diarrhea virus (ncdv) were readily hemagglutinated by ncdv in a reaction called reverse passive hemagglutination (rpha). inhibition of this rpha reaction was used to detect the presence of rotavirus antibody in patients' sera which cross-reacted with ncdv. the sensitivity of rphi was consistently at le ...19826313739
isolation and characterization of an equine rotavirus.a rotavirus, designated as the h-1 strain, was isolated from a diarrheic foal in primary african green monkey kidney cells and ma104 cells. this cell culture-adapted strain hemagglutinated erythrocytes of human group o, rhesus monkeys, guinea pigs, and sheep. it was found to be similar, if not identical, to porcine rotaviruses (strains osu, ee, and a-580) by plaque reduction neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition tests, and, in addition, it was found to belong to subgroup 1. this equine ...19836313746
evidence for serotypic variation among bovine rotaviruses.eight field strains of calf rotavirus from the u.k. were compared by neutralisation tests, using convalescent and hyperimmune antisera. seven of these strains cross-reacted and were considered to be of one serotype, while the 8th was distinguished by a greater than 20-fold two-way difference in neutralisation titre suggesting a second serotype. three widely-distributed reference strains (u.k., northern ireland and lincoln) cross-reacted with the strains in the dominant serotype, as did 33 of 42 ...19846320775
[diagnosis of rotavirus-caused enteritis in animals using enzygnost rotavirus elisa]. 19846323122
comparison of atypical rotaviruses from calves, piglets, lambs and man.some rotaviruses from calves, piglets, and lambs were detected by electron microscopic examination of faeces but not by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which relies on detection of group antigen. on further examination by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, these viruses had 11 segments of dsrna, as had typical rotaviruses, but arranged in atypical patterns. from humans, three rotaviruses with atypical electrophoretypes were also detected. gnotobiotic animals were infected with atypical cal ...19846327887
the clinical manifestation and pathogenesis of enteritis associated with rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli infections in domestic animals.rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) are enteropathogens each capable of inducing diarrhoea in some animal species and man. unstressed young animals develop an age-related resistance to infection with either rotavirus or etec which differs for each animal species. the effects of experimental infection of calves, lambs, foals and piglets with rotavirus and etec given either alone or in combination, have been examined. in general, dual infections tended to lengthen the period of a ...19836361857
detection of bovine coronavirus in feces by reversed passive hemagglutination.a reversed passive hemagglutination (rpha) method was developed for the detection of bovine coronavirus in fecal specimens. sheep erythrocytes fixed with glutaraldehyde, and then treated with tannic acid were coated with anti-bovine coronavirus rabbit antibodies purified by affinity chromatography using bovine coronavirus linked to sepharose 4b. the rpha test was carried out by a microtiter method. erythrocytes coated with purified specific antibodies were agglutinated by bovine coronavirus, but ...19846367710
experimental diarrhoea in lambs. 19846385570
differential diagnosis of scouring in lambs. 19836832843
diarrhea due to cryptosporidium infection in artificially reared lambs.severe diarrhea which lasted 7 to 12 days occurred in 40 of 48 artificially reared lambs within 5 to 12 days of birth, and 16 of them died. of 16 diarrheic fecal samples examined, 10 contained cryptosporidium oocysts and 1 contained rotavirus, but no other known enteropathogen was detected. upon histological examination, cryptosporidia were found in the ilea of three affected lambs, and in one of them, villous atrophy and fusion, with epithelial cross-bridging between villi, were present in dist ...19817263849
role of salmonella arizonae and other infective agents in enteric disease of lambs.fecal samples from 545 diarrheic lambs on 12 ranches in southern idaho and western montana were examined for potential enteric pathogens. on 3 of the 12 ranches, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium, or s dublin was implicated as the etiologic agent. rotavirus and coronavirus were identified on 1 ranch and rotavirus alone on another. salmonella arizonae serotype 26:30 was isolated from the feces of diarrheic lambs on 6 of the 12 ranches in this study. pregnant ewes from 1 of ...19817332118
prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to 9 rotavirus strains representing 7 g-serotypes in sheep sera.neutralizing antibodies to 9 rotavirus strains representing serotypes g1, g3, g5, g6, g8, g9, and g10 were investigated in 212 ovine serum samples from 3 age groups, 1-week-old lambs, 2- to 3-months-old lambs and adult sheep. all sera from 1-week-old lambs had neutralizing antibodies to all 9 rotavirus strains. both neutralizing antibody titers and prevalences to all 9 strains markedly decreased in the 2- to 3-months-old lamb group and increased again in the adult sheep group. also, adult sheep ...19957483248
serological and genomic characterisation of group a rotaviruses from lambs.four lamb rotaviruses were characterised serologically by reactions with monoclonal antibodies and genomically by hybridisation assays and sequencing. each was found to be distinct. three viruses belonged to the bovine genogroup and were of subgroup i. these viruses possessed serotypes g3, g6, and g10. their corresponding p types were p1, p11, and p14 respectively. the only previous isolation of a rotavirus with vp4 of type p14 was also from lambs. the fourth isolate was g9p8, which is the first ...19957487486
rearrangement of the vp6 gene of a group a rotavirus in combination with a point mutation affecting trimer stability.a group a rotavirus isolated from a lamb with diarrhea in qinhai province, china, was serially passaged in fetal calf kidney cells. in passage 96, rearrangements of rna segments 5 and 6 of the viral genome were found. here we report the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of normal and rearranged rna 6, coding for the major inner capsid protein vp6. in comparison with the normal gene (n6), the rearranged rna 6 (r6) contained the normal open reading frame followed by a 473-nucleotide (n ...19947509001
group b rotavirus associated with an outbreak of neonatal lamb diarrhea. 19957779951
vaccinia virus expression of the vp7 protein of south african bluetongue virus serotype 4 and its use as an antigen in a capture elisa.recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the vp7 core protein of south african bluetongue virus serotype 4 (sa-btv4) were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification. expression of vp7 was verified by radio-immunoprecipitation and a f(ab')2-based elisa. antibodies to vp7 were detected in sera from sheep that had been infected with 20 different virulent btv serotypes by using the vaccinia virus (vv) expressed vp7 as antigen in a capture elisa. f(ab')2-immobilised vv-expressed sa-btv4 vp7 ...19947979976
rotavirus infection in calves, piglets, lambs and goat kids in trinidad.faecal samples from diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic calves, piglets, lambs and goat kids were collected and screened by a latex agglutination test to detect the presence of group a rotavirus antigen. of a total of 470 animals screened, 138 (29.4%) had faecal samples positive for rotavirus antigen. the prevalences of infection were 27.7% (73/264) in calves, 27.8% (45/162) in piglets, 48.6% (18/37) in lambs and 28.6% (2/7) in goat kids. rotavirus antigen was not detected in calves and lambs < 1 week ...19948044669
nucleotide sequences of the vp4 and vp7 genes of a chinese lamb rotavirus: evidence for a new p type in a g10 type virus.the vp7 and vp4 genes of a group a rotavirus (lp14) isolated from a lamb with diarrhea in qinhai province, china, in 1981 were reverse transcribed, amplified by pcr, cloned, and sequenced. the virus was found to possess a vp7 gene, classifying it as a g10 type, and a vp4 gene which showed only limited homology with any other known vp4 gene, suggesting its classification as a new p type and providing further evidence for the vast diversity of group a rotaviruses.19938212593
homotypic and heterotypic immune responses to group a rotaviruses in parenterally immunized sheep.immune responses to human rotaviruses were investigated in sheep with a view to obtaining antibodies for passive immunotherapy of humans. eighteen adult sheep with previous natural exposure to rotavirus serotypes g3 and g6 were immunized parenterally with purified preparations of either individual rotavirus serotypes g1, g2, g3, g4 and g8, or a mixture thereof. two additional sheep were kept as control animals with the flock. the antibody responses were measured on serial serum samples by neutra ...19938382420
rapid detection of human group c rotaviruses by reverse passive hemagglutination and latex agglutination tests using monoclonal antibodies.reverse passive hemagglutination (rpha) tests and a latex agglutination test with monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were developed for the rapid detection of noncultivatable human group c rotaviruses. for rpha tests, two mabs, mab 5a12 recognizing the outer capsid and mab 13a3 recognizing the inner capsid, were separately used for the coating of sheep erythrocytes (srbcs). forty-six fecal samples were examined to confirm the practicality of the tests. as a result, there was concordance between the rp ...19938388891
intestinal cellular immunity after primary rotavirus infection.infection of neonatal gnotobiotic lambs with a bovine strain of rotavirus was used to characterize the kinetics of the primary cellular intestinal immune response to this agent. at 2-3 days after infection virus was first detected in the faeces and increased numbers of cd45r+ cells were observed in peripheral blood. these cells persisted in significantly increased numbers in the circulation until 7-8 days after infection. at this time, virus was no longer detectable in the faeces. the increase i ...19958543672
topography and immunogenicity of bluetongue virus vp7 epitopes.the core of bluetongue virus (btv) consists of ten dsrna viral genome segments and five proteins, including two major (vp7 and vp3) and three minor (vp1, vp4 and vp6) components. the major core protein vp7 is believed to be an important structural constituent because it interacts, not only with the underlying core protein vp3, but also with two outer capsid proteins (vp2 and vp5). in this communication we summarise data on the mapping of at least six different epitopes of vp7 distributed along t ...19968629938
nucleotide sequence and expression in e. coli of the complete p4 type vp4 from a g2 serotype human rotavirus.the complete sequence of a p4 type vp4 gene from a g2 serotype human rotavirus, is2, isolated in india has been determined. although the is2 vp4 is highly homologous to the other p4 type alleles, it contained acidic amino acid substitutions at several positions that make it acidic among the p4 type alleles that are basic. moreover, comparative sequence analysis revealed unusual polymorphism in members of the p4 type at amino acid position 393 which is highly conserved in members of other vp4 typ ...19968634023
rotaviruses associated with neonatal lamb diarrhea in two wyoming shed-lambing operations. 19968744749
role of enteric pathogens in the aetiology of neonatal diarrhoea in lambs and goat kids in spain.faeces samples from diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic lambs and goat kids aged 1-45 days were examined for enteric pathogens. cryptosporidium parvum was detected in both diarrhoeic lambs (45%) and goat kids (42%) but not in non-diarrhoeic animals. f5+ (k99+) and/or f41+ escherichia coli strains were isolated from 26% and 22% of the diarrhoeic lambs and goat kids, respectively, although these strains, which did not produce enterotoxins st i or lt i, were found with similar frequencies in non-diarrhoe ...19968760970
monoclonal antibody based competitive elisa for the detection of antibodies against epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer virus.a monoclonal antibody based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (mc-elisa) for the detection of antibodies against epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer viruses (ehdv) is described. test sera were competed with a monoclonal antibody against the vp7 protein of ehdv serotype 1. the assay was capable of detecting antibodies to all serotypes of ehdv but unlike the agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) test, gave no cross-reactions with antibodies against bluetongue, palyam or tilligery viruses. ...19968801224
immunoblot assay as a confirmatory test of competitive elisa for serodiagnosis of bluetongue. 19968844582
a single oral dose of inactivated rotavirus and iscom matrices induces partial protection in lambs. 19979191385
[seroprevalence of viral infections in llamas (lama glama) in the republic of argentina].this study reports the seroprevalence of bovine viral infections in llamas (lama glama) in argentina. this is the first study made in the country including 390 llamas and testing antibodies against eight viruses. samples were collected from nine farms distributed in three different provinces: buenos aires, córdoba and jujuy. the samples were tested for antibodies against eight viruses known to infect cattle: bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine adenovirus ...19979229724
characterisation of the primary local and systemic immune response in gnotobiotic lambs against rotavirus infection.this study characterised the primary immune response in gnotobiotic lambs after infection with a lamb rotavirus (rv). lambs were infected and killed over a 7 week period together with controls. rv-elisa and neutralising antibodies were determined in serum, nasal secretions, and intestinal scrapings. rv-antibody secreting cells (asc) were enumerated in blood. lymphocyte proliferations were determined in blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissues and cytokine expression was analysed in jejunal peye ...19989764727
effect of oral rotavirus/iscom vaccines on immune responses in gnotobiotic lambs.a comparison of the effect on the immune responses in gnotobiotic lambs was made between an iscom vaccine prepared from recombinant rotavirus vp6 protein, an inactivated rotavirus/iscom-matrix vaccine and a vaccine comprising inactivated rotavirus alone. all three vaccines induced immunological priming and some degree of protection was observed after a single oral dose. however, different immune responses were induced in response to a virulent infection. the group vaccinated with the rotavirus/i ...199910522786
differential display analysis of gene expression during the induction of mucosal approach to understanding the physiologically relevant events during the induction of an immune response is to identify genes that are expressed when the immune system first encounters antigen. such an investigation requires a naive but fully functional immune system, and the fetal lamb provides these conditions during the last trimester of gestation. 'intestinal segments,' containing a jejunal peyer's patch, were surgically prepared in fetal lambs (>120 days gestation) and individual 'intes ...200011132159
a longitudinal study on enteropathogenic infections of livestock in trinidad.a longitudinal study was conducted on selected livestock farms to determine the prevalence of enteropathogens in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic animals. the enteropathogens assayed from faecal samples and rectal swabs were bacteria (escherichia coli, campylobacter spp. salmonella spp. and yersinia enterocolitica), parasites (coccidia, gastrointestinal nematodes and cryptosporidium spp.) and viruses (group a rotavirus and parvovirus). the prevalence of the enteropathogens in various animal species ...200111340494
nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for the detection of group a rotaviruses.rotaviruses are important pathogens associated with diarrhoeal diseases in almost all species of mammals. in the present study, a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for the detection of group a rotaviruses was developed, which is based on a target region in gene segment 6. rotavirus strains of human, bovine, porcine, canine, feline, equine, and ovine origin were examined. furthermore several faecal specimens, in which rotavirus had already been detected using other m ...200212002423
mucosal immune responses following oral immunization with rotavirus antigens encapsulated in alginate microspheres.availability of effective oral vaccine delivery vehicles should contribute to the success of oral immunization in domestic animals. to achieve this goal, we evaluated alginate microspheres for their capacity to induce mucosal immune responses following oral and enteric immunizations. mice were immunized with either live porcine rotavirus (prv) or its recombinant vp6 protein, encapsulated in alginate microspheres or unencapsulated. vp6-specific igg (but no iga) antibodies were detected in the ser ...200212480324
a human vaccine strain of lamb rotavirus (chinese) nsp4 gene: complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analyses.a lamb strain of rotavirus has recently been licensed for use in china as a live vaccine to prevent rotavirus diarrhea in children. as rotavirus nsp4, especially the cytotoxic domain alone is considered to be associated with diarrhea, we sequenced gene segment 10, which encodes nsp4, of lamb rotavirus. comparative analyses was performed to identify differences from human rotavirus strains, that might be associated with attenuation, and to ascertain whether the lamb rotavirus gene fits among the ...200312803470
evidence of rotavirus associated with neonatal lamb diarrhoea in india. 200414979555
comparative molecular characterization of gene segment 11-derived nsp6 from lamb rotavirus llr strain used as a human vaccine in china.sequence-length polymorphism is known for rotavirus genetic segment 11 (encodes non-structural protein, nsp6). with the exception of 11 strains that have the coding potential for a 98-residue nsp6, majority of the strains have the potential for a 92-residue nsp6. in nine strains, the coding potential for this protein is even shorter. this report focuses on the nsp6 gene nucleotide sequence of lanzhou lamb rotavirus (llr) strain and its comparative molecular characterization. the llr strain is a ...200616492399
genomic characterization of a novel group a lamb rotavirus isolated in zaragoza, ovine rotavirus (ovr) strain, 762, was isolated from a 30-day-old lamb affected with severe gastroenteritis, in zaragoza, spain, and the vp4, vp7, vp6, nsp4, and nsp5/nsp6 genes were subsequently characterized molecularly. strain ovr762 was classified as a p[14] rotavirus, as the vp4 and vp8* trypsin-cleavage product of the vp4 protein revealed the highest amino acid (aa) identity (94% and 97%, respectively) with that of the p11[14] human rotavirus (hrv) strain pa169, isolated in italy. analy ...200818661221
are human p[14] rotavirus strains the result of interspecies transmissions from sheep or other ungulates that belong to the mammalian order artiodactyla?a limited number of human g6p[14] rotavirus strains that cause gastroenteritis in humans have been isolated in europe and australia. the complete genome sequences were determined for five of these human strains--b10925-97 (isolated in belgium in 1997), 111/05-27 (italy, 2005), pa169 (italy, 1987), mg6 (australia, 1993), and hun5 (hungary, 1997)--and their genetic relatedness to animal rotavirus strains was evaluated by sequencing the complete genome of the sheep rotavirus ovr762 (g8p[14]; spain, ...200919153225
genetic heterogeneity in human g6p[14] rotavirus strains detected in hungary suggests independent zoonotic origin. 200919608281
[sequence and evolutionary analysis of vp1 gene of ovine rotavirus nt].the ovine rotavirus strain nt isolated from diarrhea lamb in china was considered as a promising vaccine strain. based on the vp1 gene was one of the important structural proteins of rotavirus, we studied on the evolutional characteristics of vp1.200919835167
genetic analysis of the porcine group b rotavirus nsp2 gene from wild-type brazilian b rotaviruses (rv-b) were first identified in piglet feces, being later associated with diarrhea in humans, cattle, lambs, and rats. in human beings, the virus was only described in china, india, and bangladesh, especially infecting adults. only a few studies concerning molecular analysis of the rv-b nsp2 gene have been conducted, and porcine rv-b has not been characterized. in the present study, three porcine wild-type rv-b strains from piglet stool samples collected from brazilian pig he ...201020069262
ovine rotavirus strain llr-85-based bovine rotavirus candidate vaccines: construction, characterization and immunogenicity a bovine rotaviruses (brvs) are the most important cause of diarrheal diseases in neonatal calves and cause significant morbidity and mortality in the young animals, and epidemiologic surveillance of bovine rotavirus g genotypes conducted in various cattle populations throughout the world has shown that approximately 90% of the bovine rotavirus isolates belong to g6 and g10. based on the modified jennerian approach to immunization, we constructed and characterized a reassortant rotavirus s ...201020488633
novel group a rotavirus g8 p[1] as primary cause of an ovine diarrheic syndrome outbreak in weaned lambs.rotavirus is a worldwide major cause of diarrhea outbreaks in neonatal ruminants. an outbreak of ovine diarrheic syndrome (ods) in 50-75 days-old lambs (weaned lambs) is described. fecal immunochromatography and intestinal immunohistochemistry for rotavirus group a were performed. in addition, semi-nested multiplex rt-pcr for g and p rotavirus genotyping in combination with sequencing were performed, to support the diagnosis and identify the viral strain. a novel ovine rotavirus group a g8 p[1] ...201021216110
immune responses to rotavirus infection and vaccination and associated correlates of protection. 201121288818
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