human alpha-1-antichymotrypsin enhances primary antibody response in the mouse.the effect of human alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (alpha-1-achy) on antibody response was studied in mice. alpha-1-achy increased the number of antisheep erythrocyte antibody-producing cells. the increase was dependent on the dose of alpha-1-achy injected (from 0.25 to 1 mg par mouse). alpha-1-achy was effective if injected 2 days before or simultaneously with sheep erythrocytes. asialylated alpha-1-achy also enhanced the antibody response in the same way as native alpha-1-achy. when alpha-1-achy was ...19826762140
a radiation hybrid map for the bovine y chromosome.screening a bovine y chromosome-specific dna library resulted in 34 new microsatellites, six of which mapped to the pseudoautosomal region (par), and 28 localized to the y-specific region. these microsatellites, together with 23 markers previously mapped to the bovine y chr, were scored on a 7000-rad cattle-hamster radiation hybrid (rh) panel. retention frequency of individual markers ranged from 18.5% to 76.5% with an average of 48.4%. markers with high retention frequency (>55%) were found to ...200212115036
foot-and-mouth disease in the americas: epidemiology and ecologic changes affecting distribution.foot-and-mouth disease(fmd) was first recorded in south america (sa) circa 1870, in buenos aires, argentina, in uruguay, and in southern brazil as a result of the introduction of cattle from europe during the early days of colonization. livestock production to trade with neighboring countries was established in the la plata region, and the trade of livestock and products with chile, northeastern and central western states of brazil, to peru, bolivia, and paraguay spread fmd, which reached venezu ...200415604472
lung-protective effects of the metalloporphyrinic peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst ww-85 in interleukin-2 induced toxicity.recombinant interleukin-2 (il-2) therapy for malignancy is associated with a pulmonary vascular leakage syndrome (vls) similar to that seen in sepsis. we investigated the possibility that the il-2-induced vls may be associated with the release of peroxynitrite (onoo(-)), and used a model of il-2-induced vls in sheep to test the effects of the onoo(-) decomposition catalyst ww-85. eighteen sheep were chronically instrumented and randomly divided into three groups (n=6 per group): sham: lactated r ...200818951875
pulmonary vascular permeability changes in an ovine model of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus sepsis.endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of sepsis, associated with lung transvascular fluid flux and pulmonary dysfunction in septic patients. we tested the hypothesis that methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) sepsis following smoke inhalation increases pulmonary transvascular fluid flux via excessive nitric oxide (no) production.200919222851
time course of nitric oxide synthases, nitrosative stress, and poly(adp ribosylation) in an ovine sepsis model.different isoforms of nitric oxide synthases (nos) and determinants of oxidative/nitrosative stress play important roles in the pathophysiology of pulmonary dysfunction induced by acute lung injury (ali) and sepsis. however, the time changes of these pathogenic factors are largely undetermined.201020602787
the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril inhibits poly(adp-ribose) polymerase activation and exerts beneficial effects in an ovine model of burn and smoke injury.we investigated the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitor captopril in a clinically relevant ovine model of smoke and burn injury, with special reference to oxidative stress and activation of poly(adp-ribose) polymerase, in the lung and in circulating leukocytes. female, adult sheep (28-40 kg) were divided into three groups. after tracheostomy and under deep anesthesia, both vehicle-control-treated (n = 5) and captopril-treated (20 mg/kg per day, i.v., starting 0.5 h before ...201121701415
the specific loss of gnrh-positive neurons from the hypothalamus of sheep with cln6 neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis occurs without glial activation and has only minor effects on reproduction.the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (ncls, batten disease) are characterized by progressive neurodegeneration resulting in widespread brain atrophy. each form is assumed to be the consequence of some universal intracellular event; however, time course studies on the cerebral cortex of a sheep model of the cln6 form revealed distinct regional neurodegeneration preceded by regional glial activation, spreading from quite localized foci. previous neurological investigations have concentrated on obvio ...201021111820
implication of the f-box protein fbxl21 in circadian pacemaker function in mammals, the circadian clock relies on interlocked feedback loops involving clock genes and their protein products. post-translational modifications control intracellular trafficking, functionality and degradation of clock proteins and are keys to the functioning of the clock as recently exemplified for the f-box protein fbxl3. the scf(fbxl3) complex directs degradation of cry1/2 proteins and fbxl3 murine mutants have a slower clock. to assess whether the role of fbxl3 is phylogenetically con ...200818953409
application of a semi-dependent latent model in the bayesian estimation of the sensitivity and specificity of two faecal culture methods for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in sub-clinically infected greek dairy sheep and this study, we compared the frequency of isolation of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) from faecal samples grown on herrold's egg-yolk medium (heym) or on lowenstein-jensen (lj) medium and estimated the sensitivity (se) and specificity (sp) of the methods separately in sub-clinically infected greek dairy sheep and goats, using latent-class models and bayesian estimation procedures. faecal and blood samples were collected from 400 animals > or =1 year old in april-may 2002. th ...200616797753
haemonchus contortus: prokaryotic expression and enzyme activity of recombinant hcstk, a serine/threonine protein kinase.members of the par-1/mark serine/threonine protein kinase (stk) subfamily are important regulators of the cytoskeleton, and their characterization can provide insights into a number of critical processes relating to the development and survival of an organism. we previously investigated the mrna expression for and organization of a gene (hcstk) representing hcstk, an stk from the parasitic nematode haemonchus contortus. in the present study, a recombinant form of hcstk was expressed and characte ...200616500645
chromosome evolution and improved cytogenetic maps of the y chromosome in cattle, zebu, river buffalo, sheep and goat.comparative fish-mapping among y chromosomes of cattle (bos taurus, 2n = 60, bta, submetacentric y chromosome), zebu (bos indicus, 2n = 60, bin, acrocentric y chromosome but with visible small p-arms), river buffalo (bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50, bbu, acrocentric y chromosome), sheep (ovis aries, 2n = 54, oar, small metacentric y chromosome) and goat (capra hircus, 2n = 60, chi, y-chromosome as in sheep) was performed to extend the existing cytogenetic maps and improve the understanding of karyotype ...200515973500
physiologic responses and distribution of aerosolized surfactant (survanta) in a nonuniform pattern of lung injury.the underlying pattern of lung injury in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ards) may be nonuniform. the purpose of this study was to document whether a nonuniform pattern of lung injury influences treatment responses to aerosolized exogenous surfactant. adult sheep underwent either total lung lavage (tot lav) or partial lung lavage (par lav) with saline, and they were subsequently mechanically ventilated for 90 min. previous studies confirmed that this procedure induces acut ...19938503547
molecular cloning and functional expression of a sheep a3 adenosine receptor with widespread tissue distribution.using the polymerase chain reaction, an a3 adenosine receptor has been cloned from the hypophysial par tuberalis of sheep. the clone encodes a 317-amino acid protein that is 72% identical to the rat a3 adenosine receptor. in contrast to rat, where abundant a3 mrna transcript is found primarily in testis, the sheep transcript is most abundant in lung, spleen, and pineal gland and is present in moderate levels in brain, kidney, and testis. the agonist n6-amino[125i]iodobenzyladenosine binds with h ...19938396714
pulmonary vascular effects of leu5-enkephalin in conscious newborn lambs.anatomic evidence suggests that leu5-enkephalin (leu5-enk) may be involved in the physiologic control of pulmonary vascular tone. information regarding its pulmonary vascular effect is limited; we therefore studied its effect on the immature pulmonary circulation. normoxic and hypoxic unsedated newborn lambs with chronically implanted flow probes around the right and left pulmonary arteries were used. leu5-enk was injected into one pulmonary artery only, so that any direct effect of the peptide ...19853991356
modulation by naltrexone of stress-induced changes in humoral immune responsiveness and gastric mucosal integrity in rats.the effects of restraint stress (rs) and the opioid antagonist, naltrexone, were evaluated on humoral immune responsiveness and gastric mucosal integrity in rats. rs for 24 h, but not 6 h, attenuated both the primary (par) and secondary antibody response (sar) to sheep red blood cells (srbc) after a single exposure to the stressor. naltrexone (1 or 5 mg/kg) dose-dependently aggravated the effects of rs on anti-srbc antibody titre in both par and sar studies. further, in rats sensitized with srbc ...19921313589
effects of inbreeding on reproduction, weights and survival of sardi and beni guil sheep.summary: this study was based on the data of 2943 and 3032 sardi ewes and lambs and 2737 and 2961 beni guil ewes and lambs, collected over 12 years in kra kra station and 19 years in oued isly station, respectively. the effects of inbreeding on performance were examined by using the regression models, in which inbreeding coefficients for the individual and dam were fitted as covariates to models that included other environmental and genetic sources of variation and various performance traits as ...199721395799
investigations into traditionally managed djallonké-sheep production in the humid and subhumid zones of asante, ghana: ii. reproductive events and prolificacy(1).summary: parturitions of 338 among humid-zone ewes and 690 among subhumid-zone ewes gave rise to 361 and 797 live-born lambs, respectively. mean age and weight at first parity were 431.3 days and 15.6 kg for the humid-zone ewes while those for the subhumid-zone ewes were 429.4 days and 17.0 kg. early age at first parity is related to physiological age and growth of body weight which is closely related to early sexual maturity. the monthly distribution of parturitions is discussed with considerab ...199421395793
genes located in and near the human pseudoautosomal region are located in the x-y pairing region in dog and sheep.we cloned and mapped the dog and/or sheep homologues of two human pseudoautosomal genes csf2ra and ant3. we also cloned and mapped dog and/or sheep homologues of sts and prkx, which are located nearby on the differential region of the human x and have related genes or pseudogenes on the y. sts, as well as csf2ra, mapped to the tips of the short arm of the sheep x and y (xp and yp), and sts and prkx, as well as ant3, mapped to the tips of the dog xp and y long arm (yq). these locations within the ...19979292234
expression of plasminogen activator-related genes in the adipose tissue of lactating dairy sheep in the early post-weaning period.there is growing evidence that plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (pai-1) is expressed in adipose tissue and its expression is implicated in inflammation that accompanies obesity-associated diseases. the physiological role of other genes implicated in the plasminogen-activating cascade such as urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-pa), u-pa receptor (u-par) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (pai-2) in ovine adipose tissue remains unknown. the objective of this study was to examine ...201121561489
acute mastitis induces upregulation of expression of plasminogen activator-related genes by blood monocytes and neutrophils in dairy ewes.the main objective of the present study was to examine whether genes implicated in the plasminogen activating cascade: urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-pa), u-pa receptor (u-par) and plasminogen activator inhibitors type 1 (pai-1) and type 2 (pai-2) are expressed in a differential manner in ovine blood monocytes and neutrophils obtained from healthy and mastitic dairy ewes. a total of 48 blood samples were collected from 8 healthy and 8 mastitic dairy ewes over a period of 3 weeks. strept ...201020800291
characterization of the bovine pseudoautosomal region and comparison with sheep, goat, and other mammalian pseudoautosomal regions.the pseudoautosomal region (par) is a small region of sequence homology between mammalian x and y chromosomes and is needed for sex chromosome segregation in male meiosis. the region, though studied as yet in only a few species, shows considerable variation in size and gene content. we have constructed a medium-density gene map for the cattle par and the adjacent x-specific region by isolating and mapping 18 bac clones which contain 20 par- and 5 x-specific genes. one bac clone containing tbl1xy ...200920016163
the ovine urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor cdnas: molecular cloning, characterization and expression in various tissues.the activation of plasminogen plays a crucial role in a variety of extracellular proteolytic events such as, fibrinolysis, cell migration, ovulation, involution of the mammary gland and the activation of other protease classes and growth factors. in this paper we describe the isolation of the full-length cdnas of ovine urokinase plasminogen activator (u-pa) and its receptor (u-par) using a polymerase chain reaction based strategy. the ovine u-pa cdna comprised of 2350 bp and it is characterized ...200919389465
in silico identification of opossum cytokine genes suggests the complexity of the marsupial immune system rivals that of eutherian mammals.cytokines are small proteins that regulate immunity in vertebrate species. marsupial and eutherian mammals last shared a common ancestor more than 180 million years ago, so it is not surprising that attempts to isolate many key marsupial cytokines using traditional laboratory techniques have been unsuccessful. this paucity of molecular data has led some authors to suggest that the marsupial immune system is 'primitive' and not on par with the sophisticated immune system of eutherian (placental) ...200617094811
proteinase-activated receptors in ovine cervical sheep, inflammation not only functions in cervical dilation at parturition, but also plays an important part in the non-pregnant ewe cervix, as demonstrated by the high level of expression of interleukin (il)-8 at oestrus. ewes artificially induced to ovulate have significantly lower levels of il-8 gene expression at oestrus compared with natural oestrus, indicating an inhibition of inflammation and function, offering an explanation for the low rates of conception in vaginally inseminated syn ...200516364222
the impact of respiratory syncytial virus infection on endothelin receptor function and release in sheep bronchial explants.we investigated the impact of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection, an important asthma precipitant, on endothelin receptor function and release in sheep bronchial explants. rsv infection was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. since sheep airway smooth muscle contains only endothelin-a receptors, sarafotoxin (stx) s6c did not cause airway contraction. in contrast, sarafotoxin s6c (300 nm) caused contraction in rsv-infected bronchial explants (8 +/- 3% carb ...200415838280
cows, cats, and fse: death penalty justified?transmissible spongiform encephalopathies affect a number of mammalian species. the most common spongiform encephalopathies are scrapie in sheep and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) in cattle. feline spongiform encephalopathy (fse) is a related disorder in domestic cats. because of the link between bse and fse, cats are put on a par with cattle, in terms of politics and regulations. in the netherlands, when a case of bse is found on a farm, not only the ruminants, but also the cats are tak ...200111206004
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