isolation of zika virus from aedes aegypti mosquitoes in malaysia. 19694976739
zika virus, a cause of fever in central java, 1977 and 1978 selected in-patients at the tegalyoso hospital, klaten, indonesia who had recent onsets of acute fever were serologically studied for evidence for alphavirus and flavivirus infections. a brief clinical history was taken and a check list of signs and symptoms was completed on admission. acute and convalescent phase sera from 30 patients who showed evidence that a flavivirus had caused their illnesses were tested for neutralizing antibodies to several flaviviruses which occur in s ...19816275577
heat sensitivity of wmel wolbachia during aedes aegypti development.the wmel strain of wolbachia bacteria is known to prevent dengue and zika virus transmission in the mosquito vector aedes aegypti. accordingly, the release of wmel-infected a. aegypti in endemic regions has been recommended by the world health organization as a potential strategy for controlling dengue and zika outbreaks. however, the utility of this approach could be limited if high temperatures in the aquatic habitats where a. aegypti develop are detrimental to wolbachia. we exposed wmel-infec ...201627459519
yellow fever virus capsid protein is a potent suppressor of rna silencing that binds double-stranded rna.mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus (yfv), zika virus (zikv), and west nile virus (wnv), profoundly affect human health. the successful transmission of these viruses to a human host depends on the pathogen's ability to overcome a potentially sterilizing immune response in the vector mosquito. similar to other invertebrate animals and plants, the mosquito's rna silencing pathway comprises its primary antiviral defense. although a diverse range of plant and insect viruses has ...201627849599
genome investigations of vector competence in aedes aegypti to inform novel arbovirus disease control approaches.dengue (denv), yellow fever, chikungunya, and zika virus transmission to humans by a mosquito host is confounded by both intrinsic and extrinsic variables. besides virulence factors of the individual arboviruses, likelihood of virus transmission is subject to variability in the genome of the primary mosquito vector, aedes aegypti. the "vectorial capacity" of a. aegypti varies depending upon its density, biting rate, and survival rate, as well as its intrinsic ability to acquire, host and transmi ...201627809220
zika virus: indian perspectives.the emergence of zika virus (ziv), a mosquito borne flavivirus like dengue (den) and chikungunya (chik), in brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. aedes aegypti is the major vector for ziv. fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ziv and there is abundance of aedes mosquitoes. in this review, we focus on current global scenar ...027487998
zika virus infections imported from brazil to portugal, 2015.zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by aedes sp. mosquitoes like the dengue and chikungunya viruses. zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. in 2007, an epidemic in micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the world health organiz ...201627134823
identify-isolate-inform: a tool for initial detection and management of zika virus patients in the emergency department.first isolated in 1947 from a monkey in the zika forest in uganda, and from mosquitoes in the same forest the following year, zika virus has gained international attention due to concerns for infection in pregnant women potentially causing fetal microcephaly. more than one million people have been infected since the appearance of the virus in brazil in 2015. approximately 80% of infected patients are asymptomatic. an association with microcephaly and other birth defects as well as guillain-barre ...201627330653
vertical transmission of zika virus in aedes aegypti mosquitoes.previous experimental studies have demonstrated that a number of mosquito-borne flavivirus pathogens are vertically transmitted in their insect vectors, providing a mechanism for these arboviruses to persist during adverse climatic conditions or in the absence of a susceptible vertebrate host. in this study, designed to test whether zika virus (zikv) could be vertically transmitted, female aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus were injected with zikv, and their f1 adult progeny were tested for zikv ...201627573623
vector competence of american mosquitoes for three strains of zika 2015, zika virus (zikv; flaviviridae; flavivirus) emerged in the americas, causing millions of infections in dozens of countries. the rapid spread of the virus and the association with disease outcomes such as guillain-barré syndrome and microcephaly make understanding transmission dynamics essential. currently, there are no reports of vector competence (vc) of american mosquitoes for zikv isolates from the americas. further, it is not clear whether zikv strains from other genetic lineages ca ...201627783679
new paradigms for virus detection, surveillance and control of zika virus vectors in the settings of southeast asia.zika virus (zikv) has now become a global public health concern. the vectors for zikv are aedes aegypti and a. albopictus. both these mosquitoes are predominant in southeast asia and are also responsible for the spread of other arboviral diseases like dengue virus and chikungunya virus. the incidence of dengue has been increasing over the years and this is of concern to public health workers. simple laboratory tools for the detection of zikv is also lacking. in the absence of drugs and vaccine f ...201627679623
the mysterious zika virus: adding to the tropical flavivirus mayhem.until now, known as the demure cousin of dengue virus (denv) inhabiting africa, zika virus (zikv) has reinvented itself to cause explosive epidemics captivating the western hemisphere. the outbreak causing potential for zikv was realized when it made its way from africa to yap island micronesia in 2007, and in french polynesia in 2013. from there, it moved on to brazil in 2015. now zikv has infected people in more than 33 countries in central and south america and the caribbean. moreover the epi ...027763483
culex pipiens and aedes triseriatus mosquito susceptibility to zika virus. 201627434194
experimental investigation of the susceptibility of italian culex pipiens mosquitoes to zika virus infection.we investigated the susceptibility of an italian population of culex pipiens mosquitoes to zika virus (zikv) infection, tested in parallel with aedes aegypti, as a positive control. we analysed mosquitoes at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 20 and 24 days after an infectious blood meal. viral rna was detected in the body of cx. pipiens up to three days post-infection, but not at later time points. our results indicate that cx. pipiens is not susceptible to zikv infection.027605056
the wmel strain of wolbachia reduces transmission of zika virus by aedes aegypti.zika virus (zikv) is causing an explosive outbreak of febrile disease in the americas. there are no effective antiviral therapies or licensed vaccines for this virus, and mosquito control strategies have not been adequate to contain the virus. a promising candidate for arbovirus control and prevention relies on the introduction of the intracellular bacterium wolbachia into aedes aegypti mosquitoes. this primarily has been proposed as a tool to control dengue virus (denv) transmission; however, e ...201627364935
analysis of synonymous codon usage bias of zika virus and its adaption to the hosts.zika virus (zikv) is a mosquito-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family flaviviridae, and the symptoms caused by zikv infection in humans include rash, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia and conjunctivitis. codon usage bias analysis can reveal much about the molecular evolution and host adaption of zikv. to gain insight into the evolutionary characteristics of zikv, we performed a comprehensive analysis on the codon usage pattern in 46 zikv strains by calculating the effective number of codons ( ...201627893824
zika mosquito vectors: the jury is still out.after a 40-year hiatus, the international congress of entomology (ice 2016) convened in orlando, florida (september 25-30, 2016). one of the symposia at ice 2016, the zika symposium, covered multiple aspects of the zika epidemic, including epidemiology, sexual transmission, genetic tools for reducing transmission, and particularly vector competence. while there was a consensus among participants that the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, is a vector of the zika virus, there is growing eviden ...201627853521
assessing seasonal risks for the introduction and mosquito-borne spread of zika virus in europe.the explosive zika virus epidemic in the americas is amplifying spread of this emerging pathogen into previously unaffected regions of the world, including europe (gulland, 2016), where local populations are immunologically naïve. as summertime approaches in the northern hemisphere, aedes mosquitoes in europe may find suitable climatic conditions to acquire and subsequently transmit zika virus from viremic travellers to local populations. while aedes albopictus has proven to be a vector for the ...201627344225
the brazilian zika virus strain causes birth defects in experimental models.zika virus (zikv) is an arbovirus belonging to the genus flavivirus (family flaviviridae) and was first described in 1947 in uganda following blood analyses of sentinel rhesus monkeys. until the twentieth century, the african and asian lineages of the virus did not cause meaningful infections in humans. however, in 2007, vectored by aedes aegypti mosquitoes, zikv caused the first noteworthy epidemic on the yap island in micronesia. patients experienced fever, skin rash, arthralgia and conjunctiv ...027279226
culex quinquefasciatus from rio de janeiro is not competent to transmit the local zika virus.the americas have suffered a dramatic epidemic of zika since may in 2015, when zika virus (zikv) was first detected in brazil. mosquitoes belonging to subgenus stegomyia of aedes, particularly aedes aegypti, are considered the primary vectors of zikv. however, the rapid spread of the virus across the continent raised several concerns about the transmission dynamics, especially about potential mosquito vectors. the purpose of this work was to assess the vector competence of the house mosquito cul ...201627598421
zika virus, a new threat for europe?since its emergence in 2007 in micronesia and polynesia, the arthropod-borne flavivirus zika virus (zikv) has spread in the americas and the caribbean, following first detection in brazil in may 2015. the risk of zikv emergence in europe increases as imported cases are repeatedly reported. together with chikungunya virus (chikv) and dengue virus (denv), zikv is transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. any countries where these mosquitoes are present could be potential sites for future zikv outbreak. we ...201627505002
genetic characterization of spondweni and zika viruses and susceptibility of geographically distinct strains of aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus and culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) to spondweni virus.zika virus (zikv) has extended its known geographic distribution to the new world and is now responsible for severe clinical complications in a subset of patients. while substantial genetic and vector susceptibility data exist for zikv, less is known for the closest related flavivirus, spondweni virus (sponv). both zikv and sponv have been known to circulate in africa since the mid-1900s, but neither has been genetically characterized by gene and compared in parallel. furthermore, the susceptibi ...201627783682
detection of autochthonous zika virus transmission in sincelejo, colombia. 027089253
imported zika virus infection from the cook islands into australia, 2014.a female resident of townsville, queensland, australia has been diagnosed with zika virus infection following a recent trip to the cook islands. an initial serum sample collected in march, 2014 was positive by two separate zika virus taqman real-time rt-pcrs and a pan-flavivirus rt-pcr. nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetics of the complete cook islands zika virus envelope gene revealed 99.1% homology with a previous cambodia 2010 sequence within the asian lineage. in addition, igg and igm anti ...201424944843
oral susceptibility of singapore aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (linnaeus) to zika virus.zika virus (zikv) is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the south-western pacific island of yap. it causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms. in africa, where it was first isolated, zikv is mainly transmitted by sylvatic aedes mosquitoes. the virus has also been isolated from ae. aegypti and it is considered to be the vector involved in the urban transmission of the virus. transmission of the virus by an african strain of ae. aegypti has also been dem ...201222953014
personal protection of permethrin-treated clothing against aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and zika virus, in the laboratory.the dengue and zika viruses are primarily transmitted by aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are most active during day light hours and feed both in and outside of the household. personal protection technologies such as insecticide-treated clothing could provide individual protection. here we assessed the efficacy of permethrin-treated clothing on personal protection in the laboratory.201627187593
microcephaly and zika virus: neonatal neuroradiological aspects.the aim of this study is to describe some radiological features in the newborns with microcephaly caused by zika virus infection during pregnancy.201627080092
on the seasonal occurrence and abundance of the zika virus vector mosquito aedes aegypti in the contiguous united ongoing zika virus pandemic in latin america and the caribbean has raised concerns that travel-related introduction of zika virus could initiate local transmission in the united states (u.s.) by its primary vector, the mosquito aedes aegypti.201627066299
differential susceptibilities of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus from the americas to zika virus.since the major outbreak in 2007 in the yap island, zika virus (zikv) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the south pacific region. in may 2015, the virus was detected in brazil and then spread through south and central america. in december 2015, zikv was detected in french guiana and martinique. the aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus from the caribbean (martinique, guadeloupe), north america ( ...201626938868
wolbachia blocks currently circulating zika virus isolates in brazilian aedes aegypti mosquitoes.the recent association of zika virus with cases of microcephaly has sparked a global health crisis and highlighted the need for mechanisms to combat the zika vector, aedes aegypti mosquitoes. wolbachia pipientis, a bacterial endosymbiont of insect, has recently garnered attention as a mechanism for arbovirus control. here we report that aedes aegypti harboring wolbachia are highly resistant to infection with two currently circulating zika virus isolates from the recent brazilian epidemic. wolbac ...201627156023
zika virus in a traveler returning to china from caracas, venezuela, february 2016. 201627070735
zika: what we do and do not know based on the experiences of brazil.zika virus, which was first discovered in 1947, has become a global threat to human health as it is rapidly spreading through latin america, the caribbean, the us and asia, after causing a large outbreak in the northeast region of brazil in 2015. there is ample evidence to support that zika virus is associated with neurological complications such as microcephaly. the review aims to provide an overview on the complex issues involved in the emergence of zika virus's neurological disorders and to d ...201627283140
contraceptive sales in the setting of the zika virus epidemic.has there been any influence of the zika virus (zikv) outbreak on the sales of contraceptive methods in brazil?201627932442
pyriproxyfen and the microcephaly epidemic in brazil - an ecological approach to explore the hypothesis of their association.the microcephaly epidemic in brazil generated intense debate regarding its causality, and one hypothesised cause of this epidemic, now recognised as congenital zika virus syndrome, was the treatment of drinking water tanks with pyriproxyfen to control aedes aegypti larvae. we present the results of a geographical analysis of the association between the prevalence of microcephaly confirmed by fenton growth charts and the type of larvicide used in the municipalities that were home to the mothers o ...201627812601
first detection of natural infection of aedes aegypti with zika virus in brazil and throughout south america.zika virus (zikv) has caused a major epidemic in brazil and several other american countries. zikv is an arbovirus whose natural vectors during epidemics have been poorly determined. in this study, 1,683 mosquitoes collected in the vicinity of zikv suspected cases in rio de janeiro, brazil, from june 2015 to may 2016 were screened for natural infection by using molecular methods. three pools of aedes aegypti were found with the zikv genome, one of which had only one male. this finding supports t ...201627706382
vector competence of french polynesian aedes aegypti and aedes polynesiensis for zika 2013-2014, french polynesia experienced for the first time a zika outbreak. two aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to zika virus (zikv) transmission in french polynesia: the worldwide distributed ae. aegypti and the polynesian islands-endemic ae. polynesiensis mosquito.201627654962
assessment of local mosquito species incriminates aedes aegypti as the potential vector of zika virus in australia.within the last 10 years zika virus (zikv) has caused unprecedented epidemics of human disease in the nations and territories of the western pacific and south america, and continues to escalate in both endemic and non-endemic regions. we evaluated the vector competence of australian mosquitoes for zikv to assess their potential role in virus transmission.201627643685
global risk model for vector-borne transmission of zika virus reveals the role of el niño 2015.zika, a mosquito-borne viral disease that emerged in south america in 2015, was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the who in february of 2016. we developed a climate-driven r0 mathematical model for the transmission risk of zika virus (zikv) that explicitly includes two key mosquito vector species: aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus the model was parameterized and calibrated using the most up to date information from the available literature. it was then driven by ob ...201627994145
emergence of epidemic zika virus transmission and congenital zika syndrome: are recently evolved traits to blame?the mechanisms responsible for the dramatic emergence of zika virus (zikv), accompanied by congenital zika syndrome and guillain-barré syndrome (gbs), remain unclear. however, two hypotheses are prominent: (i) evolution for enhanced urban transmission via adaptation to mosquito vectors, or for enhanced human infection to increase amplification, or (ii) the stochastic introduction of zikv into large, naive human populations in regions with abundant aedes aegypti populations, leading to enough rar ...201728074023
local mosquito-borne transmission of zika virus - miami-dade and broward counties, florida, june-august 2016.during the first 6 months of 2016, large outbreaks of zika virus disease caused by local mosquito-borne transmission occurred in puerto rico and other u.s. territories, but local mosquito-borne transmission was not identified in the continental united states (1,2). as of july 22, 2016, the florida department of health had identified 321 zika virus disease cases among florida residents and visitors, all occurring in either travelers from other countries or territories with ongoing zika virus tran ...201627684886
one-pot biogenic fabrication of silver nanocrystals using quisqualis indica: effectiveness on malaria and zika virus mosquito vectors, and impact on non-target aquatic organisms.currently, mosquito vector control is facing a number of key challenges, including the rapid development of resistance to synthetic pesticides and the recent spread of aggressive arbovirus outbreaks. the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (agnps) is currently considered an environmental friendly alternative to the employ of pyrethroids, carbamates and microbial agents (e.g. bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis), since agnps are easy to produce, effective and stable in the aquatic environmen ...201627491031
origin of the zika virus revealed: a historical journey across the world.zika virus (zikv) is an arbovirus within the flaviviridae family, the recent spread of which has promoted public concern.201627650823
aedes-borne virus-mosquito interactions: mass spectrometry strategies and findings.aedes-borne viruses are responsible for high-impact neglected tropical diseases and unpredictable outbreaks such as the ongoing zika epidemics. aedes mosquitoes spread different arboviruses such as dengue virus (denv), chikungunya virus (chikv), and zika virus, among others, and are responsible for the continuous emergence and reemergence of these pathogens. these viruses have complex transmission cycles that include two hosts, namely the aedes mosquito as a vector and susceptible vertebrate hos ...201728192064
environmental and social change drive the explosive emergence of zika virus in the americas.since zika virus (zikv) was detected in brazil in 2015, it has spread explosively across the americas and has been linked to increased incidence of microcephaly and guillain-barré syndrome (gbs). in one year, it has infected over 500,000 people (suspected and confirmed cases) in 40 countries and territories in the americas. along with recent epidemics of dengue (denv) and chikungunya virus (chikv), which are also transmitted by aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus mosquitoes, the emergence of zikv s ...201728182667
engineered aedes aegypti jak/stat pathway-mediated immunity to dengue virus.we have developed genetically modified ae. aegypti mosquitoes that activate the conserved antiviral jak/stat pathway in the fat body tissue, by overexpressing either the receptor dome or the janus kinase hop by the blood feeding-induced vitellogenin (vg) promoter. transgene expression inhibits infection with several dengue virus (denv) serotypes in the midgut as well as systemically and in the salivary glands. the impact of the transgenes dome and hop on mosquito longevity was minimal, but it re ...201728081143
[recommendations for the surveillance of aedes aegypti].diseases caused by arboviruses transmitted by aedes aegypti, such as dengue, chikungunya and zika, continue to rise in annual incidence and geographic expansion. a key limitation for achieving control of a. aegypti has been the lack of effective tools for monitoring its population, and thus determine what control measures actually work. surveillance of a. aegypti has been based mainly on immature indexes, but they bear little relation to the number of mosquito females, which are the ones capable ...201627869394
testing of visual and chemical attractants in correlation with the development and field evaluation of an autodissemination station for the suppression of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in florida.three exotic mosquito-borne pathogens-dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses-transmitted by aedes albopictus and ae. aegypti have undergone dramatic global expansion in recent years. the control of vector populations and minimizing bites from these vectors are the primary methods of reducing risk of transmission of these viruses to humans. however, ae. albopictus and ae. aegypti are notoriously challenging to control through conventional chemical means, due primarily to difficulties in applying p ...201627802398
chikugunya and zika virus dissemination in the americas: different arboviruses reflecting the same spreading routes and poor vector-control policies.this review gathers the most recent investigations about chikungunya and zika viruses in america and would help in creating new research approaches.201627472289
the zika outbreak of the 21st century.the zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. this virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by british scientists working at the yellow fever research laboratory located in the zika forest area of uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, aedes aegypti. the fact that the rhesus macaque is ...201626925496
catalase protects aedes aegypti from oxidative stress and increases midgut infection prevalence of dengue but not zika.digestion of blood in the midgut of aedes aegypti results in the release of pro-oxidant molecules that can be toxic to the mosquito. we hypothesized that after a blood meal, the antioxidant capacity of the midgut is increased to protect cells against oxidative stress. concomitantly, pathogens present in the blood ingested by mosquitoes, such as the arboviruses dengue and zika, also have to overcome the same oxidative challenge, and the antioxidant program induced by the insect is likely to influ ...201728379952
biologic evidence required for zika disease enhancement by dengue antibodies.the sudden appearance of overt human zika virus infections that cross the placenta to damage fetal tissues, target sexual organs, and are followed in some instances by guillain-barré syndrome raises questions regarding whether these outcomes are caused by genetic mutations or if prior infection by other flaviviruses affects disease outcome. because dengue and zika viruses co-circulate in the urban aedes aegypti mosquito-human cycle, a logical question, as suggested by in vitro data, is whether d ...201728322690
dengue virus ns2b/ns3 protease inhibitors exploiting the prime side.the mosquito-transmitted dengue virus (denv) infects millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical regions. maturation of denv particles requires proper cleavage of the viral polyprotein, including processing 8 of the 13 substrate cleavage sites by dengue ns2b-s3 protease. with no available direct-acting antiviral targeting denv, ns2-s3 protease is a promising target for inhibitor design. current design efforts focus on the nonprime side of the denv protease active site, resulting in highly hy ...201728298600
population genomics reveals that an anthropophilic population of aedes aegypti mosquitoes in west africa recently gave rise to american and asian populations of this major disease vector.the mosquito aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. this major disease vector is thought to have arisen when the african subspecies ae. aegypti formosus evolved from being zoophilic and living in forest habitats into a form that specialises on humans and resides near human population centres. the resulting domestic subspecies, ae. aegypti aegypti, is found throughout the tropics and largely blood-feeds on humans.201728241828
zika virus and neuroscience: the need for a translational collaboration.zika virus (zikv) has become a major challenge for scientists and health agencies. zikv's involvement with human fetal microcephaly and guillain-barré syndrome and its transmission through aedes africanus and aedes aegypti mosquitos highlighted the epidemiological and neurological risks associated to zikv infection. in 2013, zikv arrives in brazil but the first outbreak in the country was reported in 2015. here, we used the web of science as a search tool for comparing the evolution of world and ...201728185126
dengue virus serotype 2 infection alters midgut and carcass gene expression in the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus.the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus is currently an important vector for dengue, chikungunya and zika virus, and its role in transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) may increase in the future due to its ability to colonize temperate regions. in contrast to aedes aegypti, the dominant vector of dengue, chikungunya and zika virus, genetic responses of ae. albopictus upon infection with an arbovirus are not well characterized. here we present a study of the changes in transcrip ...201728152011
magnetic nanoparticles are highly toxic to chloroquine-resistant plasmodium falciparum, dengue virus (den-2), and their mosquito vectors.a main challenge in parasitology is the development of reliable tools to prevent or treat mosquito-borne diseases. we investigated the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (mnp) produced by magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense (strain msr-1) on chloroquine-resistant (cq-r) and sensitive (cq-s) plasmodium falciparum, dengue virus (den-2), and two of their main vectors, anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti, respectively. mnp were studied by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission elect ...201727815736
the mysterious zika virus: adding to the tropical flavivirus mayhem.until now, known as the demure cousin of dengue virus (denv) inhabiting africa, zika virus (zikv) has reinvented itself to cause explosive epidemics captivating the western hemisphere. the outbreak causing potential for zikv was realized when it made its way from africa to yap island micronesia in 2007, and in french polynesia in 2013. from there, it moved on to brazil in 2015. now zikv has infected people in more than 33 countries in central and south america and the caribbean. moreover the epi ...201627652985
update: ongoing zika virus transmission - puerto rico, november 1, 2015-july 7, 2016.zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and infection can be asymptomatic or result in an acute febrile illness with rash (1). zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe birth defects (2). infection has also been associated with guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) (3) and severe thrombocytopenia (4,5). in december 2015, the puerto rico department of health (prdh) reported the first locally acquired case o ...201627490087
zika virus: a new arboviral public health problem.zika virus (zikv) is a single-stranded rna virus in the flaviviridae family and transmitted to human through infected mosquitos (aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus). virus is closely related with other flaviviruses; dengue virus, yellow fever virus, west nile virus, and japanese encephalitis virus phylogenetically. due to the possible relationship between virus and clinical features including microcephaly, ventricule, and eye deformities, guillain-barre syndrome increases the interest on this vi ...201627469112
zika virus infections: an overview of current scenario.zika virus (zikv) was discovered more than half a century ago, recently it has gained unprecedented attention by the global health community. until 2007, only 14 cases of human zikv infections were reported around the globe, while during the current outbreak, estimated cases mounted to approximately 1.5 million in brazil alone, the virus was disseminated to wider south-american territories and travel-associated zikv infections were reported in usa, europe and recently in china. zikv infections r ...201627393087
dengue virus immunopathogenesis: lessons applicable to the emergence of zika virus.dengue is the leading mosquito-transmitted viral infection in the world. there are more than 390 million new infections annually; while the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic or develop a self-limited dengue fever, up to 1 million clinical cases develop severe manifestations, including dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome, resulting in ~25,000 deaths annually, mainly in children. gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to dengue infection and immunopatho ...201627130436
mosquito vectors and the spread of cancer: an overlooked connection?mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, vectoring important pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, filariasis, and zika virus. besides mosquito-borne diseases, cancers figure among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. it is expected that annual cancer cases will rise from 14 million in 2012 to 22 million within the next two decades. notably, there are few contrasting evidences of the relationship between cancer and m ...201627053131
notes from the field: evidence of zika virus infection in brain and placental tissues from two congenitally infected newborns and two fetal losses--brazil, 2015.zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is related to dengue virus and transmitted primarily by aedes aegypti mosquitoes, with humans acting as the principal amplifying host during outbreaks. zika virus was first reported in brazil in may 2015 (1). by february 9, 2016, local transmission of infection had been reported in 26 countries or territories in the americas.* infection is usually asymptomatic, and, when symptoms are present, typically results in mild and self-limited illness with s ...201626890059
autophagy and viral diseases transmitted by aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus.despite a long battle that was started by oswaldo cruz more than a century ago, in 1903, brazil still struggles to fight aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus, the mosquito vectors of dengue virus (denv), chikungynya virus (chikv) and zika virus (zikv). dengue fever has been a serious public health problem in brazil for decades, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks occurring during summers. in 2015, until november, 1,534,932 possible cases were reported to the ministry of healthv. more recently, the l ...201626774331
why zika virus infection has become a public health concern?prior to 2015, zika virus (zikv) outbreaks had occurred in areas of africa, southeast asia, and the pacific islands. although a causal relationship between zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. in may 2015, the outbreak of zikv infection in brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the pan american health organization (paho) ...201627052792
potential high-risk areas for zika virus transmission in the contiguous united understand where transmission of zika virus has the highest likelihood to occur in the contiguous united states with regard to its transmission both sexually and via aedes aegypti mosquito bites.201728323468
first case of zika virus infection in a hiv+ patient.zika virus is an enveloped, single-stranded rna virus that belongs to the flavivirus genre. as with arbovirus, it is transmitted by arthropods (mosquitoes), both aedes aegypti (urban) and albopictus (rural). zika virus was first isolated in 1947 from monkeys in uganda. the first human cases were reported in 1952 in east africa. outbreaks were reported in micronesia (2007), polynesia (2013), and chile (2014). both diagnostic procedures and therapeutics are poorly developed. serological tests cros ...201727232506
declining malaria, rising of dengue and zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control.the fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. to our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the nobel prize to youyou tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. rts,s/as01 (rts,s)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-saharan africa. however, there are major challenges that still deserve atte ...201626932263
epa-registered repellents for mosquitoes transmitting emerging viral many parts of the united states, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. however, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. the aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, and culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the united states and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern, including west nile virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and zika virus. the centers for disease control and prevention and the environmental protection agency (epa) recom ...201627779781
rplp1 and rplp2 are essential flavivirus host factors that promote early viral protein accumulation.the flavivirus genus contains several arthropod-borne viruses that pose global health threats, including dengue viruses (denv), yellow fever virus (yfv), and zika virus (zikv). in order to understand how these viruses replicate in human cells, we previously conducted genome-scale rna interference screens to identify candidate host factors. in these screens, we identified ribosomal proteins rplp1 and rplp2 (rplp1/2) to be among the most crucial putative host factors required for denv and yfv infe ...201727974556
zika virus in brazil and the danger of infestation by aedes (stegomyia) mosquitoes.zika virus, already widely distributed in africa and asia, was recently reported in two northeastern brazilian: state of bahia and state of rio grande do norte, and one southeastern: state of são paulo. this finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by aedes (stegomyia) aegypti and aedes (stegomyia) albopictus in brazil. the pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with zika virus, are reviewed. th ...201626689277
[zika virus infection in pregnancy].the zika virus is a flavivirus spread by mosquitoes. its primary vectors are the aedes aegypti and the aedes albopictus. before 2007 it sporadically caused benign morbidity. since 2015, it started spreading "explosively" in america, especially in brazil. in august 2016 they reported cases from new york and poland, too. most of the infections don't produce any symptoms, but can cause grave complications. the most important lesion is microcephalia that forms in fetuses. microcephalia's most seriou ...201728393598
new records of aedes aegypti in southern oklahoma, 2016.aedes aegypti is an important subtropical vector species and is predicted to have a limited year-round distribution in the southern united states. collection of the species has not been officially verified in oklahoma since 1940. adult mosquitoes were collected in 42 sites across 7 different cities in oklahoma using 3 different mosquito traps between may and september 2016. between july and september 2016, 88 ae. aegypti adults were collected at 18 different sites in 4 different cities across so ...201728388329
emergence of zika virus epidemic and the national response in jamaica.jamaica, along with the americas, experienced major epidemics of arboviral diseases transmitted by the aedes aegypti mosquito in recent years. these include dengue fever in 2012, chikungunya fever in 2014 and zika virus infection (zikv) in 2016. we present the emergence of the zikv epidemic in jamaica and outline the national response.201628375542
inhibition of zika virus by wolbachia in aedes aegypti.through association with cases of microcephaly in 2015, zika virus (zikv) has transitioned from a relatively unknown mosquito-transmitted pathogen to a global health emergency, emphasizing the need to improve existing mosquito control programs to prevent future disease outbreaks. the response to zika must involve a paradigm shift from traditional to novel methods of mosquito control, and according to the world health organization should incorporate the release of mosquitoes infected with the bac ...201628357366
does zika virus cause microcephaly - applying the bradford hill viewpoints.zika virus has been documented since 1952, but been associated with mild, self-limiting disease. zika virus is classified as an arbovirus from a family of flaviviridae and primarily spread by aedes aegypti mosquitos. however, in a large outbreak in brazil in 2015, zika virus has been associated with microcephaly.201728357156
host-virus interaction of zika virus in modulating disease pathogenesis.the zika virus (zikv) is a newly emerging pathogen that has resulted in a worldwide epidemic. it primarily spreads either through infected aedes aegypti or aedes albopictus mosquitos leading to severe neurological disorders such as microcephaly and guillain-barré syndrome in susceptible individuals. the mode of zikv entry into specific cell types such as: epidermal keratinocytes, fibroblasts, immature dendritic cells (idcs), and stem-cell-derived human neural progenitors has been determined thro ...201728349242
preparing the united states for zika virus: pre-emptive vector control and personal protection.discovered in 1947 in a monkey in the zika forest of uganda, zika virus was dismissed as a cause of a mild illness that was confined to africa and southeast asia and transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. in 2007, zika virus appeared outside of its endemic borders in an outbreak on the south pacific island of yap. in 2013, zika virus was associated with a major neurological complication, guillain-barré syndrome, in a larger outbreak in the french polynesian islands. from the south pacific, zika invade ...201628340908
spatial quantification of the world population potentially exposed to zika virus.zika virus is an emerging flaviviridae virus, which has spread rapidly in the last few years. it has raised concern because it has been associated with fetus microcephaly when pregnant women are infected. the main vector is the mosquito aedes aegypti , distributed in tropical areas.201728338754
boswellia ovalifoliolata (burseraceae) essential oil as an eco-friendly larvicide? toxicity against six mosquito vectors of public health importance, non-target mosquito fishes, backswimmers, and water bugs.the use of synthetic pesticides to control vector populations is detrimental to human health and the environment and may lead to the development of resistant strains. plants can be alternative sources of safer compounds effective on mosquito vectors. in this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of boswellia ovalifoliolata leaf essential oil (eo) was evaluated against anopheles stephensi, anopheles subpictus, aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, culex quinquefasciatus, and culex tritaeniorhynchus. ...201728332087
ascension island: a survey to assess the presence of zika virus vectors.following concerns regarding the spread of zika virus, joint services health unit (cyprus) were tasked to carry out a mosquito survey on the ascension island, south atlantic. this was to determine if vectors of the virus such as aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus were introduced and established on the island.201728331047
spatial-temporal analysis of dengue deaths: identifying social vulnerabilities.currently, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, and zika virus represent serious public health issues in brazil, despite efforts to control the vector, the aedes aegypti mosquito.201728327810
correction: laboratory strains of aedes aegypti are competent to brazilian zika virus.[this corrects the article doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171951.].201728288192
variation in aedes aegypti mosquito competence for zika virus test whether zika virus has adapted for more efficient transmission by aedes aegypti mosquitoes, leading to recent urban outbreaks, we fed mosquitoes from brazil, the dominican republic, and the united states artificial blood meals containing 1 of 3 zika virus strains (senegal, cambodia, mexico) and monitored infection, dissemination, and virus in saliva. contrary to our hypothesis, cambodia and mexica strains were less infectious than the senegal strain. only mosquitoes from the dominican re ...201728287375
<i>aedes aegypti</i> control through modernized, integrated vector the context of the ongoing, unprecedented zika virus outbreak in the americas, the world health organization has expressed its support for developing and up-scaling three novel approaches to controlling the aedes aegypti mosquito: the sterile insect technique (sit), the release of insects carrying dominant lethal genes (ridl) and the release of wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. whereas the former two approaches are temporary insect population suppression strategies, wolbachia infection is a self ...201728286698
vertical transmission of zika virus by aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus determine the potential role of vertical transmission in zika virus expansion, we evaluated larval pools of perorally infected aedes. aegypti and ae. albopictus adult female mosquitoes; ≈1/84 larvae tested were zika virus-positive; and rates varied among mosquito populations. thus, vertical transmission may play a role in zika virus spread and maintenance.201728277199
zika in rio de janeiro: assessment of basic reproduction number and comparison with dengue outbreaks.zika virus infection was declared a public health emergency of international concern in february 2016 in response to the outbreak in brazil and its suspected link with congenital anomalies. in this study, we use notification data and disease natural history parameters to estimate the basic reproduction number (r 0) of zika in rio de janeiro, brazil. we also obtain estimates of r 0 of dengue from time series of dengue cases in the outbreaks registered in 2002 and 2012 in the city, when denv-3 and ...201728240195
combining contact tracing with targeted indoor residual spraying significantly reduces dengue transmission.the widespread transmission of dengue viruses (denv), coupled with the alarming increase of birth defects and neurological disorders associated with zika virus, has put the world in dire need of more efficacious tools for aedes aegypti-borne disease mitigation. we quantitatively investigated the epidemiological value of location-based contact tracing (identifying potential out-of-home exposure locations by phone interviews) to infer transmission foci where high-quality insecticide applications c ...201728232955
leaking containers: success and failure in controlling the mosquito aedes aegypti in 1958, the pan american health organization declared that brazil had successfully eradicated the mosquito aedes aegypti, responsible for the transmission of yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya, and zika virus. yet in 2016 the brazilian minister of health described the situation of dengue fever as "catastrophic." discussing the recent epidemic of zika virus, which amplified the crisis produced by the persistence of dengue fever, brazil's president declared in january 2016 that "we are in th ...201728207332
does zika virus infection affect mosquito response to repellents?the world health organization (who) recommends that people travelling to or living in areas with zika virus (zikv) outbreaks or epidemics adopt prophylactic measures to reduce or eliminate mosquito bites, including the use of insect repellents. it is, however, unknown whether repellents are effective against zikv-infected mosquitoes, in part because of the ethical concerns related to exposing a human subject's arm to infected mosquitoes in the standard arm-in-cage assay. we used a previously dev ...201728205633
a cdna clone-launched platform for high-yield production of inactivated zika vaccine.a purified inactivated vaccine (piv) using the zika virus (zikv) puerto rico strain prvabc59 showed efficacy in monkeys, and is currently in a phase i clinical trial. high-yield manufacture of this piv is essential for its development and vaccine access. here we report an infectious cdna clone-launched platform to maximize its yield. a single ns1 protein substitution (k265e) was identified to increase zikv replication on vero cells (a cell line approved for vaccine production) for both cambodian ...201728196656
laboratory strains of aedes aegypti are competent to brazilian zika virus.the zika virus outbreaks are unprecedented human threat in relation to congenital malformations and neurological/autoimmune complications. since this virus has high potential to spread in regions presenting the vectors, improvement in mosquito control is a top priority. thus, aedes aegypti laboratory strains will be fundamental to support studies in different research fields implicated on zika-mosquito interactions which are the basis for the development of innovative control methods. in this se ...201728187183
predicting the potential role of non-human hosts in zika virus maintenance.arboviruses are often maintained in complex cycles involving vertebrates such as mammals or birds and blood-feeding mosquitoes. however, the role of wildlife hosts in their emergence or re-emergence in human populations has received little attention. the recent emergence of zika virus in america, and previous occurrences of chikungunya and dengue, forces us to confront a potential new disease-emergence phenomenon. using a spatial data mining framework to identify potential biotic interactions, b ...201728180996
larvicidal activity of blumea eriantha essential oil and its components against six mosquito species, including zika virus vectors: the promising potential of (4e,6z)-allo-ocimene, carvotanacetone and dodecyl acetate.the effective and environmentally sustainable control of mosquitoes is a challenge of essential importance. this is due to the fact that some invasive mosquitoes, with special reference to the aedes genus, are particularly difficult to control, due to their high ecological plasticity. moreover, the indiscriminate overuse of synthetic insecticides resulted in undesirable effects on human health and non-target organisms, as well as resistance development in targeted vectors. here, the leaf essenti ...201728168560
[zika virus infection in pregnancy, fetal and neonatal impact].zika virus (zv) is an arbovirus transmitted by aedes aegypti and a. albopictus. the neurotropic profile of this virus is known since 1952. the main finding related to zv in america is microcephaly. two hypotheses are tested on its involvement in the central nervous system: its neurotropic feature and the direct effect of zv on the placenta. malformations and clinical findings on fetal development comprise congenital zika syndrome. rt-pcr and serology (igm) are useful for definitive diagnosis. ho ...201628146192
an integrated approach for the assessment of the aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus global spatial distribution, and determination of the zones susceptible to the development of zika virus.the zika virus, one of the new epidemic diseases, is reported to have affected millions of people in the past year. the suitable climate conditions of the areas where zika virus has been reported, especially in areas with a high population density, are the main cause of the current outbreak and spread of the disease. indeed, the suitable climatic conditions of certain territories constitute perfect breading nest for the propagation and outbreak of worldwide diseases. the main objective of this r ...201728111132
experimental transmission of zika virus by mosquitoes from central europe.mosquitoes collected in germany in 2016, including culex pipiens pipiens biotype pipiens, culex torrentium and aedes albopictus, as well as culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus (in colony since 2011) were experimentally infected with zika virus (zikv) at 18 °c or 27 °c. none of the culex taxa showed vector competence for zikv. in contrast, aedes albopictus were susceptible for zikv but only at 27 °c, with transmission rates similar to an aedes aegypti laboratory colony tested in parallel.201728106528
zika virus vector competency of mosquitoes, gulf coast, united states.zika virus has recently spread throughout the americas. although aedes aegypti mosquitoes are considered the primary vector, culex quinquefasciatus and mosquitoes of other species may also be vectors. we tested cx. quinquefasciatus and ae. taeniorhynchus mosquitoes from the us gulf coast; both were refractory to infection and incapable of transmission.201728005002
zika virus in asia.zika virus (zikv) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the zika forest in uganda in 1947. in asia, the virus was isolated in malaysia from aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in central java, indonesia. in this review, all reported cases of zikv infection in asia as of september 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of zi ...201727939768
flavivirus transmission focusing on zika.flaviviruses are among the most diverse viruses with over 85 species recognized. taxonomically, this genus is one of the 4 recognized genera within the family flaviviridae. most flaviviruses of human public health significance, for example, dengue, yellow fever and zika viruses, are arthropod-borne (arboviruses) and have two evolutionarily and ecologically distinct transmission cycles: a sylvatic transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between zoonotic vertebrate reservoir and amplificati ...201727936448
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