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identification of cognate genes among heterologous strains of group b rotavirus.the genetic relatedness of group b rotavirus (gbr) strains has previously been documented by hybridization with probes derived from whole genomic sequences, but the relationship of individual genes of heterologous gbr strains has not been evaluated. definition of cognate gbr genes would facilitate investigation of the determinants of group specificity, serotype identity, and neutralization epitopes. therefore, we investigated the genetic relatedness of three gbr strains by means of northern (rna ...19921309899
molecular and serological analyses of two bovine rotaviruses (b-11 and b-60) causing calf scours in australia.fecal specimens from 78 calves involved in outbreaks of calf diarrhea which occurred in three farms in victoria, australia, in 1988 were analyzed for rotaviruses. thirty-eight samples were positive for group a virus antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 20 of these contained viral double-stranded rnas that could be detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. two major electropherotypes could be observed, and a representative isolate of each electropherotype (isolates b-11 and b-6 ...19921310336
in vitro transcription and translation of group b rotavirus strain idir gene 8 and immunoprecipitation by human sera.group b rotaviruses (gbrs) are associated with episodes of acute diarrhea in humans and a variety of animal species. to date, these agents have not been well adapted to growth in tissue culture, and evaluation of human sera for antibodies directed against gbrs has been hindered by the inability to obtain standardized and highly purified preparations of gbr antigens. in order to evaluate the reactivities of antisera with a highly specific antigen, we prepared a full-length cdna clone of gene 8 of ...19921311336
nucleotide sequences of normal and rearranged rna segments 10 of human rotaviruses.normal and rearranged rna segments 10 of group a rotaviruses isolated from a chronically infected immunodeficient child were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction as full-length cdna copies, and were subsequently cloned and sequenced. compared with the nucleotide sequence of the normal rna segment 10, the rearranged form contains a partial non-coding duplication at its 3' end and several point mutations. the normal rna segment 10 was similar to that of bovine rotavirus.19921312123
prevention of human rotavirus-induced diarrhea in gnotobiotic piglets using bovine antibody.the efficacy of passively administered bovine antibody for preventing human rotavirus (hrv)-induced diarrhea was investigated using a gnotobiotic pig model. cows were immunized with inactivated hrv serotypes 1 (wa) and 2 (s2) and simian rotavirus serotype 3 (sa11), and immune colostrum and milk were collected. antibody concentrates derived from these materials were fed to germ-free piglets that were subsequently inoculated with hrv wa. both viral shedding and diarrhea were effectively reduced or ...19921313067
neutralizing serum antibodies to serotype 6 human rotaviruses pa151 and pa169 in ecuadorian and german children.serum samples from 726 ecuadorian children who underwent natural rotavirus (rv) exposure were tested for neutralizing serum antibodies against two serotype 6 (st6) human rv (hrv) isolates from italy, pa151 and pa169, and two st6 bovine rv (brv) isolates, ncdv and uk. gene 4 was distinct in all four st6 strains. ninety-one, 56, 67, and 65 serum samples neutralized hrv pa151 (13%), hrv pa169 (8%), brv ncdv (9%), and brv uk (9%), respectively. a total of 44 of the 91 serum samples which neutralized ...19921315337
interaction of rotavirus particles with liposomes.we have studied the interactions of purified viral particles with liposomes as a model to understand the mechanism of entry of rotavirus into the cell. liposomes, made from pure as well as mixed lipids, that contained encapsulated self-quenching concentrations of the fluorophore carboxyfluorescein (cf) were used. rotavirus-liposome interactions were studied from the fluorescence dequenching of cf resulting from its release to the bulk solution. purified infectious double-shelled virus particles ...19921316453
molecular cloning, sequence analysis, in vitro expression, and immunoprecipitation of the major inner capsid protein of the idir strain of group b rotavirus (gbr).the sixth genomic segment of the infectious diarrhea of infant rats (idir) strain of group b rotavirus (gbr) was cloned from double-stranded rna purified from infected rat feces. sequence comparison with group a rotaviruses (gar) and the human adrv strain of gbr indicated that idir gene 6 encoded the major inner capsid protein. the nucleic acid sequences of the two gbr genes were 72.9% conserved, and 83.4% of the amino acids were identical. sequence substitutions between idir and adrv were more ...19921316675
rotavirus infection in horses. genome profile analysis of a rotavirus isolated from an infected foal.electrophoretic analysis in polyacrylamide gel (page) of the equine rotavirus 106/88/li/eq, isolated from the diarrhea of an 18 day old foal was compared to the bovine strain ncdv. there was a notable difference in the migration of some segments of the viral rna. bands 2 and 3 of the equine rotavirus comigrated while there was a clear separation of segments 7, 8 and 9. moreover, the migration of segments 1, 4 and 5 revealed a lower molecular weight than the corresponding segments of ncdv.19921318490
antibacterial and antiviral activity of camel milk protective proteins.lysozyme (lz), lactoferrin (lf), lactoperoxidase (lp), immunoglobulin g and secretory immunoglobulin a were extracted from camel milk. the activity of these protective proteins was assayed against lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, salmonella typhimurium and rotavirus. comparative activities of egg white lz, bovine lz and bovine lf are also presented. the antibacterial activity spectrum of camel milk lz was similar to that of egg white lz, and differed f ...19921319434
a serotype 10 human rotavirus.rotaviruses with genome rearrangements isolated from a chronically infected immunodeficient child (f. hundley, m. mcintyre, b. clark, g. beards, d. wood, i. chrystie, and u. desselberger, j. virol 61:3365-3372, 1987) are the first recognized human isolates of serotype 10. this was shown by both a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assays using serotype specific monoclonal antibodies. the serotype was confirmed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding vp7, which re ...19921320627
development of a biotin-streptavidin-enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which uses monoclonal antibodies for detection of group c rotaviruses.a biotin-streptavidin-enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) which uses monoclonal antibodies (mabs) for the detection of group c rotaviruses was developed. an assay in which plates were coated with three pooled mabs and biotinylated polyclonal immunoglobulin g (igg) (polyclonal antibody [pab]) was used as the detector (mab capture-pab detector) was found to be the most sensitive and specific of the assays when it was compared with assays in which plates were coated with polyclonal a ...19921321166
rotavirus 993/83, isolated from calf faeces, closely resembles an avian rotavirus.polypeptides from purified virions of the calf rotavirus (rv) isolate 993/83 and those from the pigeon rv isolate po-13 comigrated on sds-polyacrylamide gels. two polypeptides of 45k and 47k were detected at the position of vp6. both proteins behaved like authentic vp6 protein with edta and heat treatment. rv 993/83 and po-13 showed identical one-dimensional peptide maps for vp2, and the 45k and 47k proteins. more than 70% of sera from german cattle older than 1 year showed neutralizing serum an ...19921321221
[the significance of bredavirus as a diarrhea agent in calf herds in lower saxony].the objective of this investigation was to determine the distribution of bredavirus in cattle herds in lower saxony and to evaluate its significance as potential cause of diarrhea in calves. fecal samples and paired blood samples of 119 diarrheic and 46 healthy calves up to two months of age were collected from herds where diarrhea of calves was a problem. fecal samples were examined for breda-, rota- and coronavirus by solid phase immune electron microscopy and by elisa, for k99-positive e. col ...19921322268
a bovine rotavirus serotype 1: serologic characterization of the virus and nucleotide sequence determination of the structural glycoprotein vp7 gene.bovine rotavirus t449 was isolated from feces of a calf with diarrhea. serological characterization by serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies showed that the t449 virus belonged to serotype 1. this is the first report of a bovine rotavirus that does not belong to serotype 6, 8, or 10. the serotype 1 designation was confirmed by using an immunoperoxidase focus neutralization assay. the gene encoding the major neutralization antigen (vp7) was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. the ...19921322609
human and bovine serotype g8 rotaviruses may be derived by reassortment.the origin of, and relationship between human and bovine serotype g8 rotaviruses were investigated by genomic hybridisation. radiolabelled mrnas of human g8 rotaviruses 69m (isolated in indonesia) and hal1271 (isolated in finland), and bovine rotaviruses kk3 (g10) and ncdv (g6), were used as probes. the products of liquid hybridisation between the probes and the genomic rna of human and bovine rotaviruses, including bovine g8 rotavirus 678 (isolated in scotland) and two other finnish human g8 ro ...19921322648
detection of group c rotavirus antigens and antibodies in animals and humans by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) were developed to detect group (gp) c rotavirus antigens and antibodies. both assays were confirmed to be specific for gp c rotavirus by using serogroup a, b, and c rotaviruses; hyperimmune antisera to these serogroups of rotaviruses; and paired serum specimens from animals infected with gp c rotaviruses. the elisa for antigen detection reacted not only with porcine gp c rotaviruses but also with human and bovine gp c rotaviruses. following experimenta ...19921323577
enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhea by a human lactobacillus strain.human lactobacillus sp strain gg (lactobacillus gg) administered during acute rotavirus diarrhea has been shown to promote clinical recovery. to elucidate the immune mechanisms behind such a favorable outcome, the elispot (solid phase enzyme-linked immunospot) assay of ig- and specific antibody-secreting cells among circulating lymphocytes was used, giving indirect evidence of the immunologic events in the gut. after rehydration, 39 children with acute rotavirus diarrhea, mean age 16 (sd 6) mo, ...19921324462
serotyping and antigenic comparison of some animal rotaviruses isolated in china.eight strains of rotaviruses isolated from diarrheal animals (4 from calves and 4 from piglets) in china were compared by serotyping with reference animal rotavirus strains (bovine ncdv, porcine osu and simian sa-11 and human rotavirus wa strain). two-way cross neutralization test showed no antigenic difference between all 4 local strains of bovine rotavirus (brv007, brv014, hn-7 and brv6555) and reference ncdv, so they belonged to rotavirus serotype 6 (bovine rotavirus serotype 1 or ncdv-seroty ...19921325720
subgroup i serotype 3 human rotavirus strains with long rna pattern as a result of naturally occurring reassortment between members of the bovine and au-1 genogroups.two human rotavirus strains, pcp 5 and mz 58, which possessed an unusual combination of subgroup (i), serotype (3) and rna pattern (long) were examined by rna-rna hybridization to determine their genogroup. while these two strains did not belong to either the wa or the ds-1 genogroup, pcp 5 and mz 58 possessed seven gene segments that formed hybrids with bovine rotavirus strain ncdv and four gene segments that formed hybrids with human rotavirus strain au-1. these results suggest that pcp 5 and ...19921326266
analysis of the genetic diversity of genes 5 and 6 among group c rotaviruses using cdna probes.two partial cdna clones of genes 5 (encoding the major inner capsid protein vp 6) and 6 (encoding a nonstructural protein) of the porcine group (gp) c rotavirus (cowden strain) were radiolabeled with 32p and used individually as probes in northern and dot blot hybridization assays. the specificity of each probe was tested against genomic dsrna from: (1) porcine gp a, b, and c rotaviruses; (2) gp c rotaviruses from different species; and (3) porcine gp c rotavirus field strains with varying elect ...19921326268
monoclonal anti-idiotype induces antibodies against bovine q17 rotavirus.this study describes, for the first time, the production and use of an "internal-image" anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody (mab) to elicit a rotavirus-specific antibody response. an immunoglobulin g2a mab, designated rq31 (mab1), specific for the outer capsid protein vp4 of bovine q17 rotavirus and capable of neutralizing viral infection in vitro was used to generate an anti-idiotypic mab (mab2). this mab2, designated rqa2, was selected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using f(ab')2 ...19921326641
nucleotide sequence of gene 5 encoding the inner capsid protein (vp6) of bovine group c rotavirus: comparison with corresponding genes of group c, a, and b rotaviruses.to further study the molecular characteristics of group (gp) c rotaviruses, we produced, cloned, and sequenced cdna to gene 5 of the shintoku strain of bovine gp c rotavirus. the resulting clone was specific for gene 5 and was genetically related to the human and porcine gp c rotaviruses, as demonstrated by northern blot hybridization analysis. the shintoku gene 5 is 1352 nucleotides in length and has one open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 395 amino acids with a predicted molecular mas ...19921326819
identification of human and bovine rotavirus serotypes by polymerase chain reaction.the use of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for identifying serotypes of human and bovine rotaviruses was examined. in the identification of 115 human rotavirus samples in stools, results with pcr showed excellent agreement with results of serotyping by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies. furthermore, the pcr showed a much higher sensitivity (93%) than the elisa test (82.6%). the pcr method could also be applied for identifying the serot ...19921327857
identification of four vp4 serological types (p serotypes) of bovine rotavirus using viral reassortants.a series of five reassortant viruses each containing the vp4 gene of a distinct bovine rotavirus and the vp7 gene of human rotavirus strain st3 was prepared, and antisera to these were produced in rabbits. in neutralization tests, these antisera allowed the differentiation of the five original strains (from three different vp7 or g serotypes) into three or possibly four vp4 or p serotypes. all of a further seven bovine rotavirus strains adapted to cell culture were successfully typed by these an ...19921328488
field trial of an infant formula containing anti-rotavirus and anti-escherichia coli milk antibodies from hyperimmunized cows.two groups of 124 and 108 children, respectively, living in urban santiago, chile in low socioeconomic conditions were prospectively followed for 6 months for their incidence of diarrhea. each cohort was divided into two subgroups receiving either a commercial milk formula or the same formula containing 1% (wt/wt) bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrate from cows hyperimmunized with human rotaviruses and the major enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) serogroups. neither group differed with re ...19921328579
a case-control study of selected pathogens including verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli in calf diarrhea on an ontario veal farm.a case-control study of diarrheal disease in veal calves was conducted over a three month period on a single large veal farm in southern ontario. one hundred diarrheic calves (cases) were identified by visual examination of their feces. each case was matched to two nondiarrhetic controls from the same room on the same day, and a fecal sample was obtained from each animal. fecal consistency of cases and controls was observed daily for one week following sample collection. control calves which dev ...19921330276
a liquid-hybridization method for typing the vp4 and vp7 genes of bovine rotaviruses.a simple liquid-hybridization assay was developed which allows assessment of the degree of hybridization between the two serotype-determining genes of the bovine rotavirus strain uk and the homologous genes of the isolate under test. 32p-labelled transcription probes were produced from cloned complementary dna (cdna) copies of uk gene segments 4 and 8 and hybridized to double stranded rna (dsrna) extracted from rotavirus-positive field samples. subsequent treatment with ribonuclease a (rnase a), ...19921331146
biochemical and immunological characterization of a novel peptide carrier system using rotavirus vp6 particles.a system which allows for the efficient attachment of synthetic peptides to spherical virus-like particles assembled from the vp6 rotavirus nucleocapsid protein is described. this attachment was shown to be mediated by peptide-protein interactions and did not require additional chemicals for conjugation. the resulting large macromolecular structure was highly immunogenic for both the vp6 protein and the coupled peptides. the antibody response to peptides bound to vp6 particles was of higher titr ...19921332271
evidence of serologic diversity within group c rotaviruses.the cowden strain of porcine group c rotavirus and the shintoku strain of bovine group c rotavirus were classified as different serotypes by two-way cross-neutralization tests. two neutralization patterns against the cowden and shintoku strains were observed when hyperimmune or convalescent-phase antisera to three noncultivatable porcine group c rotaviruses and a human group c rotavirus were used in one-way cross-neutralization tests. antisera to two porcine group c rotaviruses and the human gro ...19921333486
passive immunizations of suckling mice and infants with bovine colostrum containing antibodies to human rotavirus.after immunizing 8-month pregnant holstein cows with the human rotavirus mo strain, cow colostrum containing neutralizing antibody to four different serotypes of human rotavirus, designated rota colostrum, was obtained. oral inoculation of human rotavirus mo strain into 5-day-old balb/c mice causes gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea. using this small animal model, passive protection of suckling mice against human rotavirus infection was achieved with the use of rota colostrum. rota colost ...19921334126
agents associated with neonatal diarrhoea in ethiopian dairy calves.faeces samples collected from diarrhoeic dairy calves in the first 8 weeks of life were examined for the presence of 5 enteropathogens. the majority of the 108 diarrhoea cases occurred in the first 5 weeks of life and a commercial elisa kit detected bovine enteric coronavirus (bec) in 38.9%, serogroup a rotavirus (rv) in 16.7% and k99 (f5) fimbrial adhesin-positive escherichia coli (k99 etec) in 11.1 per cent. concurrent infections of these enteropathogens were detected in 14.8% of samples (30.8 ...19921339036
occurrence of colonization factor antigens i & ii in enterotoxigenic escherichia coli associated diarrhoea in iran & correlation with severity of disease.the occurrence of colonization factor antigens i and ii (cfa/i and ii) and type 1 somatic pili was investigated in 197 enterotoxigenic esch. coli (etec) isolated from 197 patients of diarrhoea (aged under 3 yr) during february 1985 to march 1986 in tehran, iran. among etec strains, 154 strains were heat-stable enterotoxin (st) producers, 27 strains were heat-labile enterotoxin (lt) producers, and 16 strains produced both toxins. sixty five (33%) strains showed mannose-resistant haemagglutination ...19921354654
isolation and characterization of two distinct human rotavirus strains with g6 specificity.two new human rotavirus (hrv) strains, pa151 and pa169, with subgroup i specificity and a long rna pattern, yet with a serotype g (vp7) specificity different from those of any of the six well-established hrv serotypes (g1 to g4, g8, and g9), were isolated 3 months apart from two children with acute gastroenteritis in sicily, southern italy, in the winter season of 1987 and 1988. the hrv isolates were adapted to growth in cell cultures and were then characterized by neutralization and rna-rna (no ...19921370851
antigenic and genetic analyses of human rotaviruses in chiang mai, thailand: evidence for a close relationship between human and animal rotaviruses.serotyping of group a rotaviruses obtained from stools of 158 diarrheic patients in chiang mai, thailand, by elisa with monoclonal antibodies revealed a yearly change in the prevalence of individual serotypes. three unusual human rotavirus strains were isolated. strain mc35 had subgroup i-serotype 10 antigen and a long rna electrophoretic type, a property hitherto found only in bovine rotaviruses. rna-rna hybridization tests showed that the strain is more closely related genetically to bovine th ...19921378870
localization of group-specific epitopes on the major capsid protein of group a rotavirus.chemical cleavage of the vp6 protein of bovine rotavirus showed that vp6-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) reacted with the amino acid sequence between glycine 48 and asparagine 107. furthermore, three synthetic peptides (amino acids 48 to 64, 60 to 75 and 91 to 108) containing part of this sequence and 22 consecutive overlapping heptapeptides corresponding to the region between amino acids 48 and 75 were analysed for their immunoreactivity using group-specific mabs. the mabs recognized pept ...19921378880
development of cdna probes for typing group a bovine rotaviruses on the basis of vp4 specificity.dot and northern (rna) blot hybridization assays were developed for the p typing of group a bovine rotaviruses (brv) by using cdna probes prepared from gene segment 4. the probes were prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification of hyperdivergent regions (nucleotides 211 to 686) of brv strain uk, ind, ncdv, and cr vp4 cdna by using specific oligonucleotide primers. the probes were p type specific (vp4) and exhibited little or no cross-reactivity with double-stranded rna from heterologous ...19921383267
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to porcine group c rotaviruses cross-reactive with group a rotaviruses.five monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to porcine group (gp) c rotaviruses (cowden and ah strains) reactive with both gp a and c rotaviruses in cell culture immunofluorescence (ccif) tests were produced and characterized. these mabs reacted with three strains of gp a and two strains of gp c rotaviruses in a ccif test and were classified into two groups based on their ccif titers. the mabs also reacted to various degrees with cell-culture-propagated porcine gp c rotavirus (cowden) and bovine gp a rota ...19921384230
cell-mediated immune response in rotavirus-infected calves: leucocyte migration inhibition assay.the cell-mediated immune (cmi) response was determined in rotavirus-infected calves by leucocyte migration inhibition assay with blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph node and intestinal lymphocytes. the inhibition of migration was more prominent in intestinal and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes than in spleen and blood. in rotavirus-infected calves, the assay indicated the presence of cmi response which was more prominent at the local site of infection.19921430345
neutralizing antibodies to heterologous animal rotavirus serotypes 5, 6, 7, and 10 in sera from ecuadorian children.serum samples from 870 ecuadorian children who underwent natural rotavirus exposure were tested for neutralizing serum antibody to heterologous animal rotavirus (rv) serotypes. six percent of the sera neutralized porcine rv osu (serotype 5), 10% neutralized bovine rv ncdv (serotype 6), 4% neutralized avian rv ch-2 (serotype 7), and 8% neutralized bovine rv v1005 (serotype 10). neutralization was defined as a 90% reduction in infectious virus at a 1:100 serum dilution. the prevalence of antibody ...19911647406
comparison of human and porcine group c rotaviruses by northern blot hybridization analysis.the genetic relationship between human and porcine gp c rotaviruses and between gp c and gp a or b rotaviruses was examined by northern blot hybridization. cross-hybridization studies using radiolabeled ssrna transcript probes demonstrated that the human and porcine gp c rotaviruses shared a high degree of nucleotide sequence homology in most of the eleven gene segments; the greatest sequence divergence was observed in gene 7. neither the human nor the porcine gp c probe hybridized strongly with ...19911648897
cattle develop neutralizing antibodies to rotavirus serotypes which could not be isolated from faeces of symptomatic calves.neutralizing antibodies against 10 serotypes of rotavirus were measured in sera from different age groups of german cattle. only five of 143 sera did not neutralize heterologous serotypes. sera from 64 of 76 calves younger than 1 year neutralized bovine rotavirus ncdv (serotype 6). from these calves, sera 54, 26, 51, 24, 12, 10 and 37, in neutralized addition, the heterologous serotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9, respectively. thirty-eight of 46 rotavirus isolates from bavarian calves with diarrhoe ...19911649894
analysis of the gene encoding the outer capsid glycoprotein (vp7) of group c rotaviruses by northern and dot blot hybridization.the genetic diversity of gene 8 (encoding the outer capsid glycoprotein vp7) among group (gp) c rotaviruses was examined by northern and dot blot hybridization. a cdna clone of the porcine gp c cowden strain gene 8 was labeled with 32p by nick translation and used as a probe. the gene 8 probe hybridized with the corresponding gene of one human (88-196) and four porcine (cowden, nb, wh, and wi) strains of gp c rotaviruses under both moderate (50% formamide, 5x ssc, and 42 degrees) and high (50% f ...19911651601
identification and characterization of a plaque forming avian rotavirus isolated from a wild bird in japan.from fresh faeces of a wild bird (melanitta fusca), a virus that showed granular cytopathic effects (cpe) on chicken kidney cell (ckc) cultures was isolated. by indirect immunofluorescence analyses (ifa), this isolate reacted with an antiserum against a bovine rotavirus. the isolate produced clear plaques on ckc by conventional techniques, without trypsin. three virus plaques were selected by plaque size (small, medium, and large) and cloned by three successive plaque cloning. in the sds-page an ...19911653040
non-specific immunoprecipitation of rotavirus vp6 protein with staphylococcus aureus.the specificity of staphylococcus aureus and protein a-sepharose (pa-s) were compared in the radioimmunoprecipitation assay for the characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against rotavirus proteins. five mabs directed against bovine rotavirus q17 proteins vp6 and vp7 and one mab directed against human rotavirus protein vp4 were used in this study. mabs directed against other viruses, ns-1 culture supernatant and ascitic fluid, were used as control reagents. a non-specific immunoprecipi ...19911653168
protection of agammaglobulinemic piglets from porcine rotavirus infection by antibody against simian rotavirus sa-11.rotavirus, a double-stranded rna virus, has been implicated as a diarrhea-provoking agent in a variety of animal species. several previous reports have shown that immunization with a single serotype may result in increased in vitro neutralization titers against serotypes not represented in the immunogen. this study was undertaken to determine whether antibody from cows immunized against simian rotavirus strain sa-11 (which is alien to pigs) could protect neonatal piglets from infection with a no ...19911653265
comparative growth of different rotavirus strains in differentiated cells (ma104, hepg2, and caco-2).the production of viral antigen after infection of ma104, hepg2 (derived from human liver), and caco-2 (derived from human colon) cells with various cultivatable human and animal rotavirus strains was compared using immunofluorescence tests. all rotavirus strains examined expressed antigen in caco-2 cells and ma104 cells, but only some virus strains, namely, sa11-cl3 (simian), rrv (simian), cu-1 (canine), and ty1 (turkey), produced antigen in numbers of infected hepg2 cells comparable to infecti ...19911653495
comparative amino acid sequence analysis of vp4 for vp7 serotype 6 bovine rotavirus strains ncdv, b641, and uk.in a previous study (s. zheng, g. n. woode, d. r. melendy, and r. f. ramig, j. clin. microbiol. 27:1939-1945, 1989), it was predicted that the vp7 serotype 6 bovine rotavirus strains ncdv and b641 do not share antigenically similar vp4s. in this study, gene 4 and the vp7 gene of b641 were sequenced, and the amino acid sequences were deduced and compared with those of ncdv and bovine rotavirus strain uk. amino acid sequence homology in vp7 between the three strains was greater than 94%, confirmin ...19911654450
gangliosides as binding sites in sa-11 rotavirus infection of llc-mk2 cells.the chemical nature of receptors involved in the attachment of simian rotavirus (sa-11) to a monkey kidney cell line (llc-mk2) was investigated. enzymic treatment of cells before virus infection indicated that membrane proteins and phospholipids are not involved in virus attachment, whereas sialic acid and galactose participate in the receptor structure to differing extents. incubation of sa-11 with bovine brain gangliosides before infection strongly reduced its ability to bind to cell membranes ...19911655958
immunization with baculovirus-expressed recombinant rotavirus proteins vp1, vp4, vp6, and vp7 induces cd8+ t lymphocytes that mediate clearance of chronic rotavirus infection in scid mice.clearance of chronic murine rotavirus infection in scid mice can be demonstrated by adoptive transfer of immune cd8+ t lymphocytes from histocompatible donor mice immunized with a murine homotypic rotavirus (t. dharakul, l. rott, and h.b. greenberg, j. virol 64:4375-4382, 1990). the present study focuses on the protein specificity and heterotypic nature of cell-mediated clearance of chronic murine rotavirus infection in scid mice. heterotypic cell-mediated clearance was demonstrated in scid mice ...19911656079
molecular and antigenic analyses of serotypes 8 and 10 of bovine rotaviruses in thailand.antigenic and genomic properties of non-serotype 6 bovine rotaviruses isolated in thailand and japan were studied by cross-neutralization tests, nucleotide sequence determination of the vp7 gene, and rna-rna hybridization. two thai strains (61a and a44) were serologically related to a japanese isolate kk3 which has been assigned to serotype 10. in contrast, strain a5 was found to be antigenically similar to human strain 69m with serotype 8 specificity, although strain a5 showed a one-way cross-r ...19911662688
evaluation of the efficacy of a low-passage bovine rotavirus (strain wc3) vaccine in children in central africa.the safety and efficacy of a wc3 rotavirus vaccine was evaluated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving 472 children in bangui (central african republic). each child received two doses of either placebo (235 children) or vaccine (237 children) at a 1-month interval, the first dose being given at 3 months of age. during the follow-up survey 9 months after the first dose, 117 rotavirus diarrhoeas were observed, 59 in the placebo group, 58 in the vaccinated group. the only positive ef ...19911663261
isolation, characterization, and serial propagation of a bovine group c rotavirus in a monkey kidney cell line (ma104).a virus (designated the shintoku strain) which was morphologically indistinguishable from group a rotaviruses was detected in the feces of adult cows with diarrhea in japan. the virus contained 11 segments of double-stranded rna and had an electrophoretic migration pattern in polyacrylamide gels similar to that of other group c rotaviruses (4-3-2-2). feces containing the bovine virus reacted with antiserum to porcine group c rotavirus (cowden strain) but not group a or b rotaviruses in immunoele ...19911663512
reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to the 41-kilodalton protein of porcine group c rotavirus with homologous and heterologous rotavirus serogroups in immunofluorescence tests.three monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to porcine group c rotavirus immunoprecipitated the major inner capsid protein (41 kda) but failed to precipitate group a rotavirus proteins. in immunofluorescence tests of rotavirus-infected cell cultures or pig intestines, the mabs recognized porcine and bovine group c rotaviruses but not group a or b rotaviruses. these mabs may recognize the group c rotavirus counterpart to vp6 of group a rotaviruses and may be useful as diagnostic reagents.19911663522
association of diarrhea in cattle with torovirus infections on farms.an epidemiologic survey was performed to determine the incidence of torovirus infections in 2 disease entities of cattle: diarrhea of replacement calves up to 2 months old, and winter dysentery of adult cattle. samples were obtained from 187 diarrheal and 115 healthy calves from 15 farms, as well as 149 diarrheal and 67 healthy cows from 27 farms with or without winter dysentery. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of torovirus, rotavirus, and coronavirus antigen in feces, and of to ...19911664668
comparison of staphylococcal co-agglutination with other assays for rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection in humans, calves and piglets.co-agglutination was used for rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection. staphylococcus aureus cowan i sensitized with rabbit antiserum to rotavirus demonstrated the presence of this virus in stools of children, calves and piglets with clinical signs of diarrhea. a total of 415 fecal samples were examined by the co-agglutination test and the results were compared with those of elisa, electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel and latex agglutination. the co-agglutination test, when compared to these thr ...19911666115
[rotavirus infections and their prevention with vaccines in children].human rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in children under two years in developing countries: the need of an effective rotavirus vaccine, safe, easy to administer and compatible with existing immunization schedules is now well-established. molecular structure of rotaviruses (fragmented genome) and their antigenic variability (four human serotypes without cross-reactivity) explain some difficulties in vaccinal strategy. furthermore, specific efficacy is not clearly evaluabl ...19911668070
improvement of the plaque technique for human rotaviruses: effect of fetal bovine serum, acetyltrypsin and agar.dilution of viruses, which were previously treated with 10 micrograms acetyltrypsin/ml, in mem supplemented with 2.5% fetal bovine serum caused little damage of cell monolayers resulting in the formation of discrete plaques. when agar and acetyltrypsin were added to the overlay medium at the concentrations of 0.8% and 5 micrograms/ml, respectively, clear plaques were induced. linear relationships were obtained between virus concentration and the number of plaques, thus the procedure described in ...19911668675
monoclonal antibodies to quebec strain (q17) of bovine rotavirus.fourteen monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against "quebec" strain (q17) of bovine rotavirus were isolated and characterized. four were specific for viral protein vp7 and ten were specific for viral protein vp6. five different isotypes were represented by this group of antibodies. all of the anti-vp6 and none of the anti-vp7 antibodies were sensitive to the effects of periodate on their antigen. the antibodies could be separated into three groups based on their relative resistance to the dissociation ...19901698323
antigenic and biochemical characterization of bovine rotavirus v1005, a new member of rotavirus serotype 10.bovine rotavirus (brv) v1005 is serologically distinct from rotavirus serotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9. brv v1005 showed cross-reactions with brv b223, the american prototype of serotype 10 rotavirus, and with brv e4049, a british serotype 10 isolate. brv v1005 was, however, not neutralized by four monoclonal antibodies directed against vp7 of brv b223. two-way cross-reactions were observed between brv v1005 and a reassortant rotavirus containing the vp4 from brv uk. in addition the major try ...19901701478
vp4 relationships between porcine and other rotavirus serotypes.vp4 relationship of australian porcine rotaviruses were identified using genetic reassortants and mabs. all porcine virus isolates except ben-144 appeared to share vp4 antigenicity with osu virus. vp4 and ben-144 virus (gottfried-like virus) showed some antigenic relationships with the human neonatal viruses st-3 and rv-3. in addition, vp4 of porcine crw-8 showed antigenic relationships with simian sa-11. rrv and also canine k9 viruses, while that of porcine tfr-41 showed at least one way vp4 an ...19911705788
detection of animal and human group b rotaviruses in fecal specimens by polymerase chain reaction.a combined reverse transcriptase reaction-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was developed to achieve the sensitive detection of group b rotaviruses (gbr). sequences derived from genomic segment 3 of the idir (intestinal disease of infant rats) strain of gbr permitted the detection of greater than or equal to 0.08 pg of purified idir genomic rna (4,000 genome copies). primers complementary to the terminal sequences of gene 11 of gbr strain adrv (adult diarrhea rotavirus) allowed for the detectio ...19911709948
characterization of bovine rotavirus vp6 and vp7 as glycoproteins using monoclonal antibodies.bovine rotavirus proteins were analysed by a panel of monoclonal antibodies. glycosylated epitopes were identified on both inner and outer capsid proteins (vp6 and vp7 respectively). vp7 possessed a periodate insensitive epitope which was, however, sensitive to endoglycosidase h, mixed glycosidases and to protease treatment. this epitope was not detected on viruses grown in the presence of 2-deoxy-d-glucose or tunicamycin. an epitope was detected on vp6 which was sensitive to periodate oxidation ...19911711988
preparation and characterization of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody directed to vp4 of rotavirus strain k8 which has unique vp4 neutralization epitopes.for selecting the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (n-mabs) directed to vp4 of rotavirus strain k8, which has unique vp4 neutralization epitopes, we prepared several reassortant viruses by mixed infection of two different strains k8 (serotype 1) and p (serotype 3) in vitro: three reassortant clones having vp4 of k8 and vp7 of p and four clones having vp4 of p and vp7 of k8. by using these reassortants in screening hybridomas, a n-mab (k8-2c12) directed to strain k8-specific vp4 was obtained. t ...19911722090
homotypic and heterotypic serological responses to rotavirus neutralization epitopes in immunologically naive and experienced animals.gnotobiotic or specific-pathogen-free animals with no previous exposure to rotavirus were vaccinated with strain uk, serotype g6. the highest serological response was to homologous virus; significant but lower responses occurred to viruses with either vp4 or vp7 related to that of vaccine virus; responses to other viruses were of low titer or infrequent. adult cows vaccinated with uk virus produced increased titers of antibody to all rotavirus serotypes. the increases in titer to homologous viru ...19911723075
mass screening of cattle sera against 14 infectious disease agents, using an elisa system for monitoring health in livestock.mass screening elisa methods were developed for testing cattle serum for antibodies against 14 common livestock diseases simultaneously. the absorbance values were transformed to a %elisa (spectrophotometric antibody end point) by a computer interfaced with a microplate reader. a histogram indicating a cutoff point and a report for the veterinarian also was generated. the computer program produced a print-out of the antibody profile for each animal tested, the antibody concentration against each ...19911767993
radioactive and enzymatic cloned cdna probes for bovine enteric coronavirus detection by molecular hybridization.genomic rna of f15 strain bovine enteric coronavirus (becv) was cloned in e. coli. three clones (174, 160, pg78), selected in the cdna library, including a large portion of the nucleocapsid (n), matrix (m) and peplomeric (s) protein genes, were used as probes for a slot blot hybridization assay. two probe labelling techniques were compared, radiolabelling with 32p and enzymatic labelling through covalent linkage to peroxidase and chemiluminescence detection. the radioactive probe 174 detected as ...19921642553
vp4 monotype specificities among porcine rotavirus strains of the same vp4 serotype.the porcine rotavirus osu strain was used to produce monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against the outer capsid protein vp4. from two separate fusions, eight mabs that inhibited hemagglutination activity of the osu strain were selected. all mabs immunoprecipitated both the osu vp4 protein derived from a lysate of infected ma104 cells and the osu vp4 protein expressed in sf9 cells by a recombinant baculovirus. by immunoprecipitation of in vitro-translated osu gene 4 transcripts of different l ...19911847483
rotavirus particles function as immunological carriers for the delivery of peptides from infectious agents and endogenous proteins.a major problem in the development of useful animal subunit vaccines has been the generation of immune responses to weakly immunogenic molecules. for this purpose a new and effective delivery system has been devised. this system is based upon the inner capsid of bovine rotavirus. under the appropriate conditions, the inner capsid protein, designated bp6, can be made to self-assemble in vitro and form spherical particles. these particles possess an inherent capacity to target to cells of the immu ...19911850113
expression of rotavirus vp2 produces empty corelike particles.the complete vp2 gene of bovine rotavirus strain rf has been inserted into the baculovirus transfer vector pvl941 under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. cotransfection of spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells with wild-type baculovirus dna and transfer vector dna led to the formation of recombinant baculoviruses which contain bovine rotavirus gene 2. infection of s. frugiperda cells with this recombinant virus resulted in the production of a protein similar in size and antigenic properties to the ...19911851866
heterotypic passive protection induced by synthetic peptides corresponding to vp7 and vp4 of bovine rotavirus.we have evaluated the potential of two peptides derived from highly conserved regions of rotavirus outer capsid proteins (vp7 and vp4) to act as a rotavirus vaccine. the capacity of peptides coupled to rotavirus vp6 spherical particles to provide passive protection in a murine model was compared with the protection induced by peptide-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (klh) conjugates. female mice were immunized a total of three times before and during pregnancy. suckling mouse pups were challenged at 7 ...19911851871
prevalence of bovine group a rotavirus shedding among dairy calves in ohio.fecal samples were collected from 450 neonatal calves, ranging from 1 to 30 days old, between may, 1988 and may, 1989 to estimate the prevalence of bovine group a rotavirus in a stratified random sample of ohio dairy herds. calves were from 47 dairy herds chosen to be representative of ohio herds. bovine group a rotavirus was detected in fecal samples by a cell culture immunofluorescence test (ccif) and elisa. of 450 samples tested, 46 (10%) were positive by ccif and 67 (15%) were positive by el ...19921315490
cryptosporidiosis in neonatal calves: 277 cases (1986-1987).from january 1986 through december 1987, 277 cases of cryptosporidiosis in calves were diagnosed by the south dakota state university diagnostic laboratory. cryptosporidium sp was the only pathogen identified in 142 (51.3%) of the calves. concurrent infections with rotavirus, coronavirus, escherichia coli, salmonella sp, bovine viral diarrhea virus, or other pathogens were identified in the remaining 135 calves. after elimination of cases involving autolyzed specimens or calves with chronic diar ...19911874678
[electron microscopic virus diagnosis in dogs, cats, calves, swine and foals in the year 1989].during 1989 fecal and gut samples of 598 dogs, 189 cats, 496 calves, 100 pigs and 66 foals with diarrhoea were investigated for virus by electron microscopy. in samples of dogs and cats parvovirus was detected in 18.5% and 8.5% of the samples, respectively; coronavirus was found in 14.9% and in 16.4% of the specimens. in samples of calves coronavirus dominated with a detection rate of 37.5%, followed by rotavirus with 10.7% and not clearly identifiable particles resembling coronavirus (4.2%). in ...19911905919
pathogenesis of gut virus infection.in summary, the pathogenesis of many gut virus infections remains uncertain. however, human and animal studies indicate that the majority of gut viruses infect villous enterocytes. viruses appear to have different affinities for enterocytes at different sites on the villus. infection of enterocytes leads to cell death, extrusion into the lumen, and villous atrophy when the rate of cell production in the crypts cannot keep pace with the rate of enterocyte loss. this results in a reduced surface a ...19901962725
rotavirus.since their discovery in the 1970s, the human rotaviruses have been recognized as the most important cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis among infants and children worldwide. rotavirus has been found to infect almost all mammalian and avian species tested, and is primarily a disease of the young. in humans, rotavirus is the most frequent gastrointestinal pathogen in infants and children less than 2 years of age. in developing countries, the attack rate peaks at 6 months of age, whereas in ...19901962726
isolation of an avianlike group a rotavirus from a calf with diarrhea.an atypical group a rotavirus (993/83) was isolated from a 3-day-old german calf with diarrhea. it differed from 35 conventional german bovine rotavirus isolates analyzed previously with respect to subgroup (strain 993/83 was non-subgroup i and non-subgroup ii), serotype (strain 993/83 showed a two-way cross-reaction with serotype 7 and a one-way cross-reaction with serotype 3), and electropherotype (strain 993/83 showed comigrating gene segments 10 and 11). isolate 993/83 reacted with only one ...19921310334
the current status of diarrhoea related vaccines.since diarrhea is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in india as well as in developing and developed countries, public health specialists strive to develop vaccines against various pathogens which cause diarrhea. rotavirus (rv) causes 20-40% of severe diarrhea among 6-24 month olds. so they hope for a single dose vaccine against all 4 rv serotypes which can be administered to newborns, but such a vaccine does not yet exist. the bovine and rhesus vaccines are the only heterol ...19901966245
cell culture propagation of calf rotavirus and detection of rotavirus specific antibody in colostrum and milk of cows and buffaloes.a bovine rotavirus was adapted to serial propagation in madin darby bovine kidney (mdbk) cells. virus of cell culture origin when examined by electron microscopy exhibited characteristic rotavirus morphology and had a typical rna electropherotype on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. mean igg concentration in the first colostral whey was 62.80 +/- 6.56 mg/ml in cows and 104.40 +/- 31.12 mg/ml and 2.52 +/- 0.28 mg/ml respectively. the geometric mean neutralising antibody titre against bovine rot ...19901966750
electron microscopy, immune electron microscopy, enzyme immunoassay and immunofluorescent evaluation of rotaviruses isolated from individual calves and piglets.rotaviruses were isolated in primary bovine foetal kidney cells from 3 of 13 (23.1%) tested suckling calves and from 3 of 14 (21.4%) suckling piglets both suffering of acute diarrhoea, as confirmed by serological tests. the presence of rotaviral antigen in culture supernatant was revealed by double sandwich enzyme immunoassay (eia) and direct immunofluorescence (if). transmission electron microscopy (tem) and immune electron microscopy (iem) showed particles with an average diameter of 70 nm. th ...19901983178
a field study of the safety and efficacy of two candidate rotavirus vaccines in a native american population.a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a rhesus rotavirus vaccine and rit 4237, a bovine rotavirus vaccine, in a navajo population. infants aged 2-5 months were randomized to receive one dose of either 10(4) pfu of the rhesus rotavirus vaccine or 10(8) pfu of the rit 4237 vaccine or placebo. eleven (10.2%) of 108 infants in the rhesus vaccine group, 11 (10.4%) of 106 in the rit 4237 group, and 9 (8.4%) of 107 in the placebo group ...19911995721
cdna probes for the diagnosis of bovine torovirus (breda virus) infection.a genomic cdna library of rna from breda virus (brv), a bovine torovirus, was prepared. the nucleotide sequence of the 3' end of the genome was found to be highly conserved (93% identical) between brv and berne virus, the torovirus prototype. cross-hybridization experiments were performed to select berne virus cdna clones for use as probes in a dot hybridization assay; the objective was to detect heterologous torovirus rna in fecal material. a rapid rna extraction method was employed to make the ...19912037666
determinants of rotavirus stability and density during cscl purification.the stability of rotavirus infectivity during cscl gradient purification and subsequent storage was examined using our standard sa11 wild type (sa11-cl3), the sa11 4f variant (sa11-4f), bovine rotavirus b223, and a panel of bi- and triparental reassortants derived from these parental viruses. viral stability was determined by the recovery of infectivity at each step during a standard cscl purification protocol. sa11-4f was the most stable parent (91-93% recovery), sa11-cl3 had intermediate stabi ...19921309275
microbiology of diarrhoea in young beef and dairy calves in argentina.rotavirus, cryptosporidium sp, and salmonella spp. were investigated in the faeces of 452 diarrhoeic calves from 36 beef and 33 dairy herds. animals surveyed were from a few days of age up to approximately 1 month of life. enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) was studied in 212 calves, aged 15 days or less. the animals were from the provinces of buenos aires (59% of the calves), córdoba (18%), santa fe (16%), entre ríos (5%) and la pampa (2%). a minimum of 4 calves were sampled on each farm. ...19902102011
fluid therapy with specific mucopolysaccharides. a new approach to control diarrhea.an evaluation is given of the shortcomings of existing oral fluid therapies and their consequences: lack of protection of the intestinal wall and the supply of unabsorbed carbohydrates to the large intestine. the inclusion of specific mucopolysaccharides having a polyxylose backbone and galactose end residues in the side chains seems to offer effective protection of the intestinal wall. a trial conducted in experimentally infected calves (e. coli) shows that this concept of oral fluid therapy li ...19902138047
sequence analysis of gene 11 equivalents from "short" and "super short" strains of rotavirus.the molecular basis for the aberrant migration pattern of the gene 11 equivalent in rotaviruses with "short" (human ds-1) and "super short" (human 69m and bovine vmri) electropherotypes was investigated. the mrnas of these viruses were synthesized in vitro, and the entire gene 11 equivalent of each of these viruses was sequenced with specific synthetic oligonucleotide primers. these sequences were compared with previously published sequences of "long" pattern rotavirus gene 11 segments. the incr ...19902152809
sequence of a rotavirus gene 4 associated with unique biologic properties.the genome segment 4 of the simian rotavirus variant sa 11-4f was sequenced. this gene is of probable bovine origin, and it contains a few amino acid differences when compared with other sa 11 variants (4 fm and fem) that were isolated independently and that have fast migration patterns of their gene 4 segments. hypotheses for the role of sequence changes are made relative to the unique properties of the sa 11-4f variant.19911656916
extramucosal spread and development of hepatitis in immunodeficient and normal mice infected with rhesus rotavirus.the pathogenic profiles of two heterologous animal rotaviruses, rhesus rotavirus strain mmu 18006 and bovine rotavirus strain wc3, were evaluated in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (scid mice) and normal balb/c mice. control animals were inoculated with homologous murine strain edim 5099 or a tissue culture-adapted murine rotavirus. heterologous infection with rhesus rotavirus resulted in hepatitis in 84% of scid and 21% of balb/c mice, with mortality rates of 27 and 0%, respectively. ...19902152822
similarity of the outer capsid protein vp4 of the gottfried strain of porcine rotavirus to that of asymptomatic human rotavirus strains.genomic segment 4 of the porcine gottfried strain (serotype 4) of porcine rotavirus, which encodes the outer capsid protein vp4, was sequences, and its deduced amino acid sequence was analyzed. amino acid homology of the porcine rotavirus vp4 to the corresponding protein of asymptomatic or symptomatic human rotaviruses representing serotypes 1 to 4 ranged from 87.1 to 88.1% for asymptomatic strains and from 77.5 to 77.8% for symptomatic strains. amino acid homology of the gottfried strain to sim ...19902152826
sa11 rotavirus is specifically inhibited by an acetylated sialic acid.bovine salivary mucin (bsm) inhibits rotavirus replication in vitro and in vivo. the inhibitory effect of bsm in vitro is abolished by arthrobacter ureafaciens neuraminidase but not by clostridia perfringens neuraminidase; it is abolished by mild base deacetylation but not by influenza c acetylesterase. the data suggest that sa11 rotavirus binds to a specific sialic acid structure on bsm different from the sialic acids recognized by other viruses.19902153181
the effect of dexamethasone-induced immunosuppression on the development of faecal antibody and recovery from and resistance to rotavirus infection.rotavirus-naive and rotavirus-immune gnotobiotic calves were treated with high doses of dexamethasone (dx) to suppress the immune system. calves were then infected with a virulent rotavirus inoculum, j-160, to investigate the role of immune responses both in recovery from primary rotavirus infection and in resistance to secondary rotavirus infection. treatment of calves with dx markedly suppressed in vitro responsiveness of peripheral blood lymphocytes to mitogens within 48 h of the start of dx ...19921318600
the application of polymerase chain reaction to the detection of rotaviruses in faeces.an assay protocol based on exploiting the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the detection of rotavirus in infected faeces is described. the assay is 100,000 times more sensitive than the standard electropherotype method that is widely used. it also gives a 5000-fold increase in sensitivity over the hybridisation based assay previously developed (pedley and mccrae, 1984) and does not require the use of radioisotopes. the amplified product is a full length c-dna copy of the gene encoding the maj ...19902155248
molecular characterization by rna-rna hybridization of a serotype 8 human rotavirus with "super-short" rna electropherotype.a human rotavirus isolate (the 69m strain) with a "super-short" rna electropherotype has been classified as serotype 8, a new human serotype [matsuno et al., 1985]rna-rna hybridization using 32p-labeled transcription probes was used to assess the genetic relatedness of the 69m strain to a panel of human and animal rotaviruses. the 69m strain showed a medium level of homology with subgroup 1, serotype 2 human rotaviruses with short rna electropherotypes. however, the 69m strain was not significan ...19902156004
rotavirus induces proliferative response and augments non-specific cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes in humans.in vitro cell-mediated immune responses to rotavirus in humans were studied. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) of healthy adults proliferated in response to stimulation with the infectious and u.v.-inactivated wa strain of human rotavirus, showing a maximum response on day 7 of culture; however, cord blood lymphocytes failed to respond to rotavirus. a cross-reactive proliferative response of pbmc detected by stimulation with the ncdv strain of bovine rotavirus suggests the existence of e ...19902157566
rotavirus serotypes 6 and 10 predominate in cattle.calf fecal rotavirus strains were serotyped in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, using monoclonal antibodies to the vp7s of serotypes 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 and to the vp4 of b223 (designated serotype 10). sixty-six percent of 162 samples were typed as serotype 6, and 7% were serotyped as serotype 10. most of the untyped strains did not react with a monoclonal antibody directed to a common vp7 epitope, indicating insufficient virus present in the samples. however, seven untyped samples that did rea ...19902157736
prevention of human rotavirus infection with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins containing rotavirus antibody in cat.a study was made on the passive protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea. chickens were immunized with bovine rotavirus (serotype 1) and the egg yolk immunoglobulins containing a high titer anti-rotavirus neutralizing antibody (ceyi) was obtained. the ceyi was then orally administered to specific-pathogen-free cats, and the cats were infected with human rotavirus. the cats treated with the ceyi remained clinically healthy after challenge, whereas diarrhea occurred in the placebo-fed cats as ...19902159511
serum-neutralizing antibody to vp4 and vp7 proteins in infants following vaccination with wc3 bovine rotavirus.serum specimens from infants 2 to 12 months old vaccinated with the wc3 bovine rotavirus were analyzed to determine the relative concentrations of neutralizing antibody to the vp4 and vp7 proteins of the vaccine virus. to do this, reassortant rotaviruses that contained the wc3 genome segment for only one of these two neutralization proteins were made. the segment for the other neutralization protein in these reassortants was from heterotypic rotaviruses that were serotypically distinct from wc3. ...19902159538
sequence of the gene encoding the major neutralization antigen (vp7) of serotype 10 rotavirus.the sequence of the gene encoding the major neutralization antigen (vp7) of the type member (bovine virus strain b223) of the proposed serotype 10 of rotavirus has been determined. this was done using a rapid new strategy involving direct sequencing by primer extension of cdna generated from the relevant virus gene (gene 8) using a combined reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction. the sequence obtained is 1062 bp in length and contains a single long open reading frame capable of encoding ...19911703560
immune protection of infants against rotavirus gastroenteritis by a serotype 1 reassortant of bovine rotavirus wc3.the safety and protective efficacy of a serotype 1 reassortant of bovine rotavirus wc3, disignated strain wi79-9, was evaluated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. rotavirus reassortant wi79-9 contains a gene segment 9 coding for the surface structural protein vp7 of a human serotype 1 rotavirus, with all other gene segments derived from wc3 rotavirus, which had previously been shown to be safe and immunogenic in infants. infants 2-11 months of age were given two doses of vaccine (10(7.3 ...19902161038
rotavirus infection in calves in bangladesh.faecal samples from 434 calves under 1 year of age (307 diarrhoeal and 127 normal) were collected from three dairy farms and one village in selected areas of bangladesh. the samples were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect the presence of rotavirus antigen. of 402 dairy calves tested, 28 (7.0%) were positive, of which 21 (7.2%) were from diarrhoeic calves and 7 (6.3%) from non-diarrhoeic calves. rotavirus infection varied from farm to farm (2.7-9.2%) and there was no ...19911659033
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