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detection of parvoviruses in wolf feces by electron microscopy.one hundred fifteen wolf (canis lupus) feces were collected between 1980 and 1984 from northeastern minnesota and were examined for canine parvovirus by negative contrast electron microscopy. of these, seven (6%) samples revealed the presence of parvovirus. some of these viruses were able to grow in cell cultures forming intranuclear inclusion bodies and giant cells.19882832624
antibodies against canine parvovirus in wolves of minnesota: a serologic study from 1975 through 1985.serum samples (n = 137) from 47 wild wolves (canis lupus; 21 pups and 26 adults) were evaluated from 1975 to 1985 for antibodies against canine parvovirus, using the hemagglutination inhibition (hi) test. in addition, several blood samples (n = 35) from 14 of these wolves (6 pups and 8 adults) were evaluated simultaneously for erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, and for hemoglobin and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. sixty-nine (50%) of the serum samples (35 wolves) had hi titers of greater tha ...19862851572
canine parvovirus infection in wolves (canis lupus) from minnesota. 19863005665
serologic investigations of canine parvovirus and canine distemper in relation to wolf (canis lupus) pup mortalities.twenty-one serum samples from 18 wolves (canis lupus) were collected from 1985 to 1990 from northwestern montana (usa) and southeastern british columbia, canada, and evaluated for antibodies to canine parvovirus (cpv), canine distemper (cd), infectious canine hepatitis, and lyme disease; we found prevalences of 13 (65%) of 19, five (29%) of 17, seven (36%) of 19, and 0 of 20 wolves for these diseases, respectively. pups died or disappeared in three of the eight packs studied. in these three pack ...19948028116
canine parvovirus effect on wolf population change and pup survival.canine parvovirus infected wild canids more than a decade ago, but no population effect has been documented. in wild minnesota wolves (canis lupus) over a 12-yr period, the annual percent population increase and proportion of pups each were inversely related to the percentage of wolves serologically positive to the disease. although these effects did not seem to retard this large extant population, similar relationships in more isolated wolf populations might hinder recovery of this endangered a ...19938387611
death of a wild wolf from canine parvoviral enteritis.a 9-mo-old female wolf (canis lupus) in the superior national forest of minnesota (usa) died from a canine parvovirus (cpv) infection. this is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.19979131567
detection of canine parvovirus in wolves from italy.one hundred fifteen samples of wolf (canis lupus) feces were collected during 1994 to 1995 from four free-living populations of the north central apennines mountains, italy. the samples were tested for canine parvovirus by antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), hemagglutination, and virus isolation. four of these samples were positive by virus isolation as confirmed by electron microscopy. all positive samples were from casentino park in tuscany. this is the first definitive ...19979249711
canine parvovirus enteritis, canine distemper, and major histocompatibility complex genetic variation in mexican wolves.the endangered mexican wolf (canis lupus baileyi) was recently reintroduced into arizona and new mexico (usa). in 1999 and 2000, pups from three litters that were part of the reintroduction program died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. overall, half (seven of 14) of the pups died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. the parents and their litters were analyzed for variation at the class ii major histocompatibility complex (mhc) gene drb1. similar mhc genes are related ...200314733289
serologic survey for selected disease agents in wolves (canis lupus) from alaska and the yukon territory, 1984-2000.wolves (canis lupus) were captured in several geographic areas of alaska (usa) and the yukon territory (canada) during 1984-2000. blood was collected from 1,122 animals. sera were tested for antibodies against infectious canine hepatitis virus (ich), canine distemper virus (cdv), canine parvovirus (cpv), francisella tularensis, and serovars of leptospira interrogans. antibody prevalence for ich was >84% for all areas. area-specific prevalences of antibodies ranged from 12% to 70% for cpv, from 0 ...200415650081
prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus among foxes and wolves from spain.viral diseases can influence the population dynamics of wild carnivores and can have effects on carnivore conservation. hence, a serologic survey was conducted in an opportunistic sample of 137 foxes (vulpes vulpes) and 37 wolves (canis lupus) in spain for 1997-2007 to detect antibodies against canine distemper virus (cdv) and against canine parvovirus (cpv) by indirect elisa. antibodies against cdv were detected in 18.7% of the analyzed animals and antibodies against cpv in 17.2%. there was no ...200817646060
demographic effects of canine parvovirus on a free-ranging wolf population over 30 years.we followed the course of canine parvovirus (cpv) antibody prevalence in a subpopulation of wolves (canis lupus) in northeastern minnesota from 1973, when antibodies were first detected, through 2004. annual early pup survival was reduced by 70%, and wolf population change was related to cpv antibody prevalence. in the greater minnesota population of 3,000 wolves, pup survival was reduced by 40-60%. this reduction limited the minnesota wolf population rate of increase to about 4% per year compar ...200818957638
serologic survey for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in free-ranging wild carnivores from portugal.a serologic survey for canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine parvovirus (cpv) was performed on serum and lung extract from an opportunistic sample of 120 free-ranging wild carnivores (13 species) from portugal, collected from 1995 to 2006. antibodies to cdv were detected in wolf (canis lupus; 3/27) and red fox (vulpes vulpes; 2/22). antibodies to cpv were detected in wolf (9/28), red fox (2/14), wildcat (felis silvestris;1/8), genet (genetta genetta; 17/18), and stone marten (martes foina; 3/1 ...200919204354
a serological survey of infectious disease in yellowstone national park's canid community.gray wolves (canis lupus) were reintroduced into yellowstone national park (ynp) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. in 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks.200919756151
diseases and parasites in wolves of the riding mountain national park region, manitoba, canada.we examined wolf (canis lupus) blood and fecal samples from the riding mountain national park (rmnp) region of manitoba, canada. in 601 fecal samples collected during two study periods in rmnp and the duck mountain provincial park and forest (dmppf) we found gastrointestinal helminth eggs from alaria sp. (15.5%), capillaria sp. (1.0%), taeniid tapeworms (30.8%), toxascaris sp. (1.7%), toxocara sp. (0.2%), trichuris sp. (2.2%), and moniezia sp. (0.5%). in addition, we found demodex sp. (0.2%) and ...201121270013
exposure to infectious agents in dogs in remote coastal british columbia: possible sentinels of diseases in wildlife and humans.ranked among the top threats to conservation worldwide, infectious disease is of particular concern for wild canids because domestic dogs (canis familiaris) may serve as sources and reservoirs of infection. on british columbia's largely undeveloped but rapidly changing central and north coasts, little is known about diseases in wolves (canis lupus) or other wildlife. however, several threats exist for transfer of diseases among unvaccinated dogs and wolves. to gain baseline data on infectious ag ...201121461190
parasitology and serology of free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) in north carolina, usa.coyotes (canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern us and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. we examined free-ranging coyotes from central north carolina, us, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. we detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (dirofilaria immiti ...201525984773
prevalence of antibodies for selected canine pathogens among wolves (canis lupus) from the alaska peninsula, usa.we collected blood samples from wolves ( canis lupus ) on the alaska peninsula, southwest alaska, us, 2006-11 and tested sera for antibodies to canine adenovirus (cav), canine coronavirus (ccv), canine distemper virus (cdv), canine herpesvirus (chv), canine parainfluenza (cpi), canine parvovirus (cpv), neospora caninum , and toxoplasma gondii . detected antibody prevalence was 90% for cav, 28% for ccv, 12% for cdv, 93% for chv, 0% for cpi, 20% for cpv, 0% for n. caninum, and 86% for t. gondii . ...201627195683
parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) from central georgia, usa.we examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) from central georgia, usa, for select parasites and viral agents. sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (dirofilaria immitis). serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against leishmania spp. twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for toxoplasma gondii. real-time pcr of feces revealed 32% of coyot ...201425098300
a serosurvey of diseases of free-ranging gray wolves (canis lupus) in minnesota.we tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves ( canis lupus ) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in minnesota's wolf population. we found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite neospora caninum . ...201728192048
frequent cross-species transmission of parvoviruses among diverse carnivore hosts.although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. a phylogenetic analysis of vp2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus ("fpv-like") or canine parvovirus ("cpv-like"). cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, rela ...201323221559
use of real-time pcr to detect canine parvovirus in feces of free-ranging wolves.using real-time pcr, we tested 15 wolf (canis lupus) feces from the superior national forest (snf), minnesota, usa, and 191 from yellowstone national park (ynp), usa, collected during summer and 13 during winter for canine parvovirus (cpv)-2 dna. we also tested 20 dog feces for cpv-2 dna. the pcr assay was 100% sensitive and specific with a minimum detection threshold of 10(4) 50% tissue culture infective dose. virus was detected in two winter specimens but none of the summer specimens. we sugge ...201222493125
surveillance for antibodies against six canine viruses in wild raccoons (procyon lotor) in japan.raccoons (procyon lotor) are found worldwide. they are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. we examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. we also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. we found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (cdv), ...201728715293
genetic characterization of canine parvovirus in sympatric free-ranging wild carnivores in portugal.since its emergence in the 1970s, canine parvovirus (cpv) has been reported in domestic and nondomestic carnivores worldwide with severe implications on their health and survival. here, we aim to better understand cpv circulation in multihost-pathogens systems by characterizing cpv dna or viruses in 227 free-ranging wild carnivores of 12 species from portugal. collected samples during 1995-2011 were analyzed by pcr and sequence analysis. the canine parvovirus dna was detected in 4 (2%) animals o ...201728657857
a ten-year molecular survey on parvoviruses infecting carnivores in bulgaria.parvoviruses represent the most important infectious agents that are responsible for severe to fatal disease in carnivores. this study reports the results of a 10-year molecular survey conducted on carnivores in bulgaria (n = 344), including 262 dogs and 19 cats with gastroenteritis, and 57 hunted wild carnivores. real-time polymerase chain reaction (qpcr), followed by virus characterization by minor groove binder (mgb) probe assays, detected 216 parvovirus positive dogs with a predominance of c ...201625382194
concomitance and interactions of pathogens in the iberian wolf (canis lupus).with the aim of improving our understanding of their epidemiological features, exposure to or presence of canine parvovirus (cpv), canine distemper virus (cdv), leishmania infantum and sarcoptes scabiei were studied in 88 wild wolves from asturias (northern spain) by means of long-term (2004-2010) serological and molecular data. individual and population factors and the possible interactions between them were also statistically analyzed for better understanding the contact/presence of studied pa ...201526267084
patterns of exposure of iberian wolves (canis lupus) to canine viruses in human-dominated landscapes.wildlife inhabiting human-dominated landscapes is at risk of pathogen spill-over from domestic species. with the aim of gaining knowledge in the dynamics of viral infections in iberian wolves (canis lupus) living in anthropized landscapes of northern spain, we analysed between 2010 and 2013 the samples of 54 wolves by serology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for exposure to four pathogenic canine viruses: canine distemper virus (cdv), canine parvovirus-2 (cpv), canine adenovirus 1 and 2 (cav ...201626589403
prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and distemper virus in wolves in the canadian rocky mountains.wild carnivores are often exposed to diseases via contact with peridomestic host species that travel through the wildland-urban interfaces. to determine the antibody prevalences and relationships to human activity for two common canid pathogens, we sampled 99 wolves (canis lupus) from 2000 to 2008 for antibodies to canine parvovirus (cpv) and canine distemper virus (cdv) in banff and jasper national parks and surrounding areas of the canadian rockies. this population was the source for wolves re ...201222247375
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