acute lowering of plasma oncotic pressure increases filtration fraction and sodium excretion in conscious sheep.we examined the effect of acutely lowering the colloid osmotic pressure by removing plasma (36.2 +/- 3.1 ml/kg) and replacing it with hartmann's solution (93.0 +/- 8.2 ml/kg) in 6 conscious merino sheep. the colloid osmotic pressure was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) from 20.3 +/- 0.9 to 8.5 +/- 2.5 mm hg 0 h after plasmapheresis and to 15.2 +/- 0.8 mm hg 20 h after treatment. the filtration fraction increased from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.27 +/- 0.02 at 0 h (p < 0.05 vs. control) and to 0.20 +/- 0. ...19921282727
[epizootiology of foot and mouth disease during a quarter century (1962-1988) in greece].greece has been considered as free from fmd since 1984. during the years 1962-1988 29 primary and 240 secondary (totally 269) outbreaks had appeared in greece. from these 187 were of type o, 60 of type a, 14 of type c, 6 of type sat 1 and 2 of type asia 1. from the 269 cases 81 appeared in attiki, 57 in evros (near the turkey) and 131 in the other provinces. with reference to animal species 197 were in cattle, 60 in pigs and 12 in sheep and goats. most of the 29 primary outbreaks appeared in jan ...19921575672
[laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease and swine vesicular disease in the years 1962-1988 in greece].during 26 years (1962-1988) 499 samples from fmd-suspicious cases were examined in greece. these materials came from 348 (70%) cattle, 95 (19%) pigs and 56 (11%) sheep and goats. the cattle with 197 (72.4%) positive cases seems to play the most important roll in fmd. the different isolated virus types belonged in 60 cases to type a, in 187 to type o, in 14 to type c, in 6 to type sat 1 and in 2 cases to type asia 1, respectively. svd was isolated in 3 cases from the same area and at the same tim ...19911652933
pestivirus infections in norway. serological investigations in cattle, sheep and pigs.serum samples from 1,133 dairy cows (187 herds), 3,712 ewes (103 flocks) and 1,317 adult pigs (877 herds), were tested for neutralizing antibodies against the nadl strain of bovine virus diarrhoea virus. the prevalence rate of seropositive animals was 18.5% in cattle, 4.5% in sheep and 2.2% in pigs, such seroreactors being found in 28% of the cattle herds and 18% of the sheep flocks. in all three species the rate showed considerable herd and geographical variation. in cattle the seroreactor rate ...19911659160
impaired elastin fiber assembly related to reduced 67-kd elastin-binding protein in fetal lamb ductus arteriosus and in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells treated with chondroitin the fetal ductus arteriosus (da) disruption in the assembly of elastin fibers is associated with intimal thickening and we previously reported that fetal lamb da smooth muscle cells incubated with endothelial conditioned medium produce two-fold more chondroitin sulfate (cs) compared with aorta (ao) cells (boudreau, n., and m. rabinovitch. 1991. lab. invest. 64:187-199). we hypothesized that cs or dermatan sulfate (ds), both n-acetylgalactosamine glycosaminoglycans (gags), may be similar to fr ...19911661296
effects of recombinant human interleukin-2 and excipient infusion on plasma levels of prostaglandins and thromboxane b2 in sheep.systemic administration of recombinant human interleukin-2 (ril-2) is used for treating some patients with advanced cancer. this therapy is limited by severe adverse reactions of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal origin. the effects of ril-2 treatment on plasma levels of some prostanoids were examined in sheep in order to elucidate the mechanism of these adverse reactions. a total of 8 adult female suffolk sheep were used. ril-2 (0.1 mg/kg) was infused over a 30-min period in 4 sheep. four dif ...19911909188
[does lung contusion and general injury severity have an effect on the lung following intramedullary femoral nailing? an animal model].we evaluated changes in lung function after closed intramedullary femoral nailing (imn) in sheep. the effects of isolated imn were compared with those of nailing after lung contusion and hemorrhagic shock. in adult female merino sheep a chronic lung lymph fistula was prepared according to the method described by staub. at day 1, group 1 received right-sided lung contusion and hemorrhagic shock to a mean blood pressure of 50 mmhg for 2 h. group 2 was the control group. at day 3 both groups were s ...19911925615
radio-isotopic determination of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous humor and urine.the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in the aqueous humor and urine of several animal species and humans have been determined. the determinations are based on peroxide-dependent decarboxylation of i-[14c]-alpha-ketoglutaric acid and measurement of the resulting 14co2 by quantitating the radioactive disintegration. the levels of h2o2 in most animals varied between 5.0 and 41 microm for aqueous, and 115 and 187 microm for urine. the levels of peroxide in the urine of steer, cat and baboon were ...19911936185
nine dna probes for detection of toxin and adhesin genes in escherichia coli isolated from diarrhoeal disease in animals.dna gene probes specific for genes encoding heat labile enterotoxin (lti), heat stable enterotoxins (stia, stii), vero cytotoxins (vt1, vt2), and adhesins k88 (f4), k99(f5), f41 and 987p(f6) were used to examine 873 isolates of e. coli from cases of diarrhoea (680 from pigs, 187 from cattle and six from sheep). a total of 188 were toxin gene positive and of these 84 belonged to the classical etec serogroups. of the other 104 toxin gene positive strains, 80 hybridized with the vt2 probe of which ...19901978952
intrapulmonary distribution of bronchial blood flow after moderate smoke inhalation.the systemic blood flow to the airways of the left lung was determined by the radioactive microsphere technique before and 17 h after smoke inhalation in six conscious sheep (smoke group) and six sheep insufflated with air alone (sham group). smoke inhalation caused a sixfold increase in systemic blood flow to the lower trachea (baseline 10.6 +/- 1.7 vs. injury 60.9 +/- 16.1 ml.min-1.100 g-1) and an 11- to 14-fold increase to the intrapulmonary central airways (baseline range 9.5 +/- 1.9 to 13.5 ...19902272966
role of cd2 cross-linking in cytoplasmic calcium responses and t cell activation.the relationship between the increase of intracellular free ca2+ concentration ([ca2+]i) in resting t cells after stimulation with monoclonal antibody (mab) to cd2 (e rosette receptor) and the subsequent proliferation response was investigated. although the combination of 9.6 plus 9-1 mab to cd2 was both mitogenic and induced an increase in [ca2+]i, cross-linking of an individual cd2 mab on the cell surface induced an increase in [ca2+]i without directly stimulating t cell proliferation. the [ca ...19882461308
molecular cloning of bovine beta-lactoglobulin cdna.a cdna library from bovine mammary gland mrna was constructed in pbr322 and screened by hybrid-selected translation and immunoscreening. several beta-lactoglobulin clones were identified and sequenced. all clones contained cdna fragments corresponding to the 3' region of beta-lactoglobulin mrna. the 3' non-translated region of beta-lactoglobulin mrna consists of 187 nucleotides; the polyadenylation signal aataaa occurs 17 nucleotides before the poly(a) tail. the amino-acid sequence predicted fro ...19883202951
anesthesia and cardiopulmonary bypass technique in calves and sheep.the number of research institutions using calves and sheep as models for open heart surgical procedures is increasing. the artificial heart laboratory of the university of utah has developed an effective protocol for thoracic procedures in these animals. routine barbiturate induction and maintenance with fluothane and a pressure-regulated ventilator have minimized anesthetic problems. a membrane oxygenator with blood flows of 50 to 75 ml/kg body weight/min. seems to give adequate circulatory sup ...19873333712
seroprevalence of respiratory syncytial virus in free-ranging bighorn sheep.sera from 187 (42%) of 447 free-ranging bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) in 9 western states had antibody titers to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). titers were from 1:5 to 1:640, as determined by the standard virus neutralization test. results of the survey indicated that rsv is widespread in free-ranging bighorn sheep populations and that rsv may be an important factor in the bighorn sheep pneumonia-complex.19853878355
alteration of arterial gas composition by positive pressure ventilation in the unanesthetized fetal lamb in study the effectiveness of in utero ventilation in altering fetal arterial gas composition, we ventilated 15 near-term fetal lambs with a range of inspired gas mixtures. to accomplish this, double lumen nasogastric tubes were surgically placed in the tracheas of 15 near-term (135 days' gestation) fetal lambs. after 4 +/- 1 sd postoperative days, the fetuses were respired by positive pressure ventilation. 13 of these fetuses were also ventilated with their umbilical cords completely occluded. ...19853924128
sheep histocompatibility antigens: a population level comparison between lymphocyte antigens previously defined in france, england and scotland, and sheep red cell groups.a comparison test was performed to look for correlations between the three nomenclature systems for sheep histocompatibility antigens which have been previously described in france, england and scotland. 187 french sheep from a wide variety of breeds were typed for lymphocyte antigens with antisera which detect the ola, p and ed series of antigens; they were also tested against 387 uncharacterized french antisera. six clusters of sera were found which showed correspondence between antigens of at ...19854003855
year-round breeding of crossbred dorset or finnish landrace ewes using a synthetic light regimen.a group of crossbred dorset or finnish landrace ewes maintained under a synthetic light regimen (light treatment, 4 mo long days - 16 h light, 4 mo short days - 8 h light) and exposed to rams every 8 mo (january 1, september 1, may 1) was compared for lamb production over a period of 4.5 yr with two other comparable groups under natural daylight conditions, one exposed to rams once a year in the fall (control i) and the other every 8 mo (control ii). conception rates across breed type of ewe wer ...19854044431
an investigation of sites that bind human somatotropin (growth hormone) in the liver of the pregnant rabbit.the binding of 125i-labelled human somatotropin (growth hormone) to a crude membrane preparation from the liver of pregnant rabbit, and to receptors solubilized from this fraction by triton x-100, was dependent on time, temperature and receptor concentration. at 4 degrees c a steady state was reached after 20 h, and maximum specific binding (as a percentage of total tracer added) was approx. 50% for both membrane-bound and solubilized receptors. solubilization did not significantly affect the bi ...19816275854
influence of aluminum as sulfate, chloride and citrate on magnesium and calcium metabolism in sheep.three metabolism trials were conducted to determine the effects of al as sulfate (so4), chloride (cl) and citrate on metabolism of al, mg, ca and serum concentrations of mg and ca. twelve wether lambs, equipped with rumen cannulas and blocked by breeding and weight, were allotted randomly to the following six treatments during each of three trials: 0, 1,000 and 2,000 pm al as so4 or cl; or 2,000 ppm al as citrate. treatments were administered in 200 ml of deionized water twice daily in divided d ...19846490555
pattern of collagen fiber orientation in the ovine calcaneal shaft and its relation to locomotor-induced strain.gebhardt (1905. arch. entwickl. org., 20:187-322) originated the hypothesis that the direction of collagen fibers in bone is a structural response to the type of mechanical load to which the bone is subjected. he proposed that collagen fibers aligned parallel to the loading axis are best suited to withstand tensile strain, whereas fibers oriented perpendicular to the loading axis are best able to resist compressive strain. research comparing load patterns with fiber alignment in bone have tended ...19957668399
indirect hypertensive actions of long-term intracarotid angiotensin ii infusion during ovine pregnancy.angiotensin ii (angii) influences the regulation of mean arterial pressure (map) through numerous mechanisms, including an action of circulating angii on the brain to alter autonomic activity. we have obtained evidence that the relative importance of this effect is increased during pregnancy. consequently, these studies were undertaken to assess the effects of bilateral infusion of angii (0.35 into the internal carotid arteries (ica) of sheep for 13 days. six non-pregnant ...19947922861
[trypanosomiasis caused by trypanosoma evansi (steel 1885), balbiani 1888 in small ruminants in mauritania: results of experimental inoculation and field surveys].in order to define the eventual role of small ruminants in the epidemiology of t. evansi infection in southern mauritania, the following experiments were carried out: the intravenous inoculation of a ewe and a goat with a local strain of t. evansi isolated from a dairy camel; surveys of small ruminant flocks which graze with infected camels in the south of the trarza region. the experimental inoculation allowed to show that local sheep and goats are receptive. only the ewe showed a clinical epis ...19938073171
the effect of thyroidectomy on growth hormone regulation in the ovine test the hypothesis that growth hormone gene messenger rna abundance in the fetus is subject to the same effects of thyroid hormone previously demonstrated in other situations, we evaluated the effect of thyroidectomy on pituitary gh mrna content at three gestational ages in the ovine fetus. one of each twin pair of fetal lambs underwent thyroidectomy at 90, 100 or 110 days gestation. fetal pituitaries were collected 25-30 days later. plasma gh and igf-i were measured as well as pituitary gh ...19938089445
immunoreactive ubiquitin in human seminal plasma.the polypeptide ubiquitin, up to now almost exclusively discovered in intracellular spaces, was measured immunologically in a total of 187 samples of human seminal plasma. the values were between 1.83 and 19.11 micrograms/ml. in spermatozoa ubiquitin was detected too; the values, however, were significantly lower than in the seminal plasma. the origin and function of ubiquitin in human seminal plasma is still unclear. the possible role of ubiquitin in reproduction is discussed.19938390427
effect of sire and dam breed on copper status of fat determine the effect of breed on copper status of crossbred (f1) lambs, a study was conducted using 187 crossbred wether lambs. wether lambs were progeny of five ram breeds (dorset, finnsheep, montadale, romanov, and texel) and two ewe breeds (rambouillet and a composite breed [1/2 columbia, 1/4 suffolk, 1/4 hampshire]). diets were adjusted to decrease crude protein twice during the experimental period, with analyzed copper levels for the three diets of 5.2, 4.4, and 3.6 ppm. all means were a ...19938463164
role of nitric oxide in the regulation of the cerebral circulation in the lamb fetus during normoxemia and hypoxemia.the influence of nitric oxide (no) blockade on resting tone and on hypoxia-induced vasodilatation of the cerebral vascular bed was examined in chronically instrumented lamb fetuses. total (qbrain-tot) and regional brain blood flow were measured using radioactive microspheres. no blockade was achieved by n omega-nitro-l-arginine (nnla) infusion into the carotid artery via a lingual artery. fetal cerebral blood flow and cerebral vascular resistance (rcer) were determined during normoxemia and hypo ...19958534785
uterine estrogen and progesterone receptors in prepubertal ewes: distribution in myometrium, endometrium and order to study the expression of uterine steroid receptors during animal development, estrogen and progesterone binding sites (e2r and p4r) were investigated in 9-month-old corriedale ewe-lambs during the non-breeding season. e2r and p4r were identified by binding assays and scatchard analysis in all uterine layers. the dissociation constant (kd) values were: 0.63 +/- 0.14 nm (n = 24) for e2r and 2.10 +/- 0.32 nm (n = 24) for p4r. the e2r distribution was: 188 +/- 32, 367 +/- 83 (ns) and 494 ...19968721297
optimization of high-frequency electrosurgery of the an in vitro study of the sheep's meniscus, the possibilities to reduce the thermal tissue necrosis caused by high-frequency electrosurgery of the meniscus were studied. under standardized conditions, machine-made sections through the meniscus were cut using electrodes of various thicknesses and different settings of the electric generator. the thermal tissue necrosis near the cut through the meniscus was determined using light microscopy and image analysis on the specimen stained according to ...19979335031
effect of long-term cocaine administration to pregnant ewes on fetal hemodynamics, oxygenation, and assess uterine and fetal blood flows by doppler velocimetry and fetal growth and oxygenation in pregnant ewes treated daily with cocaine and to determine whether cocaine impairs fetal cardiac and cerebral reactivity.19979351767
comparison of the effects of ouabain and brain natriuretic peptide in saline-loaded sheep.1. it has been claimed that ouabain is an endogenous hormone that may be pivotal in the pathogenesis of some forms of hypertension and may exaggerate natriuresis in situations characterized by volume overload. we compared the haemodynamic, renal and endocrine effects of ouabain (at approximately 187 ng/kg per min for 2 h) with those of brain natriuretic peptide (bnp; at 5 pmol/kg per min for 2 h) in nine saline-loaded sheep in a balanced, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover st ...19979363361
pain-related cerebral potentials in response to acute painful electrical stimulation in examine associations between late event-related cerebral potential amplitudes and behavioural responses to noxious electrical stimulation as an indicator of acute pain in sheep.19979469223
clonal distribution of the three alleles of the gal(alpha1-4)gal-specific adhesin gene papg among escherichia coli strains from patients with bacteremia.the three alleles of papg, the gal(alpha1-4)gal-specific adhesin gene of escherichia coli p fimbriae, were detected in 101 (54%) of 187 e. coli bacteremia isolates from boston, long beach, california, and nairobi, kenya, by a polymerase chain reaction-based assay, and their distribution was compared with clonal structure and other bacterial and host characteristics. allele ii predominated overall (57% of papg+ strains, vs. 32% for iii and 2% for i). allele distribution differed significantly bet ...19989498444
complete protection of mice from respiratory syncytial virus infection following mucosal delivery of synthetic peptide vaccines.we have previously shown that intraperitoneal immunization of balb/c mice with the 14 amino-acid long synthetic peptides g/174-187 and bg/174-187, representing the region 174-187 of the g-glycoprotein from human (h) and bovine (b) respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), respectively, completely protects animals from infection with the corresponding virus. a current goal in vaccine development being the delivery of noninvasive protective antigens via mucosal surfaces, we have evaluated the immunogenic ...199910067688
functional and molecular biological evidence of sglt-1 in the ruminal epithelium of sheep.because of the effective catabolism of d-glucose to short-chain fatty acids by intraruminal microorganisms, the absorption of d-glucose from the rumen was thought to be of minor importance. however, clinical studies suggested that significant quantities of d-glucose are transported from the ruminal contents to the blood. we therefore tested the ruminal epithelium of sheep for the presence of na(+)-glucose cotransporter 1 (sglt-1) on both the functional and mrna levels. in the absence of an elect ...200010898743
unilateral lung edema: effects on pulmonary gas exchange, hemodynamics, and pulmonary perfusion distribution.two types of unilateral lung edema in sheep were characterized regarding their effects on pulmonary gas exchange, hemodynamics, and distribution of pulmonary perfusion. one edema type was induced with aerosolized hcl (0.15 m, ph 1.0) and the other with nacl (0.15 m, ph 7.4). both aerosols were nebulized continuously for 4 h into left lungs. in hcl-treated animals, pulmonary gas exchange deteriorated [from a partial arterial o(2) pressure-to-inspired o(2) fraction ratio (pa(o(2))/fi(o(2))) of 254 ...200011007590
species plays an important role in drug-induced prolongation of action potential duration and early afterdepolarizations in isolated purkinje fibers.although isolated purkinje fibers (pfs) often are used to evaluate the electrophysiologic effects of new drugs in terms of prolongation of action potential duration (apd) and induction of early afterdepolarizations (eads), species differences in this respect remain elusive. we evaluated potential species-specific differences in drug-induced prolongation of apd and eads in isolated pf from various species.200111204092
[differential diagnosis of classical swine fever and border disease: seroepidemiological investigation of a pestivirus infection on a mixed sheep and swine farm].during recent years neutralizing antibodies against border disease virus (bdv) were found repeatedly in german pig herds. consequently there was a demand for a differential diagnostic system. a permanent sheep cell line and bdv reference strain moredun were chosen and were applied in a could be used case study. a pestivirus could be isolated from piglets on a mixed farm and was characterised as 'non-classical swine fever' (csf) by using monoclonal antibodies. due to a csf suspicion the pig herd ...200111417380
large sequence variation at two microsatellite loci among zoonotic (genotype c) isolates of cryptosporidium parvum.the genetic polymorphism among 57 cryptosporidium parvum isolates belonging to genotype 'c' was studied by pcr amplification and the sequencing of two microsatellite loci (ml1 and ml2). a comparative analysis of dna sequences showed the presence of three (ml1-238, ml1-226, and ml1-220) and seven (ml2-231, ml2-229, ml2-227, ml2-213, ml2-193, ml2-191, and ml2-187) different alleles at these two loci. alleles differed by expansions/contractions of the microsatellite repeats that generated length po ...200111429171
brucellosis among animals and human contacts in eastern study the relative frequency of brucellosis among domestic animals in kassala state, sudan, in the year 1999 and compare the results of previous studies since 1908. also to study the frequency rates of the disease in animal contacts in the area.200111479636
extracts of flourensia cernua reduce consumption of alfalfa pellets by sheep.effects of three extracts (hexanes, ether, and ethanol) from tarbush (flourensia cernua) on intake of alfalfa pellets by lambs were examined. forty-five ewe lambs were fed one of five treatments for five days (randomized complete block, three lambs per block on each treatment). treatments were alfalfa pellets (con) or alfalfa pellets plus ethanol carrier (car), hexanes extract (hex), ether extract (eth), or ethanol extract (etoh). extracts were applied to alfalfa pellets at the same concentratio ...200111817081
global analysis of the brucella melitensis proteome: identification of proteins expressed in laboratory-grown culture.brucella melitensis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes brucellosis, a zoonotic disease primarily infecting sheep and goats, characterized by undulant fever, arthritic pain and other neurological disorders in humans. a comprehensive proteomic study of strain 16m was conducted to identify and characterize the proteins expressed in laboratory-grown culture. using overlapping narrow range immobilized ph gradient strips for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 883 protein s ...200212203900
physical mapping of the bovine immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region gene locus.bovine antibodies have recently attracted increasing attention, as they have been shown to exhibit prophylactic and therapeutic properties in selected infectious diseases in humans. in the present study, we have isolated bacterial artificial chromosomes and cosmid clones containing the bovine jh, mu, delta, gamma 1, gamma 2, gamma 3, epsilon, and alpha genes, which allowed us to make a contig of the genes within the bovine ighc locus. the genes are arranged in a 5'-jh-7 kb-mu-5 kb-delta-33 kb-ga ...200312829708
angiotensin i-converting-enzyme-inhibitory and antibacterial peptides from lactobacillus helveticus pr4 proteinase-hydrolyzed caseins of milk from six species.sodium caseinates prepared from bovine, sheep, goat, pig, buffalo or human milk were hydrolyzed by a partially purified proteinase of lactobacillus helveticus pr4. peptides in each hydrolysate were fractionated by reversed-phase fast-protein liquid chromatography. the fractions which showed the highest angiotensin i-converting-enzyme (ace)-inhibitory or antibacterial activity were sequenced by mass spectrum and edman degradation analyses. various ace-inhibitory peptides were found in the hydroly ...200312957917
studies of cocktail therapy with multiple cytokines for neoplasia or infectious disease of the dog i. cdna cloning of canine il-3 and il-6.this paper describes the cloning and sequence analysis of the cdnas encoding the canine homologues of interleukin-3 (il-3) and interleukin-6 (il-6). the coding sequences for canine il-3 and il-6 were obtained by using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) with rna harvested from canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs). canine il-3 cdna includes a single open reading frame of 432 nucleotides, which encodes a 143 amino acid polypeptide and has 44.7, 42.4, 37 and 23 ...200114614281
immunotoxic effects of ochratoxin a in wistar rats after oral administration.ochratoxin a (ota) is a mycotoxin produced by species of the genus aspergillus and penicillium. human exposure has been demonstrated worldwide and its origin seems to be the intake of contaminated foods. the kidneys are the target organ of this mycotoxin. immunotoxic and genotoxic effects of ota were investigated in wistar male rats (aged 12 weeks), treated by gavage with 50, 150 or 450 microg ota/kg body weight for 28 days, in the context of a general toxicity study, which was designed followin ...200415046829
detection of a novel border disease virus subgroup in tunisian sheep.nine pestiviruses isolated from different batches of a contaminated tunisian sheep pox vaccine and one tunisian field ovine isolate of border disease virus (bdv) were studied at the antigenic and molecular levels. seroneutralization tests were carried out on three vaccine isolates, the tunisian field isolate and representative reference strains of the different pestivirus groups. the antigenic study showed that the tunisian isolates were closer to the two bdv reference strains than to the alfort ...200415578240
electrocardiographic changes following umbilical cord occlusion in the midgestation fetal sheep.clinical studies show that analysis of the fetal electrocardiographic (fecg) st waveform at term gives important information on the myocardial response to intrapartum asphyxia. however, it is not known whether the preterm fetus responds in a similar fashion. the objective of the present study was to evaluate the fecgst response to umbilical cord occlusion in the preterm fetal sheep.200515683370
mri-based finite-element analysis of left ventricular aneurysm.tagged mri and finite-element (fe) analysis are valuable tools in analyzing cardiac mechanics. to determine systolic material parameters in three-dimensional stress-strain relationships, we used tagged mri to validate fe models of left ventricular (lv) aneurysm. five sheep underwent anteroapical myocardial infarction (25% of lv mass) and 22 wk later underwent tagged mri. asymmetric fe models of the lv were formed to in vivo geometry from mri and included aneurysm material properties measured wit ...200515778283
growth response to increasing doses of microencapsulated vitamin b12 and related changes in tissue vitamin b12 concentrations in cobalt-deficient investigate growth response of cobalt deficient lambs to increasing doses of microencapsulated vitamin b12, and to measure associated changes in serum and liver vitamin b12 concentrations over 243 days.200316032305
gentamicin improves hemodynamics in ovine septic shock after smoke inhalation injury.previously, our group developed an ovine model of hyperdynamic sepsis associated with acute lung injury. in this study, we sought to modify this sepsis model by the administration of gentamicin to more closely simulate the symptoms observed in human sepsis in the intensive care unit. in a prospective, controlled, randomized laboratory experiment, 18 female sheep were surgically prepared for chronic study. after a tracheotomy had been performed, the sheep were randomized into sham, control, and g ...200516135961
iontophoresis as a means of delivering antibiotics into allograft bone.allograft bone is widely used in orthopaedic surgery, but peri-operative infection of the graft remains a common and disastrous complication. the efficacy of systemic prophylactic antibiotics is unproven, and since the graft is avascular it is likely that levels of antibiotic in the graft are low. using an electrical potential to accelerate diffusion of antibiotics into allograft bone, high levels were achieved in specimens of both sheep and human allograft. in human bone these ranged from 187.1 ...200516260682
clinical evaluation of clonidine added to lidocaine solution for subarachnoid analgesia in sheep.clonidine (cl) is a alpha2-adrenergic agonist that produces analgesia in animals and humans by a non-opiate alpha2-adrenergic action in the spinal cord dorsal horn. the objective of this prospective randomized study was to investigate the clinical effects of cl/lidocaine (ld) combination administered by the subarachnoid route in sheep. each sheep received each of three treatments, at no shorter than weekly intervals. treatments consisted of 0.003 mg/kg cl, 1.2 mg/kg ld and a combination of cl (0 ...200616515665
the prevalence of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli in cattle and sheep in the lower north island, new genotype escherichia coli cultured from the faeces of healthy cattle and sheep in the lower north island, in order to investigate the possible role of ruminants as a reservoir for shiga toxin-producing e. coli (stec) in new zealand.200616528391
optimization of the mhcovar-drb1 gene typing.the variability of the sheep major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class ii drb1 locus has been analyzed in this work. exon 2 of ovar-drb1 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with the primers designed by amills et al. for goats. in a total of 187 sheep of latxa breed, we identified by pcr-single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp) 19 alleles, eight of them previously unpublished. moreover, the observed heterozygosity reached 91-95%. a new allelic type named drb*14 was defined, ...200616573559
aspects of peridomiciliary ecotopes in rural areas of northeastern brazil associated to triatomine (hemiptera, reduviidae) infestation, vectors of chagas disease.artificial ecotopes of 121 peridomiciliary environments in four rural localities in the state of ceará, brazil, were studied and the type of material of the ecotopes was identified as triatomine infestation. two thousand two hundred and four triatoma brasiliensis neiva, 340 triatoma pseudomaculata corrêa and espínola, 121 rhodnius nasutus stall, and 5 panstrongylus lutzi (neiva and pinto) were captured. out of the 323 ecotopes found (x = 2.0 +/- 1.8 per dwelling) - such as pigpens, henhouses, co ...200616830706
[epidemiological aspects of human and animal rabies in the urban area of bamako, mali].the district of bamako is the political and economical capital city of mali with 1,800,000 inhabitants. the goal of the present retrospective study was to determine the frequency of animal bites, human and animal rabies on the one hand and to determine the frequency and the nature of mad animals on the other hand from january 2000 to december 2003 (4 years). to achieve this goal, we have analysed registers and documents related to rabies in the department of prevention and fight against diseases ...200616983822
plasma disposition and faecal excretion of netobimin metabolites and enantiospecific disposition of albendazole sulphoxide produced in ewes.netobimin (ntb) was administered orally to ewes at 20 mg/kg bodyweight. blood and faecal samples were collected from 1 to 120 h post-treatment and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc). using a chiral phase-based hplc, plasma disposition of albendazole sulphoxide (abzso) enantiomers produced was also determined. neither ntb nor albendazole (abz) was present and only abzso and albendazole sulphone (abzso(2)) metabolites were detected in the plasma samples. maximum plasma conce ...200617004041
effect of dietary enterolobium cyclocarpum on microbial protein flow and nutrient digestibility in sheep maintained fauna-free, with total mixed fauna or with entodinium caudatum monofauna.three groups of five wethers with ruminal and duodenal cannulas and maintained as either fauna-free (ff) or inoculated with total mixed fauna (tf) or entodinium caudatum as a single-species monofauna (en) were used in an experiment with two 28 d periods. in the first period, the sheep were fed a control barley-based diet (40:60 concentrate to silage dm) and in the second period the diet was supplemented with 187 g dm of enterolobium cyclocarpum for the last 12 d of the period. the diets of perio ...200717459191
parasites of sheep and goats and their prevalence in bokova, a rural area of buea sub division, cameroon.small ruminant production in the south west province of cameroon is practised mostly by subsistence farmers in the rural areas on natural grass pastures which grow once the primary forest has been cleared. investigations revealed certain endo- and ectoparasites that were abundant and caused problems on the pastures to both animals and farmers. haemonchus contortus was the most prevalent species with a prevalence of 94.23%. the highest mean monthly intensity was obtained in august and there was a ...200818707810
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus nucleotide sequence variation within naturally infected important epidemiological tool in the control of epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is genetic tracing using complete virus genome sequence data. however to interpret these genetic data, it is important to quantify underlying variation present in fmdv populations from individual tissue samples. cloned complete capsid sequences from two virus populations from epithelium from a cow (n=26) and from a sheep (n=15) infected during the uk 2001 outbreaks were generated. genetic diversity of t ...200919027805
study on population genetic structure of liangshan semi-wool sheep using microsatellite evaluate the genetic polymorphisms and to search for available molecular markers for liangshan semi-wool sheep, 15 microsatellite markers of 187 samples were amplified by multiplex pcr. a total of 133 alleles were detected, with the number of alleles ranging from 6 (bm2830) to 15 (mcm130), giving a mean no. of 8.87 alleles per locus. the total and mean effective allele no. were 64.29 and 4.29, respectively. the observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity were from 0.4486 (mcm130) to 0 ...200819137853
verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli o157 in animals on public amenity premises in england and wales, 1997 to the request of the public health authorities, 31 public amenity premises in england and wales containing animals of various species were investigated for the presence of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli (vtec) o157 between 1997 and 2007, because of putative associations with human cases. vtec o157 was confirmed in one or more species on 19 (61.3 per cent) of the premises. there were significant associations between the presence of vtec o157 and the number of species sampled, the size of the ...200919411683
bluetongue in bosnia: comparisons of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and standard agar gel immunodiffusion the end of august 2002, clinical symptoms of bluetongue (bt) (fever between 39 degrees c and 41 degrees c, muco-purulent or bloody nasal discharge, oedema of the lips and the intramandibular space, foot lesions including laminitis and coronitis in some cases, diarrhoea and dysentery) were recorded in pramenka sheep flocks in north-east bosnia in august 2002. a total of 9 599 serum samples (ovine: 8 967; bovine: 632) from 40 communities of bosnia and herzegovina were tested for the presence of ...200420422586
retrospective study on the incidence of salmonella isolations in animals in south africa, 1996 to 2006.a retrospective study that involves the analysis of laboratory diagnostic data collected during the period 1996-2006 was conducted. a total of 3417 salmonella isolations involving 183 different serotypes was recorded from 1999-2006, inclusive, at the onderstepoort veterinary institute, agricultural research council, south africa. the most common serotypes were salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar typhimurium (917 incidents), salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar dublin (248 ...201020649153
sublingual microcirculatory effects of enalaprilat in an ovine model of septic shock.severe sepsis is frequently associated with microcirculatory abnormalities despite seemingly adequate hemodynamic resuscitation. as increased serum angiotensin ii levels may play a role in this dysfunction, we evaluated the microcirculatory effects of enalaprilat in an experimental model of septic shock. one hour after injection of 1.5 g/kg body weight of feces into the abdominal cavity, 16 adult female anesthetized, mechanically ventilated sheep were randomized to receive 2.5 mg enalaprilat or ...201121283060
pyrosequencing analysis of the beta-tubulin gene in spanish teladorsagia circumcincta field isolates.benzimidazole (bz) resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) at codons 200, 167 and 198 in the beta-tubulin isotype 1 gene and, recently, these snps have also been found in macrocyclic lactone (ml) resistant strains of haemonchus contortus. on this basis, we have studied the same putative snps in spanish teladorsagia circumcincta field isolates by pyrosequencing. single l3 (infective 3rd stage larvae) from five sheep flocks were test ...201121962969
serum luteinizing hormone, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-i after releasing hormone challenge in prepubertal ewe lambs selected for twinning.two studies evaluated hormonal markers as indicators of the onset of puberty in debouillet sheep selected for twinning. in trial 1, 29 ewe lambs (50 +/- 0.5 kg, 159 to 187 d of age) were given 10 microg gnrh (i.v.) on september 15 and blood was collected at 30 min intervals after the injection for 2 h. additional samples were taken twice weekly and progesterone (p4) was measured. the day that serum p4 was greater than 1 ng/ml for 2 consecutive sampling days was classified as the day of puberty. ...200111665888
the effect of supplemental energy, nitrogen, and protein on feed intake, digestibility, and nitrogen flux across the gut and liver in sheep fed low-quality forage.our objective was to determine the impact of supplemental energy, n, and protein on feed intake and n metabolism in sheep fed low-quality forage. six texel x dorset wethers (16 mo, 63+/-3.1 kg) fitted with mesenteric, portal, and hepatic venous catheters were used in a latin square design with five sampling periods. lambs were fed chopped bromegrass hay (4.3% cp) to appetite, and a mineral mixture was given. treatments were 1) control (no supplement), 2) energy (cornstarch, molasses, and soybean ...199910641884
significance of a diastolic notch in the uterine artery flow velocity waveform induced by uterine embolisation in the pregnant investigate the relation between placental embolisation and the diastolic notch in the uterine artery flow velocity waveform of pregnant ewes under general anaesthesia.19989800937
simultaneous measurement of allantoin, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine in blood by high-performance liquid chromatography.a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determining catabolism products of nucleic acids and purines, such as oxypurines (i.e. uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine) and allantoin in the blood plasma of ruminants was developed. the plasma was deproteinized with 10% trichloroacetic acid. the method enabled determination of oxypurines without derivatization. allantoin was determined after conversion with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to a hydrazone (glx-dnph). separation of converted alla ...19979518182
molecular distribution of hetastarch in plasma and lung lymph of unanesthetized sheep.we used high performance size exclusion chromatography (hpsec) to measure concentrations and molecular masses of hetastarch (het) in plasma and lung lymph of unanesthetized sheep. our goal was to assess the osmotic effectiveness of het in the pulmonary circulation as judged by its exclusion from lung lymph. sheep (n = 5) received 35 ml/kg of het (6%) over 90 min. at the end of the infusion, het concentrations in plasma reached a peak value of 2.9 +/- 0.1% (mean +/- sd). lymph concentrations reac ...19979105071
neutral endopeptidase inhibition: augmented atrial and brain natriuretic peptide, haemodynamic and natriuretic responses in ovine heart failure.1. atrial and brain natriuretic peptide are both circulating hormones subject to degradation by neutral endopeptidase 24.11. whereas endogenous levels of atrial natriuretic peptide are increased by neutral endopeptidase inhibition in most pathophysiological states, the effect on brain natriuretic peptide and the influence of cardiac status is less clear. to further evaluate the role of neutral endopeptidase 24.11, we directly compared the responses of atrial and brain natriuretic peptide, togeth ...19968869410
increased mosquito feeding on rift valley fever virus-infected lambs.experiments were conducted to determine whether or not mosquitoes exhibited an increase in feeding on rift valley fever (rvf) virus-infected lambs as compared to uninfected ones. overall, when given a choice between a viremic lamb, or its uninfected twin, 65% (1,264/1,943) of the engorged female culex pipiens obtained blood from the viremic lamb. this excess of feedings on viremic lambs was demonstrated regardless of the age of the lambs, or the time period between inoculation of the lambs and e ...19846150656
m-mode echocardiographic values in sheep.m-mode echocardiograms were recorded from 21 adult sheep (20 ewes, 1 whether). fifteen echocardiographic measurements were taken and compared with body weights or heart rates, using linear regression equations. significant correlations (p less than 0.05) were found when body weight was compared with left ventricular internal dimensions in systole (yo = 0.187 xo + 18.60, p less than 0.05) and diastole (yo = 0.346 xo + 26.69, p less than 0.02), septal thickness in systole (yo = 0.0876 xo + 7.64, p ...19873662202
chronic anemia in the newborn lamb: cardiovascular adaptations and comparison to chronic hypoxemia.the cardiovascular adaptations to chronic anemia were studied in the newborn lamb and then compared with the adaptations to chronic hypoxemia. eight chronically instrumented newborn lambs underwent repeat isovolemic exchange transfusions to maintain their hb concentrations at 60% of normal for age. hemodynamic studies were performed twice weekly for 2 wk after which time regional blood flows were measured using radionuclide-labeled microspheres. the major compensatory responses after 2 wk of ane ...19883393397
effects of platelet-activating factor antagonist sri 63-441 on endotoxemia in sheep.we investigated whether platelet-activating factor (paf) mediates endotoxin-induced systemic and pulmonary vascular derangements by studying the effects of a selective paf receptor antagonist, sri 63-441, during endotoxemia in sheep. endotoxin infusion (1.3 micrograms/kg over 0.5 h) caused a rapid, transient rise in pulmonary arterial pressure (ppa) from 16 +/- 3 to 36 +/- 10 mmhg (p less than 0.001) and pulmonary vascular resistance (pvr) from 187 +/- 84 to 682 +/- 340 (p less than 0 ...19883145934
cvf-induced decomplementation: effect on lung transvascular protein flux after thrombin.we examined the effects of cobra venom factor (cvf) on the changes in pulmonary hemodynamics and transvascular fluid and protein exchange following thrombin-induced pulmonary microembolism. studies were made in unanesthetized sheep prepared with lung lymph fistulas. the animals received tranexamic acid (100 mg) to suppress fibrinolysis and were then challenged with an intravenous infusion of alpha-thrombin (80 u/kg). control-thrombin challenged sheep were compared with the cvf-treated sheep chal ...19873032888
does furosemide alter the hemodynamic response to rapid intravascular transfusion of the anemic fetal lamb?the purpose of this study was to define the hemodynamic response to rapid intravascular transfusion of the anemic fetal lamb and to determine whether furosemide alters that response. sixteen experiments were performed in nine chronically instrumented gravid ewes between 0.8 and 0.9 of timed gestation. on day 1 of each experiment, each fetus was subjected to hemorrhage (40 ml/kg of estimated fetal weight) over 1 hour. on day 2, plasma was withdrawn from the stored fetal blood until the hematocrit ...19892603913
effect of ethanol on ovine fetal and maternal plasma prostaglandin e2 concentrations and fetal breathing movements.the effect of maternal administration of ethanol on fetal and maternal plasma prostaglandin e2 (pge2) concentrations and fetal breathing movement was determined in the near-term pregnant ewe. six conscious instrumented pregnant ewes (between 129 and 134 days of gestation; term, 147 days) were studied on two successive days (day 1 and day 2). on each of the two days of the experiment, there was a 1-h period of maternal infusion of ethanol (1 g ethanol/kg total body weight) or an equivalent volume ...19902128703
[sonography during the pregnancy of sheep. i. fetometry for the determination of the stage of gestation and prediction of the time of parturition].transrectal and transcutaneous ultrasonography was performed on 187 pregnant merino ewes to measure the growth of fetal parameters (fetometry) such as the diameters of the eye, braincase and trunk, the width of one rib with its intercostal space and the crown-rump-length (crl). in the ewes, cross and longitudinal diameters of the intrauterine lumen around the embryo and fetus were determined. trunk diameter and crown-rump-length of embryos and fetuses were sonographically determined from day 26 ...19921459033
pulmonary damage after intramedullary femoral nailing in traumatized sheep--is there an effect from different nailing methods?stabilization of femoral shaft fractures is a controversial issue in the management of patients with multiple trauma. intramedullary nailing usually is preferred primarily; in recent years, however, pulmonary complications (e.g., ards) have been reported that were attributed to the reaming procedure. to study the effects of different nailing methods in a model of severe trauma, hemorrhagic shock and lung contusion were created at day 1 in sheep prepared by the method described by staub. after re ...19921433405
velocity and attenuation of sound in the isolated fetal lung as it is expanded with air.we measured the velocity and attenuation of audible sound in the isolated lung of the near-term fetal sheep to test the hypothesis that the acoustic properties of the lung provide a measure of the volume of gas it contains. we introduced pseudorandom noise (bandwidth 70 hz-7 khz) to one side of the lung and recorded the noise transmitted to the surface immediately opposite, starting with the lung containing only fetal lung liquid and making measurements after stepwise inflation with air until a ...200515691904
increased gammadelta t-cell populations in draining lymph nodes of lambs during the elicitation phase of dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact hypersensitivity.ten lambs were sensitised with the hapten dncb in an acetone/olive oil vehicle. the hapten/vehicle solution was applied onto the skin on the shaved ventral surface of the right ear. two weeks later these lambs were rechallenged with the dncb/vehicle solution. simultaneously, ten non-sensitised lambs were treated with vehicle only, serving as vehicle controls. the 20 lambs were slaughtered 48 h after challenge/vehicle treatment, along with ten untreated animals serving as normal controls. specime ...199910579395
peptide-conjugated polyamidoamine dendrimer as a nanoscale tumor-targeted t1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent.a tumor-targeting carrier, peptide haiyprh (t7)-conjugated polyethylene glycol-modified polyamidoamine dendrimer (pamam-peg-t7) was explored to deliver magnetic resonance imaging (mri) contrast agents targeting to the tumor cells specifically. two different types of tumors, liver cancer and early brain glioma model (involved with the blood-brain barrier), were chosen to evaluate the imaging capacity of this contrast agent. pamam-peg-t7 was synthesized, conjugated with diethylene triamine pentaac ...201121277017
investigations into the gdf8 g+6723g-a polymorphism in new zealand texel sheep.this work investigated effects of carrying 0, 1, or 2 copies of the a allele resulting from the g+6723g-a transition in growth differentiation factor gene (gdf8) in new zealand texel-cross sheep at different lamb ages and carcass weights. two texel-cross sires carrying 1 copy of the a allele were mated to approximately 200 ewes carrying 0, 1, or 2 copies of the a allele. a total of 187 progeny were generated and genotyped to determine whether they were carrying 0, 1, or 2 copies of the a allele. ...200919251921
linkage mapping of the locus for inherited ovine arthrogryposis (ioa) to sheep chromosome 5.arthrogryposis is a congenital malformation affecting the limbs of newborn animals and infants. previous work has demonstrated that inherited ovine arthrogryposis (ioa) has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. two affected homozygous recessive (art/art) suffolk rams were used as founders for a backcross pedigree of half-sib families segregating the ioa trait. a genome scan was performed using 187 microsatellite genetic markers and all backcross animals were phenotyped at birth for the pre ...200717242863
effects of anacardium humile leaf extracts on the development of gastrointestinal nematode larvae of sheep.the rapid development of nematode resistance to anthelmintics has limited the success of small ruminant gastrointestinal helminthiasis control in several countries, stimulating the search for alternatives. the aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity of anacardium humile (anacardiaceae) on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. aqueous and ethanolic extracts of a. humile leaves were evaluated by the larval development inhibition assay at concentrations of: 187.5, 150, 10 ...201020434847
effect of ram exposure at the end of progestagen treatment on estrus synchronisation and fertility during the breeding season in ewes.two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of ram exposure during the breeding season, in combination with progestagen treatment on estrus synchronization, fertility the lh surge and ovulation in ewes. experiment 1 was subdivided into experiments 1a and 1b. in all experiments cross-bred ewes were treated with an intravaginal sponge for 12-14 days and three days before sponge withdrawal ewes were divided into control (no further treatment; n=191, 103 and 50 for experiments 1a, 1b and 2 ...200415302377
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