in vitro transcription and translation of genomic rna from a porcine group c rotavirus.eleven segments of ssrna were synthesized from dsrnas of a porcine group (gp) c rotavirus (cowden strain) using an in vitro transcription system. in vitro translation of unfractionated ssrnas revealed at least nine viral proteins, ranging from 22 kda to 93 kda. the 37 kda and 25 kda proteins were glycosylated as demonstrated by the endoglycosidase h assay. in vitro translated products analyzed by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and partial protease peptide mapping were comparable to those ...19921315134
detection of porcine rotavirus in stools by a latex agglutination test.we developed a simple agglutination test for the detection of porcine rotavirus in stools from pigs with diarrhea. the virus was detected with high sensitivity and specificity by a slide agglutination test using latex particles coated with antibody against the porcine rotavirus strain osu (la-antiosu). the agglutination of la-antiosu with osu on a glass slide was evident macroscopically within 2 min. the sensitivity of this latex agglutination (la) test was four times higher than that of the ele ...19911652863
identification of four vp4 serological types (p serotypes) of bovine rotavirus using viral reassortants.a series of five reassortant viruses each containing the vp4 gene of a distinct bovine rotavirus and the vp7 gene of human rotavirus strain st3 was prepared, and antisera to these were produced in rabbits. in neutralization tests, these antisera allowed the differentiation of the five original strains (from three different vp7 or g serotypes) into three or possibly four vp4 or p serotypes. all of a further seven bovine rotavirus strains adapted to cell culture were successfully typed by these an ...19921328488
serotyping and antigenic comparison of some animal rotaviruses isolated in china.eight strains of rotaviruses isolated from diarrheal animals (4 from calves and 4 from piglets) in china were compared by serotyping with reference animal rotavirus strains (bovine ncdv, porcine osu and simian sa-11 and human rotavirus wa strain). two-way cross neutralization test showed no antigenic difference between all 4 local strains of bovine rotavirus (brv007, brv014, hn-7 and brv6555) and reference ncdv, so they belonged to rotavirus serotype 6 (bovine rotavirus serotype 1 or ncdv-seroty ...19921325720
expression of the gene coding for the major outer capsid protein of sa-11 rotavirus in a baculovirus system.the gene coding for the major outer capsid protein (vp7) of simian rotavirus sa-11 has been expressed in a baculovirus-insect cell system. the resulting protein is 35 kda and is primarily associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. neutralizing sa-11 polyclonal antiserum and vp7 monospecific antiserum reacted specifically with the expressed gene product. antiserum derived against the recombinant vp7 protein neutralized sa-11 rotavirus infectivity in a fluorescent focus assay.19921318623
sequences of the four larger proteins of a porcine group c rotavirus and comparison with the equivalent group a rotavirus proteins.the sequences of the four larger proteins of rotavirus group c (cowden strain) are presented and compared with the sequences of the corresponding group a proteins. they exhibit a significant level of homology, allowing gene coding assignment for the group c rotavirus. the coding strategy of the group c virus rna segment is the same as that for the group a large segments as one long open reading frame is present in each segment. the genome segment 1 encodes the structural protein vp1 which presen ...19921310192
isolation and characterization of two distinct human rotavirus strains with g6 specificity.two new human rotavirus (hrv) strains, pa151 and pa169, with subgroup i specificity and a long rna pattern, yet with a serotype g (vp7) specificity different from those of any of the six well-established hrv serotypes (g1 to g4, g8, and g9), were isolated 3 months apart from two children with acute gastroenteritis in sicily, southern italy, in the winter season of 1987 and 1988. the hrv isolates were adapted to growth in cell cultures and were then characterized by neutralization and rna-rna (no ...19921370851
evidence of serologic diversity within group c rotaviruses.the cowden strain of porcine group c rotavirus and the shintoku strain of bovine group c rotavirus were classified as different serotypes by two-way cross-neutralization tests. two neutralization patterns against the cowden and shintoku strains were observed when hyperimmune or convalescent-phase antisera to three noncultivatable porcine group c rotaviruses and a human group c rotavirus were used in one-way cross-neutralization tests. antisera to two porcine group c rotaviruses and the human gro ...19921333486
the pathogenicity of two porcine rotaviruses differing in their in vitro growth characteristics and genes 4.the pathogenicity of two rotavirus variants, 4f and 4s, obtained following adaptation to cell culture of rotavirus from a diarrhoeic pig in china, was compared by serial passage in 24 gnotobiotic piglets. the rotavirus variants have markedly different growth characteristics in vitro, and their genome profiles differ only in the relative migration of genes 4. both cell culture-grown variants replicated to an equal extent in gnotobiotic piglets and neither caused disease, although weight gain was ...19921331301
studies on the age resistance of swine to group a rotavirus determine whether swine become naturally age resistant to group a rotavirus infection, colostrum-deprived, rotavirus-naive newborn pigs that were raised in isolation (n = 34) were studied. neonatal pigs and pigs 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks of age were inoculated orally with group a porcine rotavirus or mock inoculum and euthanatized at 24, 31, or 48 hours post-infection. nine sections of small intestine, cecum, and colon were harvested and immunohistochemically examined for evidence of ro ...19921321528
rotavirus diarrhoea in children in the highlands of papua new guinea.children from the highlands of papua new guinea, hospitalized for severe diarrhoea, were examined for clinical signs and the presence of rotaviruses. rotavirus was detected in faecal samples from 68% (23/38) of patients examined. in contrast to other studies, an excess of respiratory symptoms was not observed and the infection rate of disease due to rotavirus was relatively high in children under 6 months of age. in an environment where pigs and humans share close contact a rotavirus strain infe ...19921314472
prevention of human rotavirus-induced diarrhea in gnotobiotic piglets using bovine antibody.the efficacy of passively administered bovine antibody for preventing human rotavirus (hrv)-induced diarrhea was investigated using a gnotobiotic pig model. cows were immunized with inactivated hrv serotypes 1 (wa) and 2 (s2) and simian rotavirus serotype 3 (sa11), and immune colostrum and milk were collected. antibody concentrates derived from these materials were fed to germ-free piglets that were subsequently inoculated with hrv wa. both viral shedding and diarrhea were effectively reduced or ...19921313067
identification and partial characterization of a rhesus rotavirus binding glycoprotein on murine order to assess the possibility that rotavirus binds to a specific cellular receptor on enterocytes, we have used a viral overlay protein blot assay to study viral binding to murine intestinal brush border membranes (bbm). infectious double-shelled particles of rhesus rotavirus bound specifically to two approximately 300- and 330-kda glycoproteins from bbm prepared from suckling mice. significantly less rotavirus binding was observed when adult bbm were examined. rats have never been shown to ...19911649504
detection of group c rotavirus antigens and antibodies in animals and humans by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) were developed to detect group (gp) c rotavirus antigens and antibodies. both assays were confirmed to be specific for gp c rotavirus by using serogroup a, b, and c rotaviruses; hyperimmune antisera to these serogroups of rotaviruses; and paired serum specimens from animals infected with gp c rotaviruses. the elisa for antigen detection reacted not only with porcine gp c rotaviruses but also with human and bovine gp c rotaviruses. following experimenta ...19921323577
[antibody response in mice, rabbits and pigs in response to vaccination with an inactivated oil vaccine containing rotavirus and escherichia coli strains with k88, k99 and 987p fimbrial antigens].in trials with mice, rabbits and weanling piglets, four experimental charges of a combined inactivated oil vaccine against diarrhoeas in mammals were tested: the vaccine was to be implanted to sows and it contained porcine rotavirus (prv); two charges also contained bovine rotavirus and bacterins of enterotoxicogenic strains of e. coli with protective antigens k88, k99 and 987p. at low starting antibody titres the twofold i.m. implantation of 0.2 ml vaccine stimulated in mice the production of a ...19911686823
rotavirus ym gene 4: analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence and prediction of the secondary structure of the vp4 protein.we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the vp4 gene of porcine rotavirus ym. it is 2,362 nucleotides long, with a single open reading frame coding for a protein of 776 amino acids. a phylogenetic tree was derived from the deduced ym vp4 amino acid sequence and 18 other available vp4 sequences of rotavirus strains belonging to different serotypes and isolated from different animal species. in this tree, vp4 proteins were grouped by the hosts that the corresponding viruses infect r ...19911645789
intestinal permeability in pigs during rotavirus infection.macromolecular permeability of the small intestine was tested in four 3-week-old gnotobiotic pigs inoculated with porcine rotavirus strain rv277 (group a). pigs were administered 125i-labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone (molecular weight [mol wt], 40,000) orally 1 day before and 2 and 24 hours after virus inoculation, and blood samples were obtained every 6 hours. eight hours after rotavirus inoculation, pigs had watery diarrhea. increased permeation of 125i-labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone was not observe ...19921497189
characterization of full-length and polymerase chain reaction-derived partial-length gottfried and osu gene 4 probes for serotypic differentiation of porcine determine the vp4 (p type) specificity of porcine rotaviruses, full- and partial-length gene 4 probes were produced from cloned gottfried and osu porcine rotavirus genomic segment 4 cdnas. the gene 4 segments from the prototype gottfried (vp7 serotype 4) and osu (vp7 serotype 5) porcine rotavirus strains were selected for study because of their distinct p types and the occurrence of rotaviruses with similar serotypes among swine. partial-length gene 4 cdnas were produced and amplified by the ...19921328281
comparison of human and porcine group c rotaviruses by northern blot hybridization analysis.the genetic relationship between human and porcine gp c rotaviruses and between gp c and gp a or b rotaviruses was examined by northern blot hybridization. cross-hybridization studies using radiolabeled ssrna transcript probes demonstrated that the human and porcine gp c rotaviruses shared a high degree of nucleotide sequence homology in most of the eleven gene segments; the greatest sequence divergence was observed in gene 7. neither the human nor the porcine gp c probe hybridized strongly with ...19911648897
a variant serotype g3 rotavirus isolated from an unusually severe outbreak of diarrhoea in piglets.about 80% of faecal samples from severe outbreak of porcine diarrhoea (scours) were positive for rotavirus. rotavirus positive samples were analyzed for their antigenic properties and amino acid sequences of the glycoprotein genes. these viruses could not be assigned to any serotypes using serotyping monoclonal antibodies (mabs) developed for porcine rotaviruses [nagesha and holmes: journal of medical virology 35:206-211, 1991b]. when two such viruses were isolated in cell culture and analyzed b ...19921334131
[etiological and pathogenetic aspects of diarrhea in piglets following weaning].in this paper aetiological and pathogenic aspects of postweaning diarrhoea are discussed. besides earlier data, particular attention is paid to recent results. except specific serotypes of escherichia coli and rotaviruses, feeding regimen as well as components in the feed are important aetiological factors. villus shortening after weaning as well as the level of villus shortening are pathogenetically important. recently recovered villi may be more sensitive to the toxic effects of escherichia co ...19911661032
protection of agammaglobulinemic piglets from porcine rotavirus infection by antibody against simian rotavirus sa-11.rotavirus, a double-stranded rna virus, has been implicated as a diarrhea-provoking agent in a variety of animal species. several previous reports have shown that immunization with a single serotype may result in increased in vitro neutralization titers against serotypes not represented in the immunogen. this study was undertaken to determine whether antibody from cows immunized against simian rotavirus strain sa-11 (which is alien to pigs) could protect neonatal piglets from infection with a no ...19911653265
the shedding of group a rotavirus antigen in a newly established closed specific pathogen-free swine herd.a longitudinal study was undertaken in a newly established specific pathogen-free (spf) swine herd to determine the dynamics of rotavirus antigen shedding in a closed swine facility. pregnant spf gilts which populated the herd, and their offspring, were monitored weekly for three consecutive lactations. fecal samples were assayed for the presence of group-specific viral antigen by a solid phase immunoassay (elisa). results indicate that in the week prior to farrow, 35% of samples from gilts/sows ...19911654666
a longitudinal study of rotavirus antibody titers in swine in a closed specific pathogen-free a newly established closed specific pathogen-free (spf) swine herd, gilt/sow suckling and weaned pig rotavirus specific antibody titers were followed for three lactations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to gain insight into the dynamics of herd antibody titers to group a rotavirus. among gilts/sows, serum antirotavirus igg titers increased during each lactation with a subsequent drop in titer between farrowings. serum antirotavirus igm titers declined during each lactation and wi ...19911654667
intracellular amplification and expression of a synthetic analog of rotavirus genomic rna bearing a foreign marker gene: mapping cis-acting nucleotides in the 3'-noncoding region.cdnas were constructed to encode plus- or minus-sense analogs of gene 9 rna of porcine rotavirus strain osu in which the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) reporter gene was flanked by the 5'-terminal 44 nucleotides (nt) and 3'-terminal 35 nt of the authentic rotavirus gene. transfection of plus-sense gene-9-cat rna into rotavirus-infected cells resulted in its amplification and in the efficient expression of cat; this was greatly enhanced by the presence of a 5' cap structure. am ...19921321421
development of a biotin-streptavidin-enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which uses monoclonal antibodies for detection of group c rotaviruses.a biotin-streptavidin-enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) which uses monoclonal antibodies (mabs) for the detection of group c rotaviruses was developed. an assay in which plates were coated with three pooled mabs and biotinylated polyclonal immunoglobulin g (igg) (polyclonal antibody [pab]) was used as the detector (mab capture-pab detector) was found to be the most sensitive and specific of the assays when it was compared with assays in which plates were coated with polyclonal a ...19921321166
association between diarrhoea and shedding of group a and atypical groups b to e rotaviruses in suckling pigs.the frequency of shedding of rotavirus in faeces of diarrhoeic piglets was studied in 2 farms. in farm i, where 82% of the litters had diarrhoea, group a rotavirus was detected in 52/117 (44%) faeces of pigs with diarrhoea while atypical groups b to e rotaviruses were detected in 2/117 (2%) faeces of diarrhoeic piglets that came from litters where group a rotavirus had also been found. in farm ii where the morbidity due to diarrhoeas was lower (57% of the litters had diarrhoea), 8/141 (6%) faece ...19911654762
relation of vp7 amino acid sequence to monoclonal antibody neutralization of rotavirus and rotavirus monotype.the neutralization epitopes of the vp7 of human rotavirus rv-4 were studied by using five neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibodies to select virus variants resistant to neutralization by each of the antibodies. antibody resistance patterns and sequence analysis of the rv-4 variants revealed that at least four sites on vp7, located at amino acids 94 (region a), 147 to 148 (region b), 213 (region c), and 291, are involved in neutralization of the human g1 rotavirus rv-4. the a-region site elicited ...19911656083
passive immune protection from diarrhea caused by rotavirus or e. coli: an animal model to demonstrate and quantitate efficacy. 19911667071
immunohistochemical detection of porcine rotavirus using immunogold silver staining (igss).immunogold silver staining (igss) was applied for the detection of porcine group a rotavirus in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of small intestine. prior to the application of igss, the reactivity of protein a-gold as a marker was tested with group-specific antiserum in immunogold electron microscopy. immune aggregates were intensely and specifically labeled with the gold complex. application of igss to tissue sections resulted in specific dark staining of villous enterocytes in ...19921372832
development of hybridization probes on the basis of recombinant dna to identify porcine parvoviruses and rotaviruses.porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine rotavirus (prv) infections can be diagnosed, and the diagnosis greatly contributes to their control. for the diagnosis of ppv and prv of pigs recombinant dna were obtained which could be used as hybridization probes. homology between ppv-rna and cloned cdna was confirmed, and the ability of plasmid probes to detect prv was demonstrated. hybridization with preparations of both ppv-infected cells and purified ppv gave positive reproducible results. the results ...19901966361
nucleotide sequence of the cdna for porcine rotavirus vp7 gene (strain k).the nucleotide sequence of the cdna encoding one of the neutralizing proteins vp7 of the new porcine strain k is determined. the deduced vp7 amino acid sequence of the k strain showed a high homology (93%) and a lower homology (75%) to those of the gottfried and osu strains, respectively. this finding suggests that strain k is more closely related to the gottfried strain serotype 4.19921335631
identification of atypical rotaviruses in outbreaks of preweaning and postweaning diarrhea in québec swine herds.intestinal contents of diarrheic pigs from 120 outbreaks of diarrhea were examined for the presence of atypical rotaviruses. pigs involved in these outbreaks were aged two days to five weeks and samples collected over a period of one year originated from different regions of the province of québec. samples were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) for the presence of viral rna and genome profiles were compared to those of porcine rotavirus a/osu, b/ohio and c/cowden. based on el ...19911653639
monoclonal antibodies to the vp6 of porcine subgroup i rotaviruses reactive with subgroup i and non-subgroup i non-subgroup ii strains.a panel of 10 monoclonal antibodies produced after immunization with two porcine subgroup i rotavirus strains (osu and a46), and directed against the major inner capsid protein (vp6), fell into six patterns of reactivity when tested against a collection of human and animal group a rotavirus strains. monoclonal antibodies of pattern i recognized all rotavirus strains. antibodies of patterns 2 and 3 recognized all subgroup ii strains and some, but not all, subgroup i strains. pattern 4 antibodies ...19901693668
subgroup classification of porcine group-a rotaviruses, using monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.fifty-six samples of feces and intestinal contents from nonvaccinated diarrheal pigs with rotavirus infections were tested, using a subgroup (sgp)-specific elisa, to determine rotavirus sgp classification. forty-one percent (23/56) were sgp 1, 25% (14/56) were sgp 2, and 34% (19/56) were not classifiable. for classifiable samples, the geographic distribution for sgp 1 and sgp 2, respectively was: 60%/40% from ohio (n = 15), 63%/37% from other midwestern states (iowa, minnesota, nebraska, south d ...19901695069
molecular analysis of the gene 6 from a porcine group c rotavirus that encodes the ns34 equivalent of group a rotaviruses.the complete nucleotide sequence of the gene 6 from the porcine group (gp) c rotavirus strain cowden was determined from gene 6-specific clones selected from a cdna library and from viral transcript rna. the gene is 1348 nucleotides in length with a potential initiation codon beginning at nucleotide 25 and a stop codon at nucleotide 1231. the deduced protein contains 402 amino acids. comparison of the gene 6 from this gp c strain with sequences in the genbank data base indicated that this gene s ...19911653496
[stimulation of serum antibody formation in pigs by oral, subcutaneous or combined administration of live porcine rotaviruses or intramuscular inoculation of inactivated porcine rotaviruses in an oil adjuvant].only live vaccines prepared from attenuated strains have been used for the specific prophylaxis of rotavirus infections in pigs. these vaccines are administered to sows per os or parenterally to increase the content of antibodies in the blood serum, colostrum and milk, and in this way to provide for the better passive protection of suckling piglets through the maternal antibodies, or to induce the active immunity by pig vaccination. the data on the efficiency of live vaccines administered in bot ...19911668214
antigenic and biochemical characterization of bovine rotavirus v1005, a new member of rotavirus serotype 10.bovine rotavirus (brv) v1005 is serologically distinct from rotavirus serotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9. brv v1005 showed cross-reactions with brv b223, the american prototype of serotype 10 rotavirus, and with brv e4049, a british serotype 10 isolate. brv v1005 was, however, not neutralized by four monoclonal antibodies directed against vp7 of brv b223. two-way cross-reactions were observed between brv v1005 and a reassortant rotavirus containing the vp4 from brv uk. in addition the major try ...19901701478
l-glutamine stimulates jejunal sodium and chloride absorption in pig rotavirus enteritis.rotavirus enteritis is the leading cause of diarrhea in infants worldwide. a research priority of the world health organization is to develop oral rehydration solutions containing amino acids or other additives that will stimulate intestinal absorption more efficiently than the current glucose-based oral rehydration solutions. glutamine is the principal metabolic fuel of the small bowel and a putative stimulator of mucosal repair. this report describes the transport response to mucosal l-glutami ...19911847119
vp4 monotype specificities among porcine rotavirus strains of the same vp4 serotype.the porcine rotavirus osu strain was used to produce monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against the outer capsid protein vp4. from two separate fusions, eight mabs that inhibited hemagglutination activity of the osu strain were selected. all mabs immunoprecipitated both the osu vp4 protein derived from a lysate of infected ma104 cells and the osu vp4 protein expressed in sf9 cells by a recombinant baculovirus. by immunoprecipitation of in vitro-translated osu gene 4 transcripts of different l ...19911847483
porcine group c rotavirus as a cause of neonatal diarrhea in a quebec swine herd.a porcine group c rotavirus was found to be the unique cause of a problem of enzootic neonatal diarrhea in a minimal disease herd composed of 190 sows on a continuous farrowing program. during the outbreaks of diarrhea, 10 to 80% of the litters were affected with a morbidity rate of 100% and case fatality rates of 5 to 10%. clinical signs began 24 to 48 h after birth and were characterized by a profuse yellow diarrhea lasting a few days. piglets from different outbreaks of diarrhea were necropsi ...19902165848
reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to the 41-kilodalton protein of porcine group c rotavirus with homologous and heterologous rotavirus serogroups in immunofluorescence tests.three monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to porcine group c rotavirus immunoprecipitated the major inner capsid protein (41 kda) but failed to precipitate group a rotavirus proteins. in immunofluorescence tests of rotavirus-infected cell cultures or pig intestines, the mabs recognized porcine and bovine group c rotaviruses but not group a or b rotaviruses. these mabs may recognize the group c rotavirus counterpart to vp6 of group a rotaviruses and may be useful as diagnostic reagents.19911663522
sequence conservation of gene 8 between human and porcine group c rotaviruses and its relationship to the vp7 gene of group a rotaviruses.cdna libraries from porcine group (gp) c rotavirus strain cowden and a human gp c rotavirus strain were generated. the complete nucleotide sequence of gene 8 from the cowden strain was determined from gene 8-specific clones and viral transcript rna. a full-length gene 8 clone was generated from the human gp c virus by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using primers deduced from the 3' and 5' ends of the cowden strain gene 8, and the sequence of the human gp c gene 8 was determined from this clone ...19911850919
rotavirus excretion by village pigs in papua new guinea.cohort studies were conducted on 29 pigs from 3 villages in the highlands of papua new guinea. animals ranged in age from 9 d to 5 m old. three hundred and twenty nine faecal samples were collected from individual pigs followed over 3 to 6 w periods, and were examined for group a rotavirus antigen by elisa, and rotaviral genomic rna by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). electron microscopy was also conducted on selected samples. group a rotavirus was detected in the faeces of 16 pigs wit ...19911850980
analysis of the gene encoding the outer capsid glycoprotein (vp7) of group c rotaviruses by northern and dot blot hybridization.the genetic diversity of gene 8 (encoding the outer capsid glycoprotein vp7) among group (gp) c rotaviruses was examined by northern and dot blot hybridization. a cdna clone of the porcine gp c cowden strain gene 8 was labeled with 32p by nick translation and used as a probe. the gene 8 probe hybridized with the corresponding gene of one human (88-196) and four porcine (cowden, nb, wh, and wi) strains of gp c rotaviruses under both moderate (50% formamide, 5x ssc, and 42 degrees) and high (50% f ...19911651601
adaptation and serial passage of porcine group c rotavirus in st-cells, an established diploid swine testicular cell line.a porcine group c rotavirus (strain cowden-amc-1) was adapted and serially passaged in an established diploid swine testicular cell line (st cells). growth of group c rotavirus in st cells, which in maintenance medium required trypsin, but not pancreatin resulted in cytopathic effect characterized by cellular stranding and subsequent cell lysis. active replication and assembly were confirmed by rna profile analysis, immune electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. adaptation of non-group a rot ...19911659801
some infectious causes of diarrhea in young farm animals.escherichia coli, rotaviruses, and cryptosporidium parvum are discussed in this review as they relate to enteric disease in calves, lambs, and pigs. these microorganisms are frequently incriminated as causative agents in diarrheas among neonatal food animals, and in some cases different strains or serotypes of the same organism cause diarrhea in humans. e. coli causes diarrhea by mechanisms that include production of heat-labile or heat-stable enterotoxins and synthesis of potent cytotoxins, and ...19902224836
[the separation of human and animal rotavirus particles by buoyant density in a discontinuous gradient under high-speed centrifugation]. 19911664558
lack of cosegregation of the subgroup ii antigens on genes 2 and 6 in porcine rotaviruses.the rotavirus subgroup i and ii specificities associated with gene 2 and 6 products (vp2 and vp6, respectively) were shown not to cosegregate in a number of porcine rotavirus strains. the porcine osu rotavirus strain and osu-vp7-like strains were all found to possess a subgroup ii-specific region on vp2 and a subgroup i-specific region on vp6. of interest is the observation that the subgroup ii-specific epitope on vp2 appears to be present only in human and porcine rotavirus strains, suggesting ...19901688386
[the serial passage of bovine rotavirus in a heterologous cell culture]. 19911664560
[the isolation of rotavirus immunolactone and a study of its specific activity in vitro]. 19911664559
comparison of staphylococcal co-agglutination with other assays for rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection in humans, calves and was used for rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection. staphylococcus aureus cowan i sensitized with rabbit antiserum to rotavirus demonstrated the presence of this virus in stools of children, calves and piglets with clinical signs of diarrhea. a total of 415 fecal samples were examined by the co-agglutination test and the results were compared with those of elisa, electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel and latex agglutination. the co-agglutination test, when compared to these thr ...19911666115
pathogenesis and treatment of rotavirus diarrhea. 19911889709
the interferon sensitivity of selected porcine viruses.the objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of 11 porcine viruses to the antiviral effects of porcine interferon-alpha in serum from piglets which had been infected 19 h previously with transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and of porcine interferon-beta prepared in pk-15 cells by induction with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, in yield reduction assays in pig kidney cells which were treated with interferon before virus challenge, and both before and after virus challenge. the most ...19892492445
relative prevalence of typical and atypical strains among rotaviruses from diarrheic pigs in conventional swine herds.polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was conducted on genomic rna extracted from rotaviruses detected in diarrheic pigs from conventional swine herds. ninety samples contained sufficient virus for rna band visualization and genome classification. genome profiles were characteristic of typical group a rotaviruses in 67.8% of the 90 samples, of group b rotaviruses in 10.0%, and of group c rotaviruses in 11.1%. in 11.1% of the samples, the presence of more than 11 bands suggested concurrent infection ...19901965637
electron microscopy, immune electron microscopy, enzyme immunoassay and immunofluorescent evaluation of rotaviruses isolated from individual calves and piglets.rotaviruses were isolated in primary bovine foetal kidney cells from 3 of 13 (23.1%) tested suckling calves and from 3 of 14 (21.4%) suckling piglets both suffering of acute diarrhoea, as confirmed by serological tests. the presence of rotaviral antigen in culture supernatant was revealed by double sandwich enzyme immunoassay (eia) and direct immunofluorescence (if). transmission electron microscopy (tem) and immune electron microscopy (iem) showed particles with an average diameter of 70 nm. th ...19901983178
[electron microscopic virus diagnosis in dogs, cats, calves, swine and foals in the year 1989].during 1989 fecal and gut samples of 598 dogs, 189 cats, 496 calves, 100 pigs and 66 foals with diarrhoea were investigated for virus by electron microscopy. in samples of dogs and cats parvovirus was detected in 18.5% and 8.5% of the samples, respectively; coronavirus was found in 14.9% and in 16.4% of the specimens. in samples of calves coronavirus dominated with a detection rate of 37.5%, followed by rotavirus with 10.7% and not clearly identifiable particles resembling coronavirus (4.2%). in ...19911905919
genome rearrangements in porcine rotaviruses: biochemical and biological comparisons between a supershort strain and its standard counterpart.two porcine rotavirus strains (cn86 and cc86) isolated during an epidemiological survey of diarrhoea in swine in argentina were studied because of several unique characteristics. both these strains were isolated and cloned from the same faecal sample and the electrophoretic migration of 10 of their 11 genomic dsrna genomic segments in polyacrylamide gels was identical, but strain cc86 had a supershort electropherotype. we analysed biochemical, serological and biological properties of both viruse ...19902155288
a porcine rotavirus strain with dual vp7 serotype specificity.porcine rotavirus mdr-13, which on original isolation showed a two-way antigenic relationship with human rotavirus rv-3, shows vp7 relationships with serotype g5 as well as g3 viruses upon gene reassortment. analysis of porcine mdr-13 and the md-uk reassortant revealed marked nucleotide and amino acid similarity of vp7 genes of these viruses with those of both serotype g3 and g5 viruses. evolution of such a strain, possibly by sequential mutations in the vp7 gene, is discussed.19902155514
direct serotyping of porcine rotaviruses using vp7-specific monoclonal antibodies by an enzyme immunoassay.employing a serotyping eia test using mabs both cell culture adapted and faecal porcine rotaviruses were classified into serotypes g3, g3/5, g4, and g5. the mabs have confirmed and extended the serotyping results obtained using polyclonal antisera. these mabs are therefore potential reagents for serotyping of porcine rotaviruses. using subgroup specific mabs serotypes g3, g3/5, and g5 were found to contain subgroup i antigens while g4 rotaviruses contained either subgroup ii or subgroup i antige ...19911666648
pathogenesis of experimental combined infections with isospora suis and rotavirus in conventional and gnotobiotic piglets.51 gnotobiotic and 63 conventional, one-, or two-days-old piglets were divided into five groups and infected orally either with isospora suis or rotavirus alone, or with both agents simultaneously or successively with alternative sequences and various intervals. 15 gnotobiotic and 10 conventional piglets served as controls. the development of small intestinal lesions after infection with i. suis was biphasic. the dominant alteration resulting from rotavirus infection was villus atrophy, consider ...19911858460
evaluation of killed and modified live porcine rotavirus vaccines in cesarean derived colostrum deprived pigs.twenty-eight cesarean derived, colostrum deprived (cdcd) piglets were used to evaluate the efficacy of killed and modified live rotavirus (mlv) vaccines against challenge with virulent a-1 and a-2 rotaviruses. two killed rotavirus vaccines were evaluated: an experimental vaccine and a commercially available vaccine. efficacy parameters included: average daily weight gains, rotavirus shedding in feces, morbidity incidence and duration, and rotavirus serum antibody conversion post-vaccination and ...19902162098
the pathophysiological basis for viral diarrhea: a progress report. 19902168478
development of specific nucleic acid probes for the differentiation of porcine rotavirus serotypes.a dot blot hybridization assay is described for the detection and differentiation of porcine rotavirus serotypes. recombinant complementary dna (cdna) representing gene 9 (the gene encoding the neutralization antigens in vp7 glycoprotein) from osu (porcine rotavirus serotype 1) and gottfried (porcine rotavirus serotype 2) strains were used to determine the optimal hybridization conditions which allow specific detection of group a porcine rotaviruses. probes were prepared by excision of the inser ...19902175528
hybridization probes for the detection and differentiation of two serotypes of porcine rotavirus.a dot hybridization assay was developed to detect and differentiate two serotypes of porcine rotavirus by hybridization of specific probes to rotavirus rna dotted onto nylon membranes. the assay was conducted using radiolabeled probes prepared from cdna clones of osu (serotype 5) and gottfried (serotype 4) rotavirus gene 9 segments. the probes were prepared by excision of full length cdna copies of gene 9 inserts from recombinant plasmids followed by nick translation and 32p-dctp labeling. rotav ...19902175529
presence of three p types (vp4 serotypes) and two g types (vp7 serotypes) among bovine rotavirus strains.cross neutralization tests with a panel of rotavirus strains representing previously described nine vp7 (g) serotypes revealed that bovine rotavirus strain kk-3, a prototype japanese bovine serotype 2, belonged to a new serotype (g10), confirming and extending the recent report of snodgrass et al. [j. clin. microbiol. 28: 504-507 (1990)] which showed that hyperimmune serum to the kk-3 strain neutralized the b223 strain, a proposed type strain of g10. further antigenic characteristics of the kk-3 ...19902175589
biochemical characterization of the structural and nonstructural polypeptides of a porcine group c rotavirus.purified virions or radiolabeled lysates of infected ma104 cells were used to characterize the structural and nonstructural polypeptides of a porcine group c rotavirus. at least six structural proteins were identified from purified group c rotavirus by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. of these, two (37,000- and 33,000-molecular-weight polypeptides) were associated with the outer shell, as demonstrated by the ability of edta to remove them from the purified virion. the o ...19902161936
pathogenesis of gut virus summary, the pathogenesis of many gut virus infections remains uncertain. however, human and animal studies indicate that the majority of gut viruses infect villous enterocytes. viruses appear to have different affinities for enterocytes at different sites on the villus. infection of enterocytes leads to cell death, extrusion into the lumen, and villous atrophy when the rate of cell production in the crypts cannot keep pace with the rate of enterocyte loss. this results in a reduced surface a ...19901962725
structure of rearranged genome segment 11 in two different rotavirus strains generated by a similar mechanism.the structures of the rearranged genomic segment 11 of two spontaneous swine rotavirus strains were determined. we found that the rearrangements involved the duplication of normal segment 11 in a head-to-tail orientation, and partial deletions in both monomers. the open reading frame for vp11, the protein encoded by normal segment 11, was maintained. we also showed that the two rearranged genes were transcribed into rna molecules of the same length as their corresponding genomic segments.19892543781
minimal infective dose of the osu strain of porcine rotavirus. 19902165770
detection of rotavirus antigen in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic piglets in nigeria.faecal samples from 96 piglets with acute gastroenteritis and 41 samples from non-diarrhoeic piglets were investigated for porcine rotavirus (prv) antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). prv was detected in 43 of 96 (44.8%) in the diarrhoeic group whilst none of the samples in the non-diarrhoeic group was positive for prv (p less than 0.01). age distribution of infection showed a higher infection rate of 30.2% in piglets aged 1-3 weeks, which was significantly higher (p less than ...19902171108
serotypic differentiation of group a rotaviruses with porcine rotavirus gene 9 probes.the serotypic specificities of gottfried and osu porcine rotavirus gene 9 probes were investigated in a dot hybridization assay. the probes were reacted with homologous and heterologous serotypes of group a rotaviruses of human and animal origin. hybridizations were conducted under relatively low-stringency (52 degrees c, no formamide, 5 x ssc) and high-stringency (52 degrees c, 50% formamide, formamide, 5 x ssc) conditions (1 x ssc is 0.15 m nacl plus 0.015 m sodium citrate). under conditions o ...19902174902
multinucleate enterocytes associated with experimental group a porcine rotavirus infection. 19902278133
detection of transmissible gastroenteritis virus using cdna probes.five cdna probes prepared from molecular clones representing genomic rna sequences of the virulent miller strain of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) were used in a dot blot hybridization assay to detect tgev in cell culture and fecal specimens. two clones (pa2 and pb4) represent nucleotide base pairs at the 3' terminus of the miller tgev genome. the other three clones represent various portions of the 5' end of the e2 gene, which codes for the major surface glycoprotein of tgev. each o ...19911848070
monoclonal antibody assay for detection of double-stranded rna and application for detection of group a and non-group a rotaviruses.fastidious viruses are generally detected in human body fluids by means of immunoassay or nucleic acid hybridization systems. these approaches can be difficult to apply to the detection of viruses which display variations in antigenic or genetic composition. rotaviruses are examples of viruses which can display such variations. recently identified antigenic variants, designated as non-group a rotaviruses, cannot be detected by immunoassays or nucleic acid hybridization assays which utilize reage ...19892536393
effect of concentration and source of sulfate on nursery pig performance and health.the effect of sulfate in drinking water at concentrations of 600, 1,200, and 1,800 mg/l on nursery pig performance and health was evaluated over 28 days on 415 weaned pigs. sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate were evaluated in combination at concentrations of 600, 1,200, and 1,800 mg/l, and independently at concentrations of 600 and 1,800 mg/l in the drinking water. seven treatment groups and 1 control group were evaluated for mean gain, feed consumption, water consumption, feed conversion, pre ...19921429159
similarity of the outer capsid protein vp4 of the gottfried strain of porcine rotavirus to that of asymptomatic human rotavirus strains.genomic segment 4 of the porcine gottfried strain (serotype 4) of porcine rotavirus, which encodes the outer capsid protein vp4, was sequences, and its deduced amino acid sequence was analyzed. amino acid homology of the porcine rotavirus vp4 to the corresponding protein of asymptomatic or symptomatic human rotaviruses representing serotypes 1 to 4 ranged from 87.1 to 88.1% for asymptomatic strains and from 77.5 to 77.8% for symptomatic strains. amino acid homology of the gottfried strain to sim ...19902152826
an equine rotavirus (fi-14 strain) which bears both subgroup i and subgroup ii specificities on its equinine rotavirus fi-14 strain, originally isolated from a diarrheic foal in new york state, was shown to belong to serotype 3 by neutralization assay. in addition, it was found to react with both subgroup i and subgroup ii monoclonal antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), thus representing the first rotavirus strain to exhibit both subgroup specificities. by using hybridoma technology, we successfully produced monoclonal antibodies directed against the major inner capsid p ...19872435059
porcine rotaviruses antigenically related to human rotavirus serotypes 1 and 2.fecal samples from rotavirus-infected piglets were characterized by a serotyping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) by using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific to human serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 (d. o. matson, m. k. estes, j. w. burns, h. b. greenberg, k. taniguchi, and s. urasawa, submitted for publication). rotavirus in 19 of 25 specimens tested from two herds of pigs from buenos aires province, argentina, were classified antigenically as follows: one serotype 1, four serotype 2, two ...19902157739
treatment of rotavirus infection in neonate and weanling pigs using natural human interferon alpha.colostrum-deprived neonate piglets challenged with rotavirus and 3-week-old newly weaned piglets naturally exposed to rotavirus were treated with low doses of natural human interferon alpha (nhuifn alpha) administered into the oral cavity or included in the liquid diet. the colostrum-deprived piglets given the highest dosage of nhuifn alpha (50 iu/kg body weight) had lower viral excretion scores at 3 (p less than 0.11) and 4 days (p less than 0.001) after virus inoculation. average group weights ...19901963065
[electron microscopic detection rate of enteral viruses in diarrhea of dogs, cats, calves, swine and foals in the year 1988--electron microscopic study results].during 1988 fecal and gut samples of 641 dogs, 198 cats, 576 calves, 108 piglets and 64 foals with diarrhoea were investigated for virus infections by electron microscopy. in samples of dogs and cats parvovirus was detected at a proportion of 21.9% and 16.7%, respectively; rotavirus alone or together with coronavirus was found only in 0.3-1.5% of the specimens. in samples of calves rotavirus, as well as coronavirus dominated with a detection rate amounting to 17.4% and 26.6% respectively (includ ...19892513799
isolation of an avianlike group a rotavirus from a calf with atypical group a rotavirus (993/83) was isolated from a 3-day-old german calf with diarrhea. it differed from 35 conventional german bovine rotavirus isolates analyzed previously with respect to subgroup (strain 993/83 was non-subgroup i and non-subgroup ii), serotype (strain 993/83 showed a two-way cross-reaction with serotype 7 and a one-way cross-reaction with serotype 3), and electropherotype (strain 993/83 showed comigrating gene segments 10 and 11). isolate 993/83 reacted with only one ...19921310334
atypical rotavirus and villous epithelial cell syncytia in piglets.histopathological examination of small and large intestine from piglets with enteritis has shown the presence of epithelial multinucleate syncytia. syncytia were associated with a specific type of atypical rotavirus infection, determined by electron microscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of viral rna. the observations are consistent with similar previously described natural or experimental infections in other animals.19892541179
antigenic characterization of swine rotaviruses in argentina.fecal samples from 156 diarrheic piglets were collected from several herds located in two main breeding areas of argentina. rotaviruses were detected in 60 samples (38.4%) by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in 55 samples by a group a-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). all samples which were positive by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and negative by elisa had elicited atypical electropherotypes resembling those of group b or c. elisa-positive samples showing genome rea ...19892542369
further antigenic characterization of porcine rotavirus ym.we recently reported that the serotype specificity of ym, a group a porcine rotavirus, is different from those of the previously established rotavirus serotypes, 1 to 6 (a. m. ruiz, i. v. lopez, s. lopez, r. t. espejo, and c. f. arias, j. virol. 62:4331-4336, 1988). here we demonstrate by cross-neutralization studies that rotavirus ym is also antigenically distinct from prototype rotavirus strains of serotypes 7 (ty1), 8 (69m), 9 (wi61), and 10 (b223). a comparison of the serotype-determining am ...19892556438
natural transmission of group a rotavirus within a pig population.five litters of piglets born within two days of each other, together with their dams, were investigated for faecal excretion of group a rotavirus antigen from birth to two months old. all the 50 piglets in these litters became infected with the virus between 19 and 35 days old. rotavirus excretion was first seen in one litter which was housed with other litters not included in this study. two days later, piglets of the second litter in another farrowing room began to excrete rotavirus, and then ...19892544970
biological function of the rotavirus protein vp4: observations on porcine isolates from china.rotaviruses isolated from pigs in china were grown in ma104 cells. one tissue-culture-adapted isolate consisted of two subpopulations (variants), the rna profiles of which differed in the relative migration of rna segment 4 only. the variants were separated by plaque purification and by recovery from limiting dilutions and remained genetically stable. the variant possessing the slower migrating rna segment 4, called 4s, grew faster and formed large plaques after 4-6 days incubation, whereas the ...19892546024
analysis by plaque reduction neutralization assay of intertypic rotaviruses suggests that gene reassortment occurs in vivo.the sb-1a rotavirus recovered from a diarrheic piglet in the united states is a naturally occurring intertypic rotavirus. when studied by reciprocal neutralization tests, the sb-1a virus was similar, if not identical, to the porcine gottfried virus (serotype 4) and the porcine osu virus (serotype 5). analysis of reassortant viruses prepared from the sb-1a virus and the serotype 2 human ds-1 virus revealed that the antigenic specificity of the outer capsid protein vp3 of sb-1a was shared with the ...19872434522
dual-label time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for the simultaneous detection of adenovirus and rotavirus in faeces.dual-label time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (tr-fia) was used for the simultaneous detection of adenovirus and rotavirus in stool specimens. a one-incubation 1 h assay was used. altogether 169 stool specimens collected from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis were tested. the specimens were dispensed with europium and terbium labelled antibodies against adenovirus and rotavirus, respectively, to coated microtitration strip wells. the 11 specimens positive for adenovirus in the eia we ...19902164524
nucleotide sequence of gene segment 1 of a porcine rotavirus strain.the nucleotide sequence of gene segment 1, which encodes vp1 of porcine rotavirus strain gottfried, was determined. vp1 is associated with single-shelled rotavirus particles and has been linked to virus transcriptase and replicase enzymatic activities. gene segment 1 is 3302 nucleotides long with a single open reading frame capable of coding for a protein of 1088 amino acids (calculated mol wt 125 kda). the predicted amino acid sequence revealed that vp1 is basic, with a net positive charge of 1 ...19892556853
comparative virulence of two porcine group-a rotavirus isolates in gnotobiotic pigs.the virulence of 2 porcine group-a rotavirus isolates was compared. forty hysterotomy-derived 3-day-old gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated orally with 2 ml of intestinal homogenate containing either the ohio state university (osu) or the south dakota state university (sdsu) strain of porcine rotavirus or were inoculated with medium only. clinical signs of disease, body weight, distribution of viral antigen, fecal excretion of virus, and histologic lesions (observed by light and scanning electron m ...19892548420
reactivity of vp4-specific monoclonal antibodies to a serotype 4 porcine rotavirus with distinct serotypes of human (symptomatic and asymptomatic) and animal rotaviruses.thirteen hybridomas secreting vp4-specific monoclonal antibodies against the gottfried strain of porcine rotavirus (serotype 4) were produced and characterized. nine of the hybridomas secreted neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (n-mabs) against gottfried rotavirus. these n-mabs were divided into five distinct groups (groups i to v) according to their patterns of reactivity with different serotypes of human and animal rotaviruses. group i n-mabs (n = 3) were cross-reactive with five different ser ...19892556431
comparative sequence analysis of vp7 genes from five australian porcine rotaviruses.the genes coding for the rotavirus major neutralizing protein, vp7, from 5 australian porcine rotaviruses representing glycoprotein (i.e. vp7 or g) serotypes 3, 4, and 5, were sequenced. the genes were each 1,062 nucleotides long with two long open reading frames for proteins of either 326 or 297 amino acids and containing only one potential glycosylation site at amino acid position 69. when compared to the corresponding genes of human viruses, the porcine genes showed very high nucleotide and d ...19892558633
epidemiological studies of piglet diarrhoea in intensively managed danish sow herds. iv. pathogenicity of porcine rotavirus.colostrum-deprived piglets inoculated with rotavirus 24 h after birth developed a profuse diarrhoea that spread to non-inoculated, colostrum-deprived litter mates and, occassionally, to colostrum-fed piglets. case fatality rates in these 3 categories of piglets were 63.2%, 35.7% and 8.3%, respectively. surviving piglets recovered in 1-2 weeks, but shedded virus via the faeces for up to 3 weeks p.i. the d-xylose test revealed severe malabsorption, with extremely flat absorption curves for up to 3 ...19892551154
neutralizing antibody to three different serotypes of porcine rotavirus in pigs. 19892555620
studies on attenuation of rotavirus. a comparison in piglets between virulent virus and its attenuated derivative.the development of rotavirus vaccines against acute gastroenteritis for human infants has been accorded a very high priority. several vaccine candidates all of which are live cultivated strains of animal origin have been tested in humans. however the nature of attenuation of these viruses for humans is unknown. in this study we have attenuated a pig rotavirus by 15 sequential passages in cell culture after which the virus no longer causes diarrhoea in piglets. the pathogenesis of infection of th ...19892558635
detection and survival of group a rotavirus in a piggery.samples of dust, faeces and effluent were collected from a piggery and examined for group a rotavirus, using a commercial elisa test, electron microscopy and inoculation of ma-104 cells. rotavirus antigen was demonstrated in samples collected from farrowing and weaner rooms but not from fattener and sow houses. rotavirus antigen was also detected in samples collected from a weaner room which had been free of piglets for three months. a cytopathic porcine rotavirus (british isolate sw20/21) was k ...19892557702
effect of mutation in immunodominant neutralization epitopes on the antigenicity of rotavirus sa-11.exposure of rotavirus sa-11 to polyclonal neutralizing antibody from hyperimmunized guinea-pigs permitted selection of variants which were poorly neutralized by antisera against the parental virus. in one-way cross-neutralization experiments, at least 22 of 24 plaque-purified variants could be classified as belonging to a serotype different from that of the parent. most antisera generated against the variants, however, readily neutralized the parental virus. this indicates that immunodominant ne ...19852414396
porcine osu rotavirus segment ii sequence shows common features with the viral gene of human origin. 19892549514
serial propagation of porcine group c rotavirus (pararotavirus) in a continuous cell line and characterization of the passaged virus.the cowden strain of porcine group c rotavirus (pararotavirus) was adapted to serial passage in a continuous monkey kidney cell line (ma104). key factors in its successful adaptation included use of virus passaged in primary porcine kidney cells as the initial inoculum, use of roller tubes, and addition of pancreatin to the maintenance medium. a cell culture immunofluorescence test was used to quantitate the virus at each passage level, since a possible cytopathic effect was obscured by the effe ...19882842368
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