california encephalitis virus activity in mosquitoes and horses in southern ontario, 1975.a study was undertaken in 1975 to determine california encephalitis virus activity in southern ontario. three thousand and sixty-one mosquitoes, primarily aedes species, were divided into 104 pools and inoculated into suckling mice. isolates of snowshoe hare virus were obtained from one pool each of aedes fitchii and a. triseriatus mosquitoes collected in the guelph area. serological testing of horse sera revealed extensive virus activity in southern ontario and indicated that horses may serve a ...197834475
biochemical studies on the phlebotomus fever group viruses (bunyaviridae family).analyses of the virion polypeptides and genomes of several phlebotomus fever group viruses, karimabad, punta toro, chagres, and the sandfly fever sicilian serotype viruses, have established that they are biochemically similar to the accepted members of the bunyaviridae family. like snowshoe hare virus (a member of the california serogroup of the bunyavirus genus of the bunyaviridae family), karimabad, punta toro, chagres, and the sandfly fever sicilian serotype viruses all have three viral rna s ...1979225523
heterologous interference in aedes albopictus cells infected with alphaviruses.maximum amounts of 42s and 26s single-stranded viral rna and viral structural proteins were synthesized in aedes albopictus cells at 24 h after sindbis virus infection. thereafter, viral rna and protein syntheses were inhibited. by 3 days postinfection, only small quantities of 42s rna and no detectable 26s rna or structural proteins were synthesized in infected cells. superinfection of a. albopictus cells 3 days after sindbis virus infection with sindbis, semliki forest, una, or chikungunya alp ...1979480461
in vivo transcription and protein synthesis capabilities of bunyaviruses: wild-type snowshoe hare virus and its temperature-sensitive group i, group ii, and group i/ii mutants.the in vivo primary and secondary transcription capabilities of wild-type snowshoe hare (ssh) virus and certain of its temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants have been analyzed. the results obtained agree with in vitro studies (bouloy et al., c.r. acad. sci. paris 280:213-215, 1975; m. bouloy and c. hannoun, virology 69:258-264, 1976; m. ranki and r. pettersson, j. virol. 16:1420-1425, 1975) which have shown that bunyaviruses are negative-stranded rna viruses with a virion rna-directed rna polymeras ...1979480477
genome complexities of the three mrna species of snowshoe hare bunyavirus and in vitro translation of s mrna to viral n polypeptide.the genome complexities of the principal intracellular viral complementary rna species of the snowshoe hare bunyavirus have been analyzed by duplex analyses involving hybridization of complementary rna to individual 32p-labeled viral rna species (large, l; medium, m; and small, s), recovery of nuclease-resistant duplexes, and determination of the oligonucleotide fingerprints of the protected 32p-labeled viral sequences. the result for the m rna (which codes for the glycoproteins g1 and g2; j. r. ...1979513192
three unique viral rna species of snowshoe hare and la crosse bunyaviruses.two-dimensional gel electrophoreses of rnase t1-derived oligonucleotides of the three individual rna segments of the bunyavirus snowshow hare virus indicate that its three rna segments possess distinct nucleotide sequences. the fingerprints of the rna species of snowshoe hare virus differ from those of the antigenically closely related la crosse virus. three viral rna species have been identified in preparations of melao and trivittatus as well as snowshoe hare, lumbo, and la crosse bunyaviruses ...1977559104
antibodies to snowshoe hare virus of the california group in the snowshoe hare (lepus americanus) population of nova scotia.serological study showed the presence of antibodies to snowshoe hare virus in 6--14% of snowshoe hares (lepus americanus) samples in nova scotia. this report extends the known range of this virus in north america.1978686253
the virus particle nucleic acids and proteins of four bunyaviruses.the structural polypeptides of five bunyaviruses, snowshoe hare, lumbo and la crosse viruses (members of the california encephalitis subgroup of bunyaviruses), bunyamwera and main drain viruses (members of the bunyamwera subgroup of bunyaviruses), have been compared by polyacrylamide-sds gel electrophoresis. each virus was found to possess three major structural polypeptides, two glycoproteins (g1 and g2), and one nucleocapsid protein (n). although the sizes of the g1 polypeptides (mol. wt. appr ...1977839199
recombination and complementation between temperature-sensitive mutants of a bunyavirus, snowshoe hare virus.complementation and recombination have been observed with temperature-sensitive mutants of bunyavirus snowshoe hare virus.1976978796
genomic and biologic analyses of snowshoe hare virus field and laboratory strains.low-passage field strains of snowshoe hare (ssh) virus (bunyaviridae), the prototype ssh virus (originally isolated in montana), and la crosse (lac) virus were compared serologically by plaque-reduction neutralization (prnt) and molecularly by oligonucleotide fingerprinting (onf). the prnt and onf results confirmed the identity of the field strains, although some differences in the fingerprints were observed. we have examined the rna genome variability in the two field and three laboratory strai ...19921599046
laboratory transmission of jamestown canyon and snowshoe hare viruses (bunyaviridae: california serogroup) by several species of mosquitoes.the ability of 14 species of mosquitoes to biologically transmit jamestown canyon virus was tested. four species not previously described as vectors of that virus transmitted to suckling mice. among membrane-fed mosquitoes with disseminated infections, field-collected aedes canadensis (1/3), anopheles punctipennis (1/12), coquillettidia perturbans (2/14) and a laboratory strain of ae. epactius (19/67) transmitted virus. two species were tested for their ability to transmit snowshoe hare virus: f ...19911675261
california serogroup viruses from mosquitoes collected in the ussr.four california serogroup viruses isolated from mosquitoes in the ussr were tested for antigenic analogy with prototype viruses of the california serogroup. the topotype isolates are biologically similar to, but antigenically different from each other. one is a subtype of snowshoe hare virus, two are different subtypes of tahyna, lumbo, and snowshoe hare viruses, and one is identical to inkoo virus, previously isolated only in finland. the results indicate that molecular studies of these viruses ...19911928572
distribution of neutralizing antibodies to california and bunyamwera serogroup viruses in horses and rodents in california.neutralization tests were done on sera from 141 horses from high elevation regions of california. antibody prevalences to jamestown canyon, snowshoe hare, and california encephalitis viruses in the california serogroup and northway virus in the bunyamwera serogroup were 55%, 43%, 18%, and 46%, respectively. in 51 horses from rural low elevation regions, seroprevalences were 31%, 35%, 35%, and 37%, respectively. twenty-four horses from a suburban lowland area were seronegative, except for a singl ...19902107770
monoclonal antibodies specific for the g1 glycoprotein of la crosse virus that react with other california serogroup viruses.various degrees of cross-reactivity have been observed among members of the california serogroup of bunyaviruses. since the g1 glycoprotein of la crosse (lac) virus, a member of this serogroup, has been shown to contain the antigenic determinants involved in neutralization, monoclonal antibodies to this glycoprotein were used in enzyme immunosorbent and kinetics of neutralization assays with the other california viruses to detect cross-reactive sites that may be involved in neutralization. the r ...19902179465
agents of equine viral encephalomyelitis: correlation of serum and cerebrospinal fluid antibodies.a survey was conducted by testing 115 paired equine serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples by hemagglutination-inhibition for antibodies to powassan and snowshoe hare viruses, and by virus neutralization for antibodies to equine herpesvirus type 1. twenty-five samples were from horses with spontaneous neurological disease and the remainder from horses euthanized because of various nonneurological disorders. all sera and cerebrospinal fluids were negative for antibodies to powassan virus. fifty-on ...19882836046
arbovirus infections in several ontario mammals, 1975-1980.serological studies for arboviruses were conducted on 725 animal sera collected in 22 ontario townships between 1975 and 1980 including 44 coyote (canis latrans), 277 red fox (vulpes vulpes), 192 raccoon (procyon lotor) and 212 striped skunk (mephitis mephitis). hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to two flaviviruses, namely st. louis encephalitis and powassan were found in 50% of coyote, 47% of skunk, 26% of fox and 10% of raccoon sera. similarly, hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to a ...19863017527
antibodies to arboviruses in an alaskan population at occupational risk of infection.a total of 435 united states geological survey and united states forest service workers in alaska were studied for serologic evidence of past infections with four arboviruses known or suspected to be human pathogens. of the personnel tested, 36 (8.3%) had the neutralizing antibody to jamestown canyon but not snowshoe hare virus, 6 (1.4%) had the antibody to snowshoe hare but not jamestown canyon virus, 53 (12.2%) had the antibody to both viruses, 17 (3.9%) had the antibody to northway virus, and ...19883208197
the sequence of the m rna of an isolate of la crosse virus.the middle-size (m) genomic rna of a new york state, u.s.a. isolate of la crosse (lac) virus has been cloned by a random priming procedure and its nucleotide sequence determined by the dideoxy method. the rna was found to be 4526 nucleotides in length and to have a base composition of 34.2% u, 27.8% a, 20.6% c and 17.4% g. there is a single, long open reading frame in the viral complementary rna that contains sufficient information to code for a protein of 1441 amino acids. in these respects, as ...19873694177
nucleotide sequence of the bunyamwera virus m rna segment: conservation of structural features in the bunyavirus glycoprotein gene product.the complete nucleotide sequence of the bunyamwera virus m rna segment was determined from four overlapping cdna clones and by primer extension. the rna segment is 4458 bases in length, and encodes a single gene product in the viral complementary rna. the predicted protein is 1433 amino acids long (mol wt 162,065), contains four potential glycosylation sites, and is relatively cysteine rich. it is presumed that the three proteins g1, g2, and nsm which have been mapped to the m rna segment are sy ...19863753629
california serogroup virus infection in a horse with encephalitis.a 4-fold or greater seroconversion to the snowshoe hare serotype of the california serogroup of viruses in a horse with acute encephalitis was demonstrated by hemagglutination-inhibition, complement-fixation, and neutralization tests. the horse had a mild fever, was ataxic, had a head tilt, and was observed to circle. chloramphenicol, dexamethasone, and b complex vitamins were administered and the horse recovered. the snowshoe hare virus is a recognized human pathogen, but it has not been associ ...19853972700
serological evidence of infection with california serogroup viruses (family bunyaviridae) in residents of long hua, suburb of shanghai, people's republic of china.sera from 126 residents of long hua, a suburb of shanghai, in the people's republic of china, were studied. sera were tested for haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies to alphavirus (eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis), flavivirus (st. louis encephalitis, powassan, dengue) and california serogroup (snowshoe hare) antigens. flavivirus antibodies were found in 14 (11.1%) and california serogroup antibodies in 5 (3.9%) individuals. neutralizing antibodies with highest titres ...19846099922
snowshoe hare virus activity in southern ontario. 19826129057
yukon isolates of snowshoe hare virus, 1972-1982.bunyaviruses including 53 strains of snowshoe hare (ssh) and 4 of northway (nor) were isolated from 132,428 unengorged adult female mosquitoes of 7 species collected throughout the boreal forest of the yukon territory and open woodland terrain in the mackenzie valley, northwest territories, canada during 8 of 11 arctic summers from 1972 through 1982. isolations of ssh virus were also achieved from mosquito larvae during 1974 and 1975. percentage virus infection rates of important vectors were ae ...19836135219
persistence of snowshoe hare virus in halifax county, ns. 19846713327
nucleotide sequence analyses and predicted coding of bunyavirus genome rna species.we performed 3' rna sequence analyses of [(32)p]pcp-end-labeled la crosse (lac) virus, alternate lac virus isolate l74, and snowshoe hare bunyavirus large (l), medium (m), and small (s) negative-stranded viral rna species to determine the coding capabilities of these species. these analyses were confirmed by dideoxy primer extension studies in which we used a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide primer complementary to the conserved 3'-terminal decanucleotide of the three viral rna species (clerx-van ...19827086954
antibodies to the california group of arboviruses in the moose (alces alces americana clinton) population of nova scotia.moose (alces alces americana clinton) blood collected by hunters during the 1977 and 1978 hunting seasons was tested for california group antibodies. hemagglutination inhibition (hi) tests using snowshoe hare virus (ssh) as antigen yielded 37.02% hi-positive sera. neutralization tests showed reactors reactors (67.5% positive) to ssh and classified six reactors as jamestown canyon virus (jc). this study reports the first finding of jc in a moose population; it also provides the first evidence of ...19817317859
antibodies to snowshoe hare virus of the california group in the snowshoe hare (lepus americanus) and domestic animal populations of prince edward island.this study, the first of arbovirus activity in prince edward island, has shown antibodies to the snowshoe hare strain of the california encephalitis group virus to be present in sera of wild and domestic animals; 15.35% of snowshoe hare, 20% of equine. and 2.5% of bovine sera were positive for hemagglutination inhibition antibody, confirmed by virus neutralization procedures.19817317860
isolation of jamestown canyon and snowshoe hare viruses (california serogroup) from aedes mosquitoes in western massachusetts.three isolates of jamestown canyon virus and one isolate of snowshoe hare virus (california serogroup) were obtained from adult aedes females collected in western massachusetts in 1982. jamestown canyon virus was isolated from aedes abserratus/punctor once, and from aedes intrudens twice. snowshoe hare virus was isolated from aedes stimulans group mosquitoes. la crosse encephalitis (lac) virus was not isolated from 1,552 adult aedes triseriatus, nor from 22,557 aedes triseriatus larvae. however, ...19938350066
a new genetic variant of la crosse virus (bunyaviridae) isolated from new crosse virus (lacv) is found primarily in the midwestern and appalachian regions of the united states where it is a leading cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in children. to determine whether the distribution of this virus extends further east into new england, we analyzed a bunyavirus that was isolated from a pool of eastern tree-hole mosquitoes, ochlerotatus triseriatus (= aedes triseriatus), collected from fairfield, connecticut (ct) in 2005. nucleotide and encoded amino acid sequences ...200616968927
major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the usa. re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. lyme disease, west nile virus (wnv), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by ...201526954882
zoonotic infections in communities of the james bay cree territory: an overview of seroprevalence.the cree communities of james bay are at risk for contracting infectious diseases transmitted by wildlife. data from serological testing for a range of zoonotic infections performed in the general population (six communities), or trappers and their spouses (one community), were abstracted from four population-based studies conducted in cree territory (quebec) between 2005 and 2009. evidence of exposure to trichinella species, toxoplasma gondii, toxocara canis, echinococcus granulosus, leptospira ...201324421806
arboviruses in north dakota, investigate arbovirus transmission in north dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by vero cell culture assay. seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of west nile virus (wnv), cache valley virus, jamestown canyon virus (jcv), and trivittatus virus are reported. snowshoe hare virus, potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. the risks of culex tarsalis and aede ...201425487728
roles of host species, geographic separation, and isolation in the seroprevalence of jamestown canyon and snowshoe hare viruses in newfoundland.california serogroup viruses, including jamestown canyon virus (jcv) and snowshoe hare virus (sshv), are mosquito-borne members of the bunyaviridae family and are endemic across north america. these arboviruses are potential pathogens which occasionally cause neuroinvasive disease in humans and livestock. a neutralization assay was used to document jcv and sshv seroprevalence using blood collected from a variety of domestic and wildlife host species. these species were sampled in an island setti ...201222798366
serologic survey of snowshoe hares (lepus americanus) in the greater yellowstone area for brucellosis, tularemia, and snowshoe hare virus.we examined sera from snowshoe hares (lepus americanus) livetrapped in the northern greater yellowstone area (gya), us, for antibodies to brucella abortus, francisella tularensis, and snowshoe hare virus (sshv). zero of 90, 0 of 67, and 40 of 100 samples were antibody positive for b. abortus, f. tularensis, and sshv, respectively. hares were trapped from 2009 to 2012, and of the six animals that were captured twice with at least 1 yr between captures, four developed antibody to sshv, indicating ...201526161724
serological survey for antibodies to mosquito-borne bunyaviruses among us national park service and us forest service employees.serum samples from 295 employees of great smoky mountains national park (grsm), rocky mountain national park (romo), and grand teton national park with adjacent bridger-teton national forest (grte-btnf) were subjected to serological analysis for mosquito-borne bunyaviruses. the sera were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies against six orthobunyaviruses: la crosse virus (lacv), jamestown canyon virus (jcv), snowshoe hare virus (sshv), california encephalitis virus, and trivittatus virus (tvtv) b ...201626855300
isolation and characterization of a california encephalitis serogroup orthobunyavirus from finnish mosquitoes.the mosquito-borne california encephalitis serogroup viruses of the genus orthobunyavirus (family bunyaviridae) include several causative agents of encephalitis in humans. until recently, inkoo virus (inkv) was the only orthobunyavirus isolated in finland, showing high seroprevalence in the population. in this study, we recovered five orthobunyavirus isolates from mosquitoes collected in eastern finland in the early autumns of 2007 and 2008 by inoculation of vero cells. the isolates were determi ...201424480054
california serogroup virus infection associated with encephalitis and cognitive decline, canada, 2015.california serogroup (csg) viruses, such as jamestown canyon and snowshoe hare viruses, are mosquitoborne pathogens that cause febrile illness and neurologic disease. human exposures have been described across canada, but infections are likely underdiagnosed. we describe a case of neuroinvasive illness in a new brunswick, canada, patient infected with a csg virus.201728726628
saskatchewan. snowshoe hare virus encephalitis in a filly. 198817423035
the seasonal timing of snowshoe hare virus transmission on the island of newfoundland, canada.arthropod-borne diseases negatively affect humans worldwide. understanding the biology of the arthropod vectors and the pathogens they harbor, the arthropods are moving targets as a result of climate change, ecosystem degradation, species introductions, and increased human travel. viruses within the california serogroup of the genus orthobunyavirus (family bunyaviridae) are among the mosquito-borne viruses of concern owing to their zoonotic potential. two of these, snowshoe hare virus (sshv) and ...201728069630
[investigation of tahyna virus infection among unknown fever cases in xinjiang, china].to investigate the infection status and the spatial distribution of tahyna virus infection among unknown fever cases in xinjiang, china. sera samples of unknown fever cases from kashi in southern xin-jiang and yili in northern xinjiang were tested against tahyna virus by ifa. partial positive cases were tested against tahyna virus/snowshoe hare virus/inkoo virus parrelled. finally, 742 sera samples of unknown fever cases were collected from kashi, southern xinjiang in 2007-2008, the positive rat ...201121462509
tahyna virus genetics, infectivity, and immunogenicity in mice and monkeys.tahyna virus (tahv) is a human pathogen of the california encephalitis virus (cev) serogroup (bunyaviridae) endemic to europe, asia, and africa. tahv maintains an enzootic life cycle with several species of mosquito vectors and hares, rabbits, hedgehogs, and rodents serving as small mammal amplifying hosts. human tahv infection occurs in summer and early fall with symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and nausea. tahv disease can progress to cns involvement, although ...201121435229
detecting bunyaviruses of the bunyamwera and california serogroups by a pcr technique.many bunyaviruses of the bunyamwera and california serogroups are medically important human pathogens. the development of an effective technique to detect the viruses by using molecular biologic tools, such as pcr, improves not only clinical diagnosis but also virologic surveillance of mosquito vectors in the field. in this study, we evaluated eight pairs of primers for reactivity with 44 viruses of the genus bunyavirus, using a reverse transcriptase pcr technique. with a pair of serogroup-speci ...19968727900
antibodies to snowshoe hare virus of the california group in the horse population in nova scotia.a large number of north american equine samples were tested for the california group of arboviruses (cal). of 861 equine sera tested by hemagglutination inhibition using the snowshoe hare virus as an antigen, 106 (12.3%) were positive. neutralization tests confirmed antibodies to this virus in 72 of the positive sera. this study provides evidence of cal activity in the domestic animal population of nova scotia.19807397607
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