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mhv s peplomer protein expressed by a recombinant vaccinia virus vector exhibits igg fc-receptor activity.we have previously shown that cells infected with mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) bind rabbit, mouse, and rat igg by the fc portion of the igg molecule. this fc-binding activity appeared to be mediated by the mhv s protein. s protein could also be precipitated from mhv-infected cells by a monoclonal antibody directed against the murine fc gamma receptor (fc gamma r). to prove definitively that the s protein mediates fc-binding activity, we have expressed the mhv s protein utilizing recombinant vacci ...19921309271
augmentation of bovine leukemia virus (blv)-specific lymphocyte proliferation responses in ruminants by inoculation with blv env-recombinant vaccinia virus: their role in the suppression of blv replication.lymphocyte proliferation responses were investigated in sheep and cattle, in which the replication of bovine leukemia virus (blv) had been known to be suppressed by inoculation with recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing blv envelope glycoprotein (gp60). enhanced lymphocyte proliferation responses were observed in animals inoculated with rvv, regardless of whether they were naive or blv carriers. these responses were roughly inversely correlated to the growth of blv in the peripheral blood ...19921337572
[protective effect against blv by inoculation with a vaccinia virus-blv env recombinant]. 19921338242
the myxoma virus thymidine kinase gene: sequence and transcriptional mapping.the myxoma virus thymidine kinase (tk) gene is encoded on a 1.6 kb saci-sali restriction fragment located between 57.7 and 59.3 kb on the 163 kb genomic map. the nucleotide sequence of this fragment as well as 228 bp from the adjacent sali-aa2 fragment was determined and found to encode four major open reading frames (orfs). three of these orfs are similar in nucleotide sequence to orfs l5r and j1r, and the tk gene of vaccinia virus (vv). the fourth orf, mf8a, shows similarity to the orfs found ...19921538190
recombinant vaccinia virus expression of the bovine leukaemia virus envelope gene and protection of immunized sheep against infection.the bovine leukaemia virus (blv) envelope gene encoding extracellular glycoprotein gp51 and transmembrane glycoprotein gp30 was cloned into the ha locus of vaccinia virus (copenhagen strain), downstream of the vaccinia virus early-late promoter, h6, or a triple promoter element consisting of the promoter for the vaccinia virus h6 gene, the promoter for the cowpox virus a-type inclusion (ati) gene and the promoter for the vaccinia virus ha gene. inoculation of rabbits or sheep with the recombinan ...19911645899
protective immunity against bovine leukaemia virus (blv) induced in carrier sheep by inoculation with a vaccinia virus-blv env recombinant: association with cell-mediated immunity.the effects of vaccination of sheep with a recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing the bovine leukaemia virus (blv) envelope glycoprotein (gp60) were studied by determining blv titres in peripheral blood leukocytes after vaccination and challenge. the proliferation of blv was suppressed markedly, not only when rvv was inoculated prior to challenge with blv, but also when it was inoculated after challenge. these results indicate that vaccination with rvv induces protective immunity that can s ...19911651982
identification of a bluetongue virus serotype 1-specific ovine helper t-cell determinant in outer capsid protein vp2.ovine t-cell lines (including one clone [101a]), which are specific for bluetongue virus serotype 1 (btv1), have been established and characterized. although these t-cell lines react with different isolates of btv1 (including those from south africa, australia, nigeria, and cameroon), they do not react with heterologous btv serotypes. antigen specificity of these t-cells was studied using purified virus particles, infectious subviral particles (isvp) and cores, or using individual btv structural ...19901693805
enhanced virus replication and inhibition of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus disease in anti-gamma interferon-treated mice.the role of gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) induced during a viral infection in the ability of the host to acquire antiviral immunity was studied in mice. they were injected subcutaneously daily with an ammonium sulfate-precipitated sheep anti-ifn-gamma antibody preparation able to neutralize 10(4) u of ifn-gamma. specificity of the anti-ifn-gamma antiserum was demonstrated by absence of detectable activity against natural ifn-alpha and -beta. controls were treated with a similarly prepared normal ...19892542591
[rabies, a public health problem].in west-europe, rabies is mostly reported in foxes, and in less extend in different domestic animals including dogs, cats, cattle, sheep, goats and horses. the contamination to humans occurs through contact with rabid animals by bite, scratch and even contact with the wound. this paper reports upon the current situation of rabies disease in belgium and the prophylactic means routinely applied and those actually under experiment. in 1988, 514 animals were found positive, among which 366 foxes (71 ...19892610551
protection of mice against vaccinia and herpes simplex virus infection by propionibacterium acnes.heat-killed cell suspension of several propionibacterium acnes strains were prepared and studied for their protective activity in viral infection of mice and immunomodulating properties. majority of the strains caused marked spleen enlargement in the treated mice. these changes persisted for several weeks. only some of the tested strains enhanced significantly primary humoral immune response against sheep red blood cells. there was no increase, however, in neutralizing or hemagglutination-inhibi ...19892639640
immunopharmacological actions of an extract isolated from inflamed skin of rabbits inoculated with vaccinia virus (neurotropin)--ii. restorative effect on immune responses through the recovery of il-2 production in aging mice.to examine the immunopharmacological actions of an extract isolated from inflamed skin of rabbits inoculated with vaccinia virus (neurotropin), its effect on the immune responses in aging balb/c mice was examined. neurotropin clearly restored the decreasing t-cell-dependent immune responses such as delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) response and plaque-forming cells (pfc) response to sheep red blood cells (srbc) when administered i.p. from 13 months old (mo) to 16 mo. however, neurotropin admin ...19892681005
the nucleotide sequence around the capripoxvirus thymidine kinase gene reveals a gene shared specifically with leporipoxvirus.we have extended previous comparisons of genetic organization between poxvirus genera by sequencing a 2.5k genomic fragment from isolate ks-1 (kenya sheep-1) of the genus capripoxvirus. the fragment is located in the central region of the capripoxvirus genome and contains three complete and two incomplete open reading frames (orfs). one of the complete orfs is a gene for thymidine kinase (tk). this gene, with one of the other two complete orfs and both the incomplete orfs, are homologous to four ...19892732700
responses of cattle, sheep and poultry to a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing a swine influenza haemagglutinin.groups of cattle, sheep and poultry were inoculated with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the haemagglutinin of the swine influenza virus a/nj/11/76. no adverse clinical responses were recorded and none of the animals developed a viraemia when inoculated with the recombinant or wild-type vaccinia virus. recombinant virus reisolated from lesions in cattle was stable, maintaining its thymidine kinase negative phenotype and ability to express the swine influenza haemagglutinin. antibodies to ...19863764100
characteristics of lymphoblasts appearing in efferent lymph in response to immunization with vaccinia virus.efferent lymphocytes collected from a cannulated lymphatic draining a single lymph node were studied for their cytotoxic activity following the injection of live vaccinia virus s.c. into the drainage site of the lymph node. three days after the injection of virus, there was a 40-fold increase in the output of lymphoblasts from the regional lymph node. however, antigen-reactive cells, presumably t-helper cells, cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls) and ctl precursors, were first detectable in efferent l ...19853876275
binding of calmodulin to the microfilament network correlates with induction of a macrophage tumoricidal response.induction of mouse peritoneal macrophage cytotoxicity against sv3t3, a line of virally transformed mouse cells correlated with the distribution of cytoplasmic calmodulin in the macrophages. the organization of the cytoskeleton was examined by fluorescent microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy, using immunogold tagging after triton-x-100 (tx-100) extraction of the macrophages. macrophages that had been activated to a tumoricidal state in vivo by vaccinia virus or in vitro by lymphokin ...19853884713
camel contagious ecthyma (pustular dermatitis).in 1979, pustular dermatitis caused by a virus belonging to the family poxviridae , genus parapoxvirus , was observed among camels in some areas of mongolia . the morbidity in adults ranged from 10 to 80%, of 2 to 3-month-old suckling camels between 50-70% and it reached 100% in 1-year-old animals. in the beginning, pustules developed around the mouth followed by papular elevations and scab formation. the virus designated camel contagious ecthyma (cce) grew on the chorionallantoic membrane (cam) ...19846145344
effect of interferon on thoracic duct lymphocyte output: induction with either poly i:poly c or vaccinia virus.systemic inoculation of the interferon (ifn) inducer polyinosinic-polycytidylic polyribonucleotide (poly i:poly c) into cba/j mice produces a significant decrease in the number of thoracic duct lymphocytes (tdl) collected 6 to 22 hr after injection. the number of tdl is restored to normal levels by 48 to 64 hr. residual tdl collected during the inhibition period of poly i:poly c treatment showed a phenotypic profile similar to phosphate-buffered saline- (pbs) treated control groups when examined ...19836187846
immunoreactivity of long lived h-2 incompatible irradiation chimeras (h-2d leads to h-2b).allogenic irradiations bone marrow chimeras made according to a new protocol with unmanipulated bone marrow are long lived, healthy and stable full chimeras (h-2d leads to h-2b). their immunocompetence is split. alloreactivity measured by skin graft rejection and mixed lymphocyte culture is within normal range. in contrast, major histocompatibility complex (mhc)-restricted t-cell-dependent primary responses against sheep red blood cells (srbc) or viruses are clearly deficient. the quantitative d ...19826211405
augmentation of the antibody forming cell response to neuraminidase-treated cells by myxoviruses.following the inoculation of newcastle disease virus, sendai virus and influenza virus cba mice made a specific plaque-forming cell response to virus-treated sheep red blood cells but not to virus-treated l1210 cells. this non-specific response to virus-treated l1210 could be exactly reproduced by treatment of l1210 with bacterial neuraminidase. neuraminidase-treated cells from eight of nine vertebrates including chickens and syngeneic mice also registered plaques. inoculations of the above viru ...19816274794
effect of vaccinia-activated macrophages on scrapie infection in hamsters. 19817194567
arginine 120 of prostaglandin g/h synthase-1 is required for the inhibition by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs containing a carboxylic acid moiety.the therapeutic action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids) is exerted through the inhibition of prostaglandin g/h synthase (pghs), which is expressed as two isoenzymes, termed pghs-1 and pghs-2. from the crystal structure of sheep pghs-1, it has been proposed that the carboxylic acid group of flurbiprofen is located in a favorable position for interacting with the arginine 120 residue of pghs-1 (picot, d., loll, p. j., and garavito, r. m. (1994) nature 367, 243-249). mutation of thi ...19957493972
interferon induction in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes of man and farm animals by poxvirus vector candidates and some poxvirus constructs.prototypes of three poxvirus genera--orthopoxvirus (opv), parapoxvirus (ppv), avipoxvirus (apv)--and newcastle disease virus (ndv) as a control, as well as three recombinant opv strains and one recombinant apv strain, were incubated in vitro with peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (pbml) of man, sheep and swine. antiviral activity was determined in pbml culture supernatants at different time intervals after virus cell interaction using a cytopathic effect inhibition bioassay. additionally, ...19957502485
t-cell responses to highly conserved cd4 and cd8 epitopes on the outer membrane protein of bovine leukemia virus: relevance to vaccine development.bovine leukemia virus (blv) is a retrovirus that infects cattle and sheep and may provide a model for studying human leukemia. cell-mediated immune mechanisms may play a major role in protection against blv infection. we describe here for the first time the identification of proliferative (cd4) and cytotoxic t-lymphocyte (cd8) epitopes of the gp51 envelope (env) protein of blv. this protein and a recombinant form expressed by a vaccinia virus construct have been shown to be potential vaccine can ...19937680386
protection of sheep against bovine leukemia virus (blv) infection by vaccination with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing blv envelope glycoproteins: correlation of protection with cd4 t-cell response to gp51 peptide 51-70.we have previously constructed vaccinia virus (vv) recombinants containing a complete or truncated envelope (env) gene of bovine leukemia virus (blv). only recombinants carrying the complete env gene (vv-blv2 and vv-blv3) expressed env glycoprotein on the surface of virus-infected cells and produced an antibody response in rabbits. in the present study, these vv recombinants were used to immunize sheep prior to challenge with blv-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. both humoral and cell ...19937680387
lack of cross-protection between vaccinia virus and orf virus in hysterectomy-procured, barrier-maintained lambs.hysterectomy-procured, barrier maintained lambs were immunised with either of virus or vaccinia virus and subsequently challenged with both viruses. under these conditions lambs were protected from challenge with the homologous virus but no cross-protection was observed. the feeding of colostrum that contained antibodies to orf virus had no effect on the duration of viral lesions. immunoblotting analysis and elisa of serum samples taken during the course of the experiment indicated that the anim ...19947801537
vaccinia virus expression of the vp7 protein of south african bluetongue virus serotype 4 and its use as an antigen in a capture elisa.recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the vp7 core protein of south african bluetongue virus serotype 4 (sa-btv4) were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification. expression of vp7 was verified by radio-immunoprecipitation and a f(ab')2-based elisa. antibodies to vp7 were detected in sera from sheep that had been infected with 20 different virulent btv serotypes by using the vaccinia virus (vv) expressed vp7 as antigen in a capture elisa. f(ab')2-immobilised vv-expressed sa-btv4 vp7 ...19947979976
local epidermal viral infections: comparative aspects of vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus and human papillomavirus in man and orf virus in sheep. 19948156048
immune responses of patients to orf virus infection.orf is a disease of sheep and goats which is caused by a parapox virus. it can be transmitted to humans, and is considered an occupational hazard by those handling sheep. in this paper we present the first report of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to naturally acquired orf virus infection in humans. lymphoproliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients to an orf virus antigen were vigorous soon after infection, but rapidly declined. orf virus antibody le ...19948186108
protection of goats against peste des petits ruminants with a vaccinia virus double recombinant expressing the f and h genes of rinderpest virus.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a viral disease of goats and sheep characterized by necrotizing and erosive stomatitis, enteritis and pneumonia. the causative agent, pprv, is a member of the family paramyxoviridae and the genus morbillivirus. other members of the genus include rinderpest (rpv), measles, canine distemper and phocid distemper viruses. ppr has a very high rate of morbidity and mortality, and effective control of this disease is of economic importance in africa, asia and the mid ...19938212844
recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis.recently published studies on the development and use of recombinant vaccinia virus (vv) vaccines incorporating either the complete envelope (env) gene or only a fragment of the env gene consisting of the coding sequence for the env glycoprotein 51 (gp51) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (blv) are described. it has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant vv vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with blv. the ...19938270269
involvement of cd8+ t cells in delayed-type hypersensitivity responses against bovine leukemia virus (blv) induced in sheep vaccinated with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing blv envelope glycoprotein.delayed-type hypersensitivity responses against bovine leukemia virus (blv) envelope glycoprotein (gp60) were induced in the skin of sheep vaccinated with recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing blv glycoprotein. the lesions were characterized by marked infiltration of lymphocytes, slight migration of neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages in the dermis to hypodermis, and partial intercellular edema in the reticular layer. immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal antibodies demonstrat ...19938470333
antigen specificity of the ovine cytotoxic t lymphocyte response to bluetongue virus.bluetongue virus (btv), an arbovirus transmitted by midges, can cause serious disease in sheep. both virus neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) have been shown to have a role in protective immunity. in this study, the antigen specificity of ctl from btv-immune sheep has been determined using recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing individual btv antigens. the results show that, in the sheep studied thus far, the serotype-specific outer coat protein, vp2, and the non-structural ...19958571549
viral status and antibody response in cattle inoculated with recombinant bovine leukemia virus-vaccinia virus vaccines after challenge exposure with bovine leukemia virus-infected lymphocytes.to determine the bovine leukemia virus (blv) antibody response and infectivity status in blv-vaccinated cattle after challenge exposure with blv-infected lymphocytes.19968725805
genomic analysis of a transposition-deletion variant of orf virus reveals a 3.3 kbp region of non-essential dna.restriction endonuclease analysis of the dna extracted orf virus strain nz2, which had been serially passaged in primary bovine testis cells, revealed a population of variants that had over-grown the wild-type virus. at least three distinct mutant forms were identified in which the right end of the genome had been duplicated and translocated to the left end, accompanied by deletions of sequences at the left end. sequencing of a single variant isolated from the heterogeneous population revealed t ...19958847502
cytokines and their inhibitors in orf virus infection.the epitheliotropic parapoxvirus, orf virus, can repeatedly infect sheep skin. a specific immune response is generated as reinfections induce smaller lesions with quicker resolution times than primary lesions. cyclosporin-a treatment abrogates this partial immunity. cytokine mrnas detected in lesion biopsies include the transcripts for il-1 beta, il-3 gm-csf, tnf-alpha and, less reproducibly, ifn-gamma. cd4+ t-cells predominate in afferent lymph draining the site of infection, and are the major ...19968988872
a novel strategy for determining protective antigens of the parapoxvirus, orf virus.we investigated the feasibility of using vaccinia virus (vac) recombinants containing large multigene fragments of orf virus dna to identify protective antigens of orf virus (ov). sixteen ov strain nz2 dna fragments with an average size of 11.4 kb were recombined into vac strain lister. each fragment was mapped relative to ov restriction endonuclease maps but was otherwise uncharacterized. together the recombinants represent 95% of the ov genome in an overlapping manner. immunofluorescence showe ...19979123861
analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus envelope glycoproteins in cell fusion.to compare the requirements for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-mediated cell fusion, the fusion (f), attachment (g) and small hydrophobic (sh) glycoproteins of bovine rsv (brsv), ovine rsv (orsv) and human rsv (hrsv) were expressed individually or coexpressed in either homologous or heterologous combinations in hela cells, using the vaccinia virus-t7 polymerase transient expression system. cell fusion was examined by a reporter gene activation assay. although the expression of the f protein a ...19979266983
molecular genetic analyses of parapoxviruses pathogenic for humans.the current members of the genus parapoxvirus are orf virus (orfv), bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv), pseudocowpoxvirus (pcpv) and parapoxvirus of red deer in new zealand (pvnz). bpsv and pcpv are maintained in cattle while orfv is maintained in sheep and goats, but all three are zoonoses. only the recently reported pvnz has yet to be recorded as infecting humans. tentative members of the genus are camel contagious ecthyma virus, chamois contagious ecthyma virus and sealpoxvirus. the separ ...19979413523
antibody responses and protective immunity to recombinant vaccinia virus-expressed bluetongue virus antigens.the role of individual viral proteins in the immune response to bluetongue virus (btv) is not clearly understood. to investigate the contributions of the outer capsid proteins, vp2 and vp5, and possible interactions between them, these proteins were expressed from recombinant vaccinia viruses either as individual proteins or together in double recombinants, or with the core protein vp7 in a triple recombinant. comparison of the immunogenicity of the vaccinia expressed proteins with btv expressed ...19979477479
interaction of vaccinia virus complement control protein with human complement proteins: factor i-mediated degradation of c3b to ic3b1 inactivates the alternative complement pathway.vaccinia virus complement control protein (vcp) is a virulence determinant of vaccinia virus that helps protect the virus from the complement attack of the host. to characterize the interaction of vcp with c3 and c4 and understand the mechanism by which vcp inactivates complement, we have expressed vcp in a yeast expression system and compared the biologic activity of the purified protein to that of human factor h and complement receptor 1 (cr1). recombinant vcp bound to c3 and the proteolytical ...19989605165
ovine diseases. orf.orf virus is an epitheliotropic dna parapoxvirus with a worldwide distribution that induces acute pustular lesions in the skin of sheep, goats and man. genetic mapping and sequencing of the orf virus genome have revealed that orf virus has a typical poxvirus distribution of genes, with those essential for viral dna synthesis, replication and packaging located in the central region, and those involved in virulence concentrated in the terminal regions. the immune and inflammatory response to orf v ...19989689744
oral-mucosal administration of ifn-alpha potentiates immune response in mice.we studied the effects of oral-mucosal administration of murine interferon-alpha (mu-ifn-alpha) on immune responses and infection with vaccinia virus (vv) in mice. when mu-ifn-alpha was administered to sheep red blood cell (srbc)-sensitized mice for 4 or 5 days, mu-ifn-alpha significantly enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) and antibody production, with maximum enhancement of each at 1 iu/body. to investigate the antiviral effect of oral-mucosal mu-ifn-alpha, mice were infected with vv, ...19989781804
orf virus encodes a homolog of the vaccinia virus interferon-resistance gene e3l.a homolog of the vaccinia virus (vac) interferon resistance gene e3l has been discovered in orf virus strain nz-2, a parapoxvirus that infects sheep, goats and humans. the gene is located 20 kb from the left terminus of the orf virus genome and is transcribed towards this terminus. rnase protection studies have been used to define the limits of the gene and northern analysis revealed that it is expressed early in infection. the predicted amino acid sequence of the orf virus protein shares 31% id ...19989857983
borna disease virus nucleoprotein (p40) is a major target for cd8(+)-t-cell-mediated immune response.experimental infection of rats with borna disease virus (bdv) and natural bdv infection of horses and sheep leads to a virus-induced t-cell-mediated immunopathology in the central nervous system. earlier work revealed the importance of the bdv-specific t-cell response and of cd8(+) effector cells in particular in the destruction of virus-infected cells. evidence was also presented that this major histocompatibility complex class i-restricted lysis detected in vitro might play a functional role i ...19999882386
expression of the e2 envelope glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) elicits virus-type specific neutralising antibodies.a region of genome from the nadl strain of bvdv corresponding to the coding sequence for the e2 glycoprotein has been molecularly cloned using rt-pcr. the viral cdna sequence was used to construct vaccinia virus recombinants that expressed either the entire e2 coding sequence or fragments of it. these recombinants were used to immunise mice of three h-2 haplotypes to investigate their ability to elicit a neutralising antibody response against bvdv. sera from mice immunised with the recombinant e ...199910078593
intracellular degradation of the hiv-1 envelope glycoprotein. evidence for, and some characteristics of, an endoplasmic reticulum degradation pathway.analysis of the fate of hiv-1 envelope protein gp160 (env) has shown that newly synthesized proteins may be degraded within the biosynthetic pathway and that this degradation may take place in compartments other than the lysosomes. the fate of newly synthesized env was studied in living bhk-21 cells with the recombinant vaccinia virus expression system. we found that gp160 not only undergoes physiological endoproteolytic cleavage, producing gp120, but is also degraded, producing proteolytic frag ...199910095785
a capripoxvirus detection pcr and antibody elisa based on the major antigen p32, the homolog of the vaccinia virus h3l gene.sheeppoxvirus (spv), goatpoxvirus (gpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) of cattle belong to the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae family and can cause significant economic losses in countries where they are endemic. capripox diagnosis by classical virological methods dependent on live capripox virus is not suitable in countries such as australia where the virus is exotic and live virus is not available. to develop diagnostic tests based on recombinant material, we cloned and sequenced a ...199910485266
the ovine cytotoxic t lymphocyte responses to bluetongue virus.this study uses recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing truncated or entire bluetongue virus (btv) proteins to map the location of epitopes recognized by cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) from australian merino sheep. the non-structural protein, ns1, was recognised by ctl from all sheep, while vp2, vp3, vp5 and vp7 were recognised by ctl from only some sheep. the remaining proteins (except for vp1, which was not tested) did not contain ctl epitopes. when truncated genes were used to map the location ...199910607500
immunomodulation by virulence proteins of the parapoxvirus orf virus.three orf virus putative virulence proteins are described that exhibit immunomodulatory functions. the ovifnr gene at the left terminus of the viral genome encodes an interferon resistance protein with homology to the e3l gene of vaccinia virus. ovifnr functions by preventing a dsrna-dependent kinase from inhibiting virus and cell protein synthesis as part of the interferon-induced anti-viral state within infected cells. the orf virus orthologue of the ovine interleukin-10 (vil-10) gene is locat ...199910614496
improved technique for transient expression and negative strand virus rescue using fowlpox t7 recombinant virus in mammalian cells.the suitability of recombinant t7 polymerase produced using either the highly attenuated mva strain of vaccinia (mva-t7) or fowlpox virus (fp-t7) for transient expression and negative strand virus rescue was compared in two mammalian cell lines (mdbk and vero) and in primary cells of bovine, ovine and caprine origin. such primary cells are more permissive for the growth of wild type strains of morbilliviruses, such as rinderpest virus and peste des petits ruminants virus. mva-t7 was found to be ...200010996645
[smallpox and smallpox virus--200 years since the first vaccination in norway].in december 1801, the first vaccination against smallpox in norway took place. vaccine material came from denmark, england, ireland, and other countries; it was also obtained from a few local cowpox cases. what mattered was the effect, not the origin. several reports indicate that variola virus itself, the cause of smallpox, was also used for human vaccination after passages through cows and horses. a vaccine institute for production of vaccine in calves was established in kristiania in 1891. co ...200111808015
the genomes of sheeppox and goatpox viruses.sheeppox virus (sppv) and goatpox virus (gtpv), members of the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae, are etiologic agents of important diseases of sheep and goats in northern and central africa, southwest and central asia, and the indian subcontinent. here we report the genomic sequence and comparative analysis of five sppv and gtpv isolates, including three pathogenic field isolates and two attenuated vaccine viruses. sppv and gtpv genomes are approximately 150 kbp and are strikingly similar t ...200212021338
construction of a recombinant orf virus that expresses an echinococcus granulosus vaccine antigen from a novel genomic insertion site.the potential of recombinant poxviruses as expression vectors has been extensively studied using vaccinia virus but there has been only limited transfer of this technology to the parapoxvirus genus. we detail here the construction of a recombinant orf virus that expresses an antigenic peptide (eg95) of the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease, echinococcus granulosus. expression of this foreign antigen was regulated by a synthetic early/late poxvirus transcriptional promoter and levels of e ...200312607106
genomes of the parapoxviruses orf virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus.bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) and orf virus (orfv), members of the genus parapoxvirus of the poxviridae, are etiologic agents of worldwide diseases affecting cattle and small ruminants, respectively. here we report the genomic sequences and comparative analysis of bpsv strain bv-ar02 and orfv strains ov-sa00, isolated from a goat, and ov-ia82, isolated from a sheep. parapoxvirus (ppv) bv-ar02, ov-sa00, and ov-ia82 genomes range in size from 134 to 139 kbp, with an average nucleotide com ...200414671098
mva rop2 vaccinia virus recombinant as a vaccine candidate for toxoplasmosis.toxoplasma gondii is the aetiological agent of toxoplasmosis and is the most frequent and best known of the parasitic diseases. in the united states, a serological survey from the third national health and nutrition examination survey found that an estimated 23% of adolescents and adults have laboratory evidence of infection with t. gondii. although toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic or shows self-limited symptoms in adults, in pregnant women infections can cause severe health problems to the fetus i ...200415151145
cloning and expression of a functionally active truncated n-glycosylated kshv orf4/kcp/kaposica in the methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris.kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (kshv) is a typical dna virus that is associated with a number of proliferative diseases including kaposi's sarcoma. the kshv open reading frame (orf) 4 encodes a complement regulatory protein (kaposi complement control protein, kcp) that binds complement components and inhibits the complement-mediated lysis of cells infected by the virus, thus providing a strategy for evasion of the host complement system. based on primary sequence analysis and comparison with other ...200516387704
a real time pcr assay for the detection and quantification of orf virus.a real time quantitative pcr assay based on taqman technology was developed for orf virus (orfv) dna quantification in clinical samples, infected cells and organotypic cultures. this method was based on the amplification of a 70 bp fragment from the orfv b2l gene (orthologue of the vaccinia virus copenhagen f13l gene) that encodes the major envelope protein. both intra- and inter-assay variability were well within +/-0.25 log(10) s.d. showing the high efficiency and reproducibility of the assay. ...200616430972
the structure of a putative scaffolding protein of immature poxvirus particles as determined by electron microscopy suggests similarity with capsid proteins of large icosahedral dna viruses.orf virus, the prototype parapoxvirus, is responsible for contagious ecthyma in sheep and goats. the central region of the viral genome codes for proteins highly conserved among vertebrate poxviruses and which are frequently essential for viral proliferation. analysis of the recently published genome sequence of orf virus revealed that among such essential proteins, the protein orfv075 is an orthologue of d13, the rifampin resistance gene product critical for vaccinia virus morphogenesis. previo ...200717670837
investigation of orf virus structure and morphogenesis using recombinants expressing flag-tagged envelope structural proteins: evidence for wrapped virus particles and egress from infected cells.orf virus (orfv) is the type species of the genus parapoxvirus, but little is known about the structure or morphogenesis of the virus. in contrast, the structure and morphogenesis of vaccinia virus (vacv) has been extensively studied. vacv has two main infectious forms, mature virion (mv) and extracellular virion (ev). the mv is wrapped by two additional membranes derived from the trans-golgi to produce a wrapped virion (wv), the outermost of which is lost by cellular membrane fusion during vira ...200919218206
use of b7 costimulatory molecules as adjuvants in a prime-boost vaccination against visna/maedi ovine lentivirus.rna transcripts of the b7 family molecule (cd80) are diminished in blood leukocytes from animals clinically affected with visna/maedi virus (vmv) infection. this work investigates whether the use of b7 genes enhances immune responses and protection in immunization-challenge approaches. sheep were primed by particle-mediated epidermal bombardment with vmv gag and env gene recombinant plasmids together with plasmids encoding both cd80 and cd86 or cd80 alone, boosted with gag and env gene recombina ...200919538997
use of the capripoxvirus homologue of vaccinia virus 30 kda rna polymerase subunit (rpo30) gene as a novel diagnostic and genotyping target: development of a classical pcr method to differentiate goat poxvirus from sheep poxvirus.sheep poxvirus (sppv), goat poxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) are capripoxviruses (capvs) responsible for causing severe poxvirus disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. serological differentiation of capvs is not possible and strain identification has relied on the implicitly accepted hypothesis that the viruses show well defined host specificity. however, it is now known that cross infections can occur and authentication of identity based on the host animal species ...201021115310
production and characterisation of ovine gm-csf expressed in mammalian and bacterial cells.a cdna encoding ovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (gm-csf) was isolated and two forms of recombinant ovine gm-csf were produced. a glycosylated form was produced in mammalian cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding ovine gm-csf. recombinant ovine gm-csf was also produced in escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. both forms of the protein were detected by ovine gm-csf-specific monoclonal antibodies, and exhibited activity on ovine bone mar ...19958578687
cell-mediated immunity to blv replication: analogous to hiv immunopathogenesis? 19938388695
expression of the extracellular domain of the rat liver prolactin receptor and its interaction with ovine prolactin.a clone of the extracellular domain of the rat liver prolactin receptor was generated by the rna-based polymerase chain reaction, and the nh2-terminal 210 amino acids were expressed in hela cells using a vaccinia virus/t7 hybrid expression system. the protein was isolated from serum-free culture medium directly by chromatography on an ovine prolactin affinity column and yielded approximately 1.5 mg of protein/liter of suspension culture. the extracellular domain of the rat prolactin receptor inh ...19938226744
identification and characterization of an orf virus homologue of the vaccinia virus gene encoding the major envelope antigen p37k.dna sequence analysis of a 1.55-kb region located 10 kb from the left end of the orf virus nz-2 strain (ov nz2) genome revealed an open reading frame, b2l, encoding a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 41.67 kda. this protein (p42k) shows 42% amino acid sequence identity to the vaccinia virus (vac) major envelope antigen p37k. in addition, p42k shows homology to a protein encoded by molluscum contagiosum virus (42.8% identity) and another encoded by fowlpox virus (38.3% identity). thes ...19948030257
kinetics of cytotoxic lymphocytes in efferent lymph from single lymph nodes following immunization with vaccinia virus.efferent lymphocytes collected from a cannulated lymphatic draining single lymph nodes were studied for their cytotoxic activity following the injection of live vaccinia virus subcutaneously into the drainage site of a lymph node. injection of virus produced a 40-fold increase in the lymphoblast output 7 days following virus injection. cytotoxic lymphocytes were detectable in lymph shortly after the appearance of lymphoblasts at 80 h and also reached a maximum during the 7th day. this was follow ...19846204794
orf virus and vaccinia virus do not cross-protect sheep.inoculation of lambs with a new zealand strain of orf virus (nz 2) failed to protect them against subsequent infection with the lister strain of vaccinia virus. similarly, in the reciprocal test, vaccinia virus failed to protect against subsequent orf virus infection. inoculation with either orf virus or vaccinia virus alone afforded protection against reinfection with the same virus. these results have relevance to the use of vaccinia virus gene vectors in sheep.19883178493
immunopharmacological actions of an extract isolated from inflamed skin of rabbits inoculated with vaccinia virus (neurotropin); enhancing effect on delayed type hypersensitivity response through the induction of lyt-1+2- t cells.to clarify the immunopharmacological action of an extract isolated from inflamed skin of rabbits inoculated with vaccinia virus (neurotropin), its effect on delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) response to sheep red blood cells (srbc) in mice was examined. neurotropin enhanced the dth response in c57bl/6 mice which were low responders to srbc, but not in either balb/c or c3h/he mice (high responders) when administered i.p. for 4 consecutive days prior to sensitization. however, neurotropin did no ...19872957331
recombinant vaccinia virus expresses immunoreactive alpha subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone which associates with beta-hcg to generate bioactive dimer. 19882475429
systemic dna immunization against ovine lentivirus using particle-mediated epidermal delivery and modified vaccinia ankara encoding the gag and/or env genes.to determine whether systemic immunization with plasmid dna and virus vector against visna/maedi virus (vmv) would induce protective immune responses, sheep were immunized with vmv gag and/or env sequences using particle-mediated epidermal bombardment and injection of recombinant modified vaccinia ankara. the results showed that immunization induced both humoral and cell-mediated responses prior to and after virus challenge. the vaccination protocol did not prevent infection, but immunization wi ...200918984025
mapping and characterization of visna/maedi virus cytotoxic t-lymphocyte epitopes.cd8(+) cytotoxic t-lymphocyte (ctl) responses have been shown to be important in the control of human and simian immunodeficiency virus infections. infection of sheep with visna/maedi virus (visna), a related lentivirus, induces specific cd8(+) ctl in vivo, but the specific viral proteins recognized are not known. to determine which visna antigens were recognized by sheep ctl, we used recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the different genes of visna: in six sheep (finnish landracexdorset cros ...200818796728
detection and diagnosis of parapoxvirus by the polymerase chain reaction.the genus parapoxvirus includes four members, bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv), pseudocowpox virus (pcpv), orf virus (orfv) and parapoxvirus of red deer in new zealand (pvnz). a set of primers for polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was designed to detect viral dna from cells infected with each of the four parapoxviruses. the set of primers resulted in the amplification of appropriately sized products from cells infected with bpsv, pcpv, orfv and pvnz, respectively. the pcr method was applied ...200010680970
the orf virus ov20.0l gene product is involved in interferon resistance and inhibits an interferon-inducible, double-stranded rna-dependent kinase.the parapoxvirus orf virus was resistant to type 1 (ifn-alpha) and type 2 (ifn-gamma) interferons in cultures of ovine cells. the recently identified orf virus ov20.0l gene exhibits 31% predicted amino acid identity to the vaccinia virus e3l interferon-resistance gene, and is referred to as the (putative) orf virus interferon-resistance gene (ovifnr). the objective of this study was to determine whether ovifnr was involved in interferon resistance. recombinant ovifnr as a thioredoxin fusion prot ...19989640243
role of cell-mediated immunity in bovine leukemia virus (blv) infection in ruminants: its implication for the vaccination strategy against retroviruses.recent studies in the immunopathogenesis of bovine leukemia virus (blv) infection in ruminants, reviewed herein, provide an insight into the vaccination strategy against retrovirus infection. it was shown that vaccination of naive sheep with a recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing blv envelope glycoprotein protected the animals against blv infection. the involvement of cell-mediated immunity (cmi) in this phenomenon was strongly suggested. the postinfection vaccination, that is, the vaccin ...19947584504
parapoxviruses are strongly inhibited in vitro by cidofovir.three parapoxviruses which cause orf or related diseases in humans and animals and the orthopoxvirus, vaccinia virus, were tested for their in vitro sensitivity to cidofovir. the 50% inhibitory concentration for the three parapoxviruses was between 0.21 and 0.27 microg/ml and for vaccinia was 1.32 microg/ml. the selectivity index varied from 198 to 264 for the parapoxviruses and was 42 for vaccinia virus. virus yield assays confirmed the ability of cidofovir to reduce ortho- and parapoxvirus rep ...200011164507
development and in vitro characterization of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing bovine leukemia virus gp51 in combination with bovine il4 or il12.type 1 and type 2 immune responses are modulated by il12 or il4, respectively, at the time of lymphocyte priming. importantly, type 1 responses have been associated with resistance to retroviral infection in mice, humans, and ruminants. specifically, vaccination of sheep with vaccinia virus expressing bovine leukemia virus (blv) gp51 resulted in protective immunity with the characteristics of a type 1 response, whereas vaccination of cattle resulted in a non-protective type 2 response. in order ...19999987178
[the pathogenesis of postvaccinal complications].paraspecific reactions to vaccines are -- induction of autoimmune mechanisms, -- immunosuppression, -- induction of inflammation (i.e. "reactogenicity"). these undesirable side effects of vaccination are important factors in pathogenesis of postvaccinal complications. using the model of experimental vaccinia virus infection the paraspecific reactions could be demonstrated in several animal species. cell mediated hypersensitivity to brain tissue antigen and basic encephalitogenic protein occurred ...19816112195
mucosal immunization against ovine lentivirus using pei-dna complexes and modified vaccinia ankara encoding the gag and/or env genes.sheep were immunized against visna/maedi virus (vmv) gag and/or env genes via the nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (nalt) and lung using polyethylenimine (pei)-dna complexes and modified vaccinia ankara, and challenged with live virus via the lung. env immunization enhanced humoral responses prior to but not after vmv challenge. systemic t cell proliferative and cytotoxic responses were generally low, with the responses following single gag gene immunization being significantly depressed a ...200818606204
vaccinia virus complement control protein is monomeric, and retains structural and functional integrity after exposure to adverse conditions.vaccinia virus complement control protein (vcp) possesses the ability to inhibit both classical and alternative pathways of complement activation, as well as bind to heparin or heparan sulfate proteoglycans, making it a unique multifunctional protein with therapeutic potential. recently, the structure of the complete molecule of vcp was determined by x-ray crystallography. two or three vcp molecules were packed within the unit cells of both crystal forms. using gel filtration, vcp has now been s ...200212147344
the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies against orf virus with other parapoxviruses and the identification of a 39 kda immunodominant protein.a panel of 27 mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was raised against orf virus. sixteen of these mabs reacted with a protein with a molecular mass of 65 kda, 8 reacted with a protein with a molecular mass of 39 kda and three remain uncharacterised. reactivity of the mabs with a library of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing various regions of the nz-2 orf virus genome identified the approximate positions of the genes encoding these 2 immunodominant orf virus proteins. the gene encoding the 39 ...19989930187
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