culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit zika virus.we report that two laboratory colonies of culex quinquefasciatus and culex pipiens mosquitoes were experimentally unable to transmit zikv either up to 21 days post an infectious blood meal or up to 14 days post intrathoracic inoculation. infectious viral particles were detected in bodies, heads or saliva by a plaque forming unit assay on vero cells. we therefore consider it unlikely that culex mosquitoes are involved in the rapid spread of zikv.027605159
zika mosquito vectors: the jury is still out.after a 40-year hiatus, the international congress of entomology (ice 2016) convened in orlando, florida (september 25-30, 2016). one of the symposia at ice 2016, the zika symposium, covered multiple aspects of the zika epidemic, including epidemiology, sexual transmission, genetic tools for reducing transmission, and particularly vector competence. while there was a consensus among participants that the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, is a vector of the zika virus, there is growing eviden ...201627853521
culex quinquefasciatus from rio de janeiro is not competent to transmit the local zika virus.the americas have suffered a dramatic epidemic of zika since may in 2015, when zika virus (zikv) was first detected in brazil. mosquitoes belonging to subgenus stegomyia of aedes, particularly aedes aegypti, are considered the primary vectors of zikv. however, the rapid spread of the virus across the continent raised several concerns about the transmission dynamics, especially about potential mosquito vectors. the purpose of this work was to assess the vector competence of the house mosquito cul ...201627598421
genetic characterization of spondweni and zika viruses and susceptibility of geographically distinct strains of aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus and culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) to spondweni virus.zika virus (zikv) has extended its known geographic distribution to the new world and is now responsible for severe clinical complications in a subset of patients. while substantial genetic and vector susceptibility data exist for zikv, less is known for the closest related flavivirus, spondweni virus (sponv). both zikv and sponv have been known to circulate in africa since the mid-1900s, but neither has been genetically characterized by gene and compared in parallel. furthermore, the susceptibi ...201627783682
first detection of natural infection of aedes aegypti with zika virus in brazil and throughout south america.zika virus (zikv) has caused a major epidemic in brazil and several other american countries. zikv is an arbovirus whose natural vectors during epidemics have been poorly determined. in this study, 1,683 mosquitoes collected in the vicinity of zikv suspected cases in rio de janeiro, brazil, from june 2015 to may 2016 were screened for natural infection by using molecular methods. three pools of aedes aegypti were found with the zikv genome, one of which had only one male. this finding supports t ...201627706382
one-pot biogenic fabrication of silver nanocrystals using quisqualis indica: effectiveness on malaria and zika virus mosquito vectors, and impact on non-target aquatic organisms.currently, mosquito vector control is facing a number of key challenges, including the rapid development of resistance to synthetic pesticides and the recent spread of aggressive arbovirus outbreaks. the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (agnps) is currently considered an environmental friendly alternative to the employ of pyrethroids, carbamates and microbial agents (e.g. bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis), since agnps are easy to produce, effective and stable in the aquatic environmen ...201627491031
boswellia ovalifoliolata (burseraceae) essential oil as an eco-friendly larvicide? toxicity against six mosquito vectors of public health importance, non-target mosquito fishes, backswimmers, and water bugs.the use of synthetic pesticides to control vector populations is detrimental to human health and the environment and may lead to the development of resistant strains. plants can be alternative sources of safer compounds effective on mosquito vectors. in this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of boswellia ovalifoliolata leaf essential oil (eo) was evaluated against anopheles stephensi, anopheles subpictus, aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, culex quinquefasciatus, and culex tritaeniorhynchus. ...201728332087
ascension island: a survey to assess the presence of zika virus vectors.following concerns regarding the spread of zika virus, joint services health unit (cyprus) were tasked to carry out a mosquito survey on the ascension island, south atlantic. this was to determine if vectors of the virus such as aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus were introduced and established on the island.201728331047
data-driven identification of potential zika virus vectors.zika is an emerging virus whose rapid spread is of great public health concern. knowledge about transmission remains incomplete, especially concerning potential transmission in geographic areas in which it has not yet been introduced. to identify unknown vectors of zika, we developed a data-driven model linking vector species and the zika virus via vector-virus trait combinations that confer a propensity toward associations in an ecological network connecting flaviviruses and their mosquito vect ...201728244371
does zika virus infection affect mosquito response to repellents?the world health organization (who) recommends that people travelling to or living in areas with zika virus (zikv) outbreaks or epidemics adopt prophylactic measures to reduce or eliminate mosquito bites, including the use of insect repellents. it is, however, unknown whether repellents are effective against zikv-infected mosquitoes, in part because of the ethical concerns related to exposing a human subject's arm to infected mosquitoes in the standard arm-in-cage assay. we used a previously dev ...201728205633
larvicidal activity of blumea eriantha essential oil and its components against six mosquito species, including zika virus vectors: the promising potential of (4e,6z)-allo-ocimene, carvotanacetone and dodecyl acetate.the effective and environmentally sustainable control of mosquitoes is a challenge of essential importance. this is due to the fact that some invasive mosquitoes, with special reference to the aedes genus, are particularly difficult to control, due to their high ecological plasticity. moreover, the indiscriminate overuse of synthetic insecticides resulted in undesirable effects on human health and non-target organisms, as well as resistance development in targeted vectors. here, the leaf essenti ...201728168560
zika virus vector competency of mosquitoes, gulf coast, united states.zika virus has recently spread throughout the americas. although aedes aegypti mosquitoes are considered the primary vector, culex quinquefasciatus and mosquitoes of other species may also be vectors. we tested cx. quinquefasciatus and ae. taeniorhynchus mosquitoes from the us gulf coast; both were refractory to infection and incapable of transmission.201728005002
towards green oviposition deterrents? effectiveness of syzygium lanceolatum (myrtaceae) essential oil against six mosquito vectors and impact on four aquatic biological control agents.essential oils (eos) from plants may be alternative sources of molecules toxic against mosquito vectors of public health relevance. most of researches in this field focused on eos as larvicides or ovicides, while limited efforts focused on the exploitation of eos as oviposition deterrents. in the present study, the larvicidal and oviposition deterrent activity of syzygium lanceolatum leaf eo was evaluated against six mosquito species, anopheles stephensi, an. subpictus, aedes aegypti, ae. albopi ...201627921244
toxicity of ar-curcumene and epi-β-bisabolol from hedychium larsenii (zingiberaceae) essential oil on malaria, chikungunya and st. louis encephalitis mosquito vectors.mosquitoes act as vectors of key pathogens and parasites. plant essential oils have been recognized as important sources of biopesticides, which do not induce resistance and have limited toxic effects on human health and non-target organisms. in this research, we evaluated the larvicidal and oviposition deterrence activity of hedychium larsenii essential oil (eo) and its major compounds ar-curcumene and epi-β-bisabolol. both molecules showed high toxicity against early third instars of anopheles ...201727918946
single-step biological fabrication of colloidal silver nanoparticles using hugonia mystax: larvicidal potential against zika virus, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.mosquito control is facing key challenges, including outbreaks of new arbovirus threats. we proposed an eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (agnps) employing a low-cost extract of hugonia mystax. agnps were specified by uv, xrd, ftir and edx spectroscopy, sem and tem. agnps were more toxic to anopheles stephensi, aedes aegypti, and culex quinquefasciatus larvae (lc50: 14.45, 15.86, and 17.46 μg/ml) if compared to aquatic biocontrol organisms gambusia affinis, diplonychus indicus, and ...201627611658
acute toxicity and repellent activity of the origanum scabrum boiss. & heldr. (lamiaceae) essential oil against four mosquito vectors of public health importance and its biosafety on non-target aquatic organisms.the recent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, and zika virus highlighted the pivotal importance of mosquito vector control in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. however, mosquito control is facing hot challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance in culicidae and the limited success of biocontrol programs on aedes mosquitoes. in this framework, screening botanicals for their mosquitocidal potential may offer effective and eco-friendly tools in the fight against mo ...201627604128
culex species mosquitoes and zika virus.recent reports of zika virus (zikv) isolates from culex species mosquitoes have resulted in concern regarding a lack of knowledge on the number of competent vector species for zikv transmission in the new world. although observations in the field have demonstrated that zikv isolation can be made from culex species mosquitoes, the detection of zikv in these mosquitoes is not proof of their involvement in a zikv transmission cycle. detection may be due to recent feeding on a viremic vertebrate, an ...201627556838
one-pot fabrication of silver nanocrystals using nicandra physalodes: a novel route for mosquito vector control with moderate toxicity on non-target water bugs.mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) as vectors for important diseases and parasites causing millions of deaths every year. the use of synthetic pesticides against culicidae leads to resistance and environmental concerns. therefore, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. in this research, nicandra physalodes-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (ag nps) was conducted, in order to control larval populations of three important mosquito vectors, anopheles stephensi, aedes aegypti and culex qui ...201627473981
outbreak of zika virus infection, chiapas state, mexico, 2015, and first confirmed transmission by aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the americas.after decades of obscurity, zika virus (zikv) has spread through the americas since 2015 accompanied by congenital microcephaly and guillain-barré syndrome. although these epidemics presumably involve transmission by aedes aegypti, no direct evidence of vector involvement has been reported, prompting speculation that other mosquitoes such as culex quinquefasciatus could be involved.201627436433
one-step synthesis of polydispersed silver nanocrystals using malva sylvestris: an eco-friendly mosquito larvicide with negligible impact on non-target aquatic organisms.the synthesis of eco-friendly nanoparticles is evergreen branch of nanoscience with a growing number of biomedical implications. in this study, we investigated the synthesis of polydisperse and stable silver nanoparticles (agnp) using a cheap leaf extract of malva sylvestris (malvaceae). bio-reduced agnp were characterized by uv-visible spectrophotometry, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ftir), x-ray diffraction analysis (xrd), atomic force microscopy (afm), scanning electron microscopy ...201627075309
larvicidal and pupicidal activities of alizarin isolated from roots of rubia cordifolia against culex quinquefasciatus say and aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae).the mosquitocidal activities of different fractions and a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae and pupae of culex quinquefasciatus say and aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae). larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. after 24 h, the mortality was assessed and the lc50 and lc90 values were estimated for larvae and pupae. among the 23 fractions ...201627004695
[arboviruses also have an american dream].some arboviruses that originated in the old world have been introduced by humans into the american continent. the first of them was the yellow fever virus, coming from the west african coast with slaves in the 17th-19th centuries, followed by dengue viruses, which were always prevalent within the americas. next was thewest nile virus, introduced in new york in 1999, that spread in only a few years over the whole continent. then, chikungunya virus arrived on saint martin island in 2013 after its ...201728509947
enhanced larvicidal, antibacterial, and photocatalytic efficacy of tio2 nanohybrids green synthesized using the aqueous leaf extract of parthenium hysterophorus.titanium dioxide nanoparticles are emerging as a biocompatible nanomaterial with multipurpose bioactivities. in this study, titanium dioxide (tio2) nanoparticles were effectively synthesized using the aqueous leaf extracts of parthenium hysterophorus prepared by microwave irradiation. tio2 nanoparticles were fabricated by treating the p. hysterophorus leaf extracts with the tio4 solution. biologically active compounds such as alcohols, phenols, alkanes, and fluoroalkanes were involved in bioredu ...201728537028
zingiber cernuum (zingiberaceae) essential oil as effective larvicide and oviposition deterrent on six mosquito vectors, with little non-target toxicity on four aquatic mosquito predators.mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of many pathogens and parasites, which cause serious diseases in humans and animals. currently, botanical products have been suggested as alternative tools in the fight against arthropod vectors. in this study, the essential oil (eo) extracted from zingiber cernuum was tested as larvicide and oviposition deterrent on six mosquito species of public health relevance, including malaria and zika virus vectors. the eo showed high toxicity on third insta ...201728497331
zika virus replication in the mosquito culex quinquefasciatus in brazil.zika virus (zikv) is a flavivirus that has recently been associated with an increased incidence of neonatal microcephaly and other neurological disorders. the virus is primarily transmitted by mosquito bite, although other routes of infection have been implicated in some cases. the aedes aegypti mosquito is considered to be the main vector to humans worldwide; however, there is evidence that other mosquito species, including culex quinquefasciatus, transmit the virus. to test the potential of cx ...201728790458
culex quinquefasciatus from areas with the highest incidence of microcephaly associated with zika virus infections in the northeast region of brazil are refractory to the virus.zika virus (zikv) is widely distributed in brazil and the northeast region (ne) is the most affected zone, showing the highest incidence of microcephaly associated with zikv congenital infections worldwide. we report attempts to infect three populations of culex quinquefasciatus from severely affected sites in the ne and southeast region (se) of brazil with three strains of zikv isolated from these localities. an aedes aegypti population from the se was used as a positive control. all tested cx. ...201728767975
linking only aedes aegypti with zika virus has world-wide public health implications. 201728736548
zika vector transmission risk in temperate australia: a vector competence study.zika virus is an emerging pathogen of global importance. it has been responsible for recent outbreaks in the americas and in the pacific region. this study assessed five different mosquito species from the temperate climatic zone in australia and included aedes albopictus as a potentially invasive species.201728599659
eco-friendly and cost-effective ag nanocrystals fabricated using the leaf extract of habenaria plantaginea: toxicity on six mosquito vectors and four non-target species.recently, the biofabrication of metal nanoparticles has gained wide interest owing to its inherent features such as swift, simplicity, eco-friendliness, and cheaper costs. different green-reducing agents led to the production of nanoparticles with varying toxicity on insects. in the current study, silver nanoparticles (agnps) were successfully synthesized using habenaria plantaginea leaf extract. ag nanoparticles were studied by uv-vis spectroscopy (uv-vis), x-ray diffraction (xrd), fourier tran ...201728523613
transmission incompetence of culex quinquefasciatus and culex pipiens pipiens from north america for zika virus.abstractin late 2014, zika virus (zikv; flaviviridae, flavivirus) emerged as a significant arboviral disease threat in the western hemisphere. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus have been considered the principal vectors of zikv in the new world due to viral isolation frequency and vector competence assessments. limited reports of culex transmission potential have highlighted the need for additional vector competence assessments of north american culex species. accordingly, north american culex ...201728500817
competence of aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, and culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes as zika virus vectors, china, the prevention and control of zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in february 2016. to determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, and culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. we found the highest vector competence for the imported zika virus in ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some sus ...201728430562
culex pipiens quinquefasciatus: a potential vector to transmit zika virus.zika virus (zikv) has become a threat to global health since the outbreak in brazil in 2015. although zikv is generally considered an aedes-transmitted pathogen, new evidence has shown that parts of the virus closely resemble culex-transmitted viruses. therefore, it is important to evaluate the competence of culex species for zikv to understand their potential as vectors. in this study, female culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were orally exposed to zikv. mosquito midguts, salivary glands and ovari ...201627599470
acquittal of culex quinquefasciatus in transmitting zika virus during the french polynesian outbreak. 201728476603
vector competence of anopheles and culex mosquitoes for zika virus.zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including guillain-barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. although aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including culex and anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquit ...201728316896
morphological studies on adult mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) and first report of the potential zika virus vector aedes (stegomyia) unilineatus (theobald, 1906) in iran.beside numerous extensive studies on anophelinae mosquitoes of iran, little is known on aedes species in the country and existing reports are dispersed. the objective of this study was to identify adults of culicinae species occurring in the sistan and baluchestan province, southeast of iran, during 2012-2014. mosquito collections were carried out three times (may-june, september, october-november) in four counties by centers for diseases control (cdc) light traps and human landing catches outdo ...201628028709
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