mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) and their relevance as disease vectors in the city of vienna, austria.mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) are important vectors for a wide range of pathogenic organisms. as large parts of the human population in developed countries live in cities, the occurrence of vector-borne diseases in urban areas is of particular interest for epidemiologists and public health authorities. in this study, we investigated the mosquito occurrence in the city of vienna, austria, in order to estimate the risk of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. mosquitoes were captured using di ...201425468380
usutu virus persistence and west nile virus inactivity in the emilia-romagna region (italy) in 2011.the circulation of west nile virus and usutu virus was detected in the emilia-romagna region in 2008 and 2009. to evaluate the extent of circulation of both viruses, environmental surveillance, based on bird and mosquito testing, was conducted in 2008 and gradually improved over the years.201323667694
co-circulation of two usutu virus strains in northern italy between 2009 and 2014.usutu virus is an arbovirus closely related to west nile virus (genus flavivirus), which circulates between mosquitoes and wild birds. this virus has been increasingly reported in europe, raising concerns for its possible pathogenic potential for wild birds and humans. this study reports the whole genome sequences of 15 strains of usuv, isolated between 2010 and 2014 from mosquitoes and wild birds in the course of west nile virus surveillance in the emilia-romagna and lombardy regions of norther ...201728341546
wide detection of aedes flavivirus in north-eastern italy--a european hotspot of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.the pattern of flavivirus infection in mosquitoes belonging to the genera aedes and culex collected in two regions of north-eastern italy (trentino and veneto) was assessed. mosquitoes were collected during 2012 and screened for flaviviruses using a generic reverse transcription-nested-pcr targeted on a region of the non-structural ns5 gene. the phylogenetic analysis was performed on a fragment of ~1000 bp. virus isolation was attempted in c6/36 insect cell lines and the infected cell cultures w ...201525326313
detection of west nile and usutu viruses in italian free areas: entomological surveillance in piemonte and liguria regions, 2014.west nile virus and usutu virus have established in different parts of italy over the past 10 years. piemonte and liguria regions (northwestern italy) are known to be nonendemic areas, despite the presence of competent vectors and environmental conditions conducive to maintaining infection. this work evidences for the first time, through an entomological surveillance implemented on the basis of risk factor approach, the presence of west nile and usutu viruses in piemonte and liguria regions (nor ...201626862776
an overview of mosquitoes and emerging arboviral infections in the zagreb area, croatia.mosquito control in the zagreb area has been conducted for many years, whereas the fauna has only been investigated in the last 20 years. so far 30 mosquito species have been detected in the city area. culex pipiens form molestus is the dominant mosquito species in indoor breeding sites. in forested areas and areas exposed to flooding, the active period is early spring and the dominant species are ochlerotatus sticticus, ochlerotatus cantans, ochlerotatus geniculatus and aedes vexans. the eudomi ...201628036307
west nile virus and usutu--a threat to recent years emergence of new infectious diseases and the growing spread of pathogens to new areas is observed. most of these pathogens are zoonotic viruses and their transmission route is from animals to humans and vice versa. these so called emerging and re-emerging pathogens that were present previously only in africa and asia are becoming a threat to european countries. these include, e.g. west nile virus and usutu virus. the aim of the study is to present the clinical course of infection ...201627344466
mosquito, bird and human surveillance of west nile and usutu viruses in emilia-romagna region (italy) in 2008, after the first west nile virus (wnv) detection in the emilia-romagna region, a surveillance system, including mosquito- and bird-based surveillance, was established to evaluate the virus presence. surveillance was improved in following years by extending the monitoring to larger areas and increasing the numbers of mosquitoes and birds tested.201222666446
blood meal analysis, flavivirus screening, and influence of meteorological variables on the dynamics of potential mosquito vectors of west nile virus in northern extended area of northern italy has experienced several west nile virus (wnv) outbreaks and the emergence of usutu virus (usuv) during previous years. our aim was to study some of the factors that could explain disease patterns in the trentino region, where circulation was detected in human sera and sentinel chickens, but no human or equine cases were reported. we collected culex species (diptera: culicidae) in peridomestic environments. the collected specimens were analyzed for feeding behav ...201222548533
control of mosquito-borne diseases in northwestern italy: preparedness from one season to the next.mosquito-borne diseases (mbds) are spreading worldwide due to globalization and climate change, representing a threat for both humans and animals. of great concern are the infections caused by viruses belonging to the flavivirus genus as west nile virus (wnv) and usutu virus (usuv) transmitted by culex sp. or dengue virus and zika virus (zikv), transmitted by aedes sp. this work describes the surveillance protocol enforced in piedmont (northwestern italy) to control mbds spread, focusing on the ...201728437184
Usutu virus: potential risk of human disease in Europe.Usutu virus (USUV) is an African mosquito-borne flavivirus, member of the Japanese encephalitis antigenic group. This avian virus is transmitted by arthropod vectors (mainly mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex). It is well known that free-living birds, including migratory species, have the potential to disperse certain pathogenic microorganisms. Usutu virus has recently been introduced to Europe and is spreading through Austria, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Switzerland, causing disease in birds ...201121871214
Isolation of usutu virus in Germany.Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged 2001 in Austria and caused deaths in wild birds. In Germany, 70,378 female mosquitoes were captured in 2009 and 2010 and assayed for USUV. Virus was isolated in cell culture from one pool of Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes trapped exclusively in August 2010 in Weinheim, Germany. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the isolated USUV strain from Germany and a USUV strain from Austria, which was d ...201121896821
detection of usutu virus within a west nile virus surveillance program in northern italy.abstract usutu virus (usuv) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the japanese encephalitis serocomplex, recently related to neurological disease in immunosuppressed patients. in the same area of northern italy where usuv human cases occurred in 2009, a regional west nile virus (wnv) surveillance program based on mosquito monitoring and wild birds screening has been implemented since 2008. mosquito pools and wild birds were tested using three different polymerase chain reactions (flaviviru ...201120849275
west nile virus surveillance in 2013 via mosquito screening in northern italy and the influence of weather on virus circulation.west nile virus (wnv) is a recently re-emerged health problem in europe. in italy, an increasing number of outbreaks of west nile disease, with occurrences of human cases, have been reported since 2008. this is particularly true in northern italy, where entomological surveillance systems have been implemented at a regional level. the aim of this study was to use, for the first time, all the entomological data collected in the five regions undergoing surveillance for wnv in northern italy to char ...201526488475
explaining usutu virus dynamics in austria: model development and calibration.usutu virus (usuv), a flavivirus of the japanese encephalitis virus complex, was for the first time detected outside africa in the region around vienna (austria) in 2001 by weissenböck et al. [weissenböck, h., kolodziejek, j., url, a., lussy, h., rebel-bauder, b., nowotny, n., 2002. emergence of usutu virus, an african mosquito-borne flavivirus of the japanese encephalitis virus group, central europe. emerg. infect. dis. 8, 652-656]. usuv is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) circulating betwe ...200818314208
climatic effects on mosquito abundance in mediterranean wetlands.the impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. one of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission.201425030527
comparison of complete genome sequences of usutu virus strains detected in spain, central europe, and africa.the complete genomic sequence of usutu virus (usuv, genus flavivirus, family flaviviridae) strain mb119/06, detected in a pool of culex pipiens mosquitoes in northeastern spain (viladecans, catalonia) in 2006, was determined and analyzed. the phylogenetic relationship with all other available complete usuv genome sequences was established. the spanish sequence investigated showed the closest relationship to the usuv prototype strain sa ar 1776 isolated in south africa in 1959 (96.9% nucleotide a ...201424746182
japanese encephalitis virus rna detected in culex pipiens mosquitoes in italy.mosquitoes collected in northern italy were screened for flavivirus rna. positive amplicons were sequenced and found most similar to insect flavivirus (isf), usutu virus (usuv) and surprisingly also to japanese encephalitis virus (jev). the sequence (167 bp), obtained from one pool of culex pipiens, was found identical to jev strains from bats in china. unfortunately additional sequence data or virus isolations were not obtained in this study. confirmation of potential introduction of jev to ita ...201222835438
west nile and usutu viruses in mosquitoes in spain, 2008-2009.west nile virus lineage 1 (similar to the strains obtained from golden eagles in spain, 2007) and usutu virus (similar to the strains obtained from culex pipiens in spain, 2006) were detected in pools from culex perexiguus collected in southern spain in 2008 and 2009, respectively. this is the first detection and isolation of west nile virus lineage 1 from mosquitoes in spain.201121734145
[current status and eco-epidemiology of mosquito-borne arboviruses (diptera: culicidae) in spain].in this manuscript we analize the possible emergence and/or re-emergence in spain of some of the mosquito-borne arboviruses (diptera: culicidae) with highest incidence in recent years. the faunistic, bioecological and distributional data of the culicids in our country allow to differentiate between species with ability to maintain the enzootic cycles of arboviruses from others that can act as bridge vectors to the human population. the results show the existence of several common and anthropophi ...201020661525
comparative usutu and west nile virus transmission potential by local culex pipiens mosquitoes in north-western europe.originating from africa, usutu virus (usuv) first emerged in europe in 2001. this mosquito-borne flavivirus caused high mortality rates in its bird reservoirs, which strongly resembled the introduction of west nile virus (wnv) in 1999 in the united states. mosquitoes infected with usuv incidentally transmit the virus to other vertebrates, including humans, which can result in neuroinvasive disease. usuv and wnv co-circulate in parts of southern europe, but the distribution of usuv extends into c ...201528616462
outbreak and cocirculation of three different usutu virus strains in eastern germany.usutu virus (usuv) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus accounting for large-scale deaths in resident bird populations. in this study, we show the introduction of usuv to eastern germany resulting in massive death of birds, particularly blackbirds (turdus merula). we found that three diverse usuv lineages ("europe 3," "africa 2," and "africa 3-like") circulated simultaneously. moreover, we detected usuv in culex pipiens in a region where no dead birds were reported, strengthening the need for mosquito ...201728816628
evidence of simultaneous circulation of west nile and usutu viruses in mosquitoes sampled in emilia-romagna region (italy) in recent years human diseases due to mosquito-borne viruses were increasingly reported in emilia-romagna region (italy), from the chikungunya virus in 2007 to the west nile virus (wnv) in 2008. an extensive entomological survey was performed in 2009 to establish the presence and distribution of mosquito arboviruses in this region, with particular reference to flaviviruses.201021179462
molecular characterization of flaviviruses from field-collected mosquitoes in northwestern italy, 2011-2012.the genus flavivirus comprises several mosquito-borne species, including the zoonotic pathogens west nile and usutu virus, circulating in animals and humans in italy since 1998. due to its ecological and geographical features, piedmont is considered a risk area for flavivirus transmission. here we report the results of a flavivirus survey (detection and genetic characterization) of mosquitoes collected in piedmont in 2012 and the genetic characterization of three strains detected in 2011.201425160565
usutu virus sequences in culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae), spain. 200818439389
usutu virus in italy: an emergence or a silent infection?a two year study (2008-2009) was carried out to monitor the usutu virus (usuv) circulation in italy. sentinel horses and chickens, wild birds and mosquitoes were sampled and tested for the presence of usuv and usuv antibodies within the wnd national surveillance plan. seroconversion evidenced in sentinel animals proved that in these two years the virus has circulated in tuscany, emilia romagna, veneto and friuli venezia giulia regions. in veneto usuv caused a severe blackbird die-off disease inv ...201121550731
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