a severe outbreak of bovine mastitis assoicated with mycoplasma bovigenitalium and acholeplasma outbreak of clinical mastitis is described in which 75 cows of a herd of 200 friesian cows were affected in one or more quarters over a period of three months. sixty animals failed to return to normal despite various intramammary and systemic antibiotic treatments. heifers, dry cows and lactating animals were affected. the milk of 15 out of 53 animals tested yielded mixed cultures of mycoplasma bovigenitalium and acholeplasma laidlawii. thirteen of 34 sera showed evidence of antibodies to a l ...1978695253
evaluation of three methods for curing hybridomas from mycoplasma contamination.hybridomas are as susceptible to mycoplasma contamination as animal cell cultures. two in vitro methods and one in vivo passage into mice were compared for efficiency of curing hybridomas from mycoplasma contaminations. four contaminated clones were treated with the combined action of 5-bromouracil (5-brura) and the hoechst 33258 followed by photosensitization. the other in vitro method involved the use of bm-cycline. the success of overcoming the mycoplasma contamination was dependent on the le ...19882453449
prevalence of mycoplasma and acholeplasma species in cattle exhibiting various clinical diseases and pathological lesions in morocco. 19854060938
an ultrastructural study of mycoplasma laidlawii type a and two strains of mycoplasma laidlawii isolated from the oviducts of dairy cows. 19684888099
interspecies and intraspecies dna homology among established species of acholeplasma: a review.radiolabeled dna probes prepared in vitro by the nick translation method were used to determine the nucleotide sequence homology among the eight established and one unclassified species of acholeplasma. very little dna homology (2 to 21 percent) was found among these nine distinct species and the heteroduplexes showed at least 15 percent mismatching as determined by thermal elution endpoints. the data obtained by hybridization analyses paralleled the results obtained by the growth inhibition and ...19836433583
[mycoplasma mastitis of cattle. 10. test of mycoplasma bovis, mycoplasma bovigenitalium and acholeplasma laidlawii for udder pathogenicity]. 19836615132
[mycoplasma mastitis of cattle. 11. histological udder findings after experimental infection with mycoplasma bovigenitalium and acholeplasma laidlawii]. 19836615133
transport activity of mouse spleen lymphocytes after their interaction in vitro with acholeplasma laidlawii cells.transport of two non-metabolized carbohydrates (3-o-methyl-d-glucose, 3-o-mg, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose, 2-dg) into mouse spleen lymphocytes after their interaction with acholeplasma laidlawii cells has been studied. incubation of a. laidlawii cells and particularly the liposomes prepared from a. laidlawii membrane lipids enhances the rates of the both carbohydrates transport. this treatment resulted in increasing of the vmax values of 3-o-mg and 2-dg without changing the km values. this stimulation ...19836659737
prevalence of mycoplasma and chlamydia in the nasal flora of dairy calves.nasal swabs from dairy calves in 20 selected herds were collected once in each of three sampling periods in one year and cultured for mycoplasmas and chlamydiae. seventy-seven of 411 calves (19%) and 16 of 20 herds (80%) were positive for mycoplasmas at least once throughout the year, and all of 378 calves sampled from the 20 herds were negative for chlamydiae. thirty-one percent of the isolates were mycoplasma bovirhinis; other species isolated less frequently were mycoplasma bovis, mycoplasma ...19827179720
cyclodextrins as carriers of cholesterol and fatty acids in cultivation of mycoplasmas.the design of fully or partly defined media for mycoplasma cultivation involves the need to provide the essential lipids, cholesterol and long-chain fatty acids, in an assimilable and nontoxic form. this study introduces cyclodextrins (cds) as carriers of these lipids, thus suggesting alternatives to serum or bovine serum albumin (bsa). the effects of beta-cd and two forms of chemically modified beta-cd, dimethyl-beta-cd (dimeb) and hydroxypropyl-beta-cd (hyprob), on the growth of mycoplasma cap ...19938434920
differential and strain-specific triggering of bovine alveolar macrophage effector functions by mycoplasmas.mycoplasma strains being considered as pathogenic or non-pathogenic for cattle were tested on their capacity to activate bovine alveolar macrophages in vitro. of particular interest was the behaviour of mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides small colony type (m.m.m. sc), the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (cbpp). increases in procoagulant activity (pca), tumor necrosis factor-alpha- (tnf-alpha) and nitrogen monoxide (no) generation were tested. to minimize an influence of macro ...19968971688
epidemiologic analysis of mycoplasma spp isolated from bulk-tank milk samples obtained from dairy herds that were members of a milk determine the prevalence of mycoplasma spp in herds that were members of a milk cooperative.19979343550
antimicrobial susceptibilities of four species of mycoplasma isolated in 2008 and 2009 from cattle in japan.we examined the susceptibility in vitro of 99 isolates of mycoplasma (m. bovirhinis, m. bovis, m. alkalescens and m. bovoculi) and one of acholeplasma laidlawii collected in 2008 and 2009 from japanese homebred cattle and cows imported from australia to 13 antimicrobial agents. mycoplasma species isolated from homebred cattle were susceptible to spectinomycin and fluoroquinolones but resistant to macrolides, tetracyclines, thiamphenicol and flumequine. kanamycin, lincomycin and chloramphenicol m ...201020710124
isolation and identification of acholeplasma sp. from the mud crab, scylla serrata.for the first time, a mollicute-like organism (mlo) was cultured from moribund mud crabs (scylla serrata) during an outbreak of clearwater disease in zhejiang province, china. the mlo displayed a fried-egg colony morphology in culture, did not possess a cell wall, and was not retained by 0.45?µm and 0.2?µm filters. it was able to ferment glucose, sucrose, lactose, and maltose, but it did not utilize arginine and urea. the mlo grew in the absence of bovine serum and was not susceptible to digiton ...201121808652
validation of a mycoplasma molecular diagnostic test and distribution of mycoplasma species in bovine milk among new york state dairy farms.mycoplasma mastitis is a contagious and costly disease of dairy cattle that significantly affects animal health and milk productivity. mycoplasma bovis is the most prevalent and invasive agent of mycoplasma mastitis in dairy cattle, and early detection is critical. other mycoplasma have been isolated from milk; however, the role and prevalence of these species as mastitis pathogens are poorly understood. routine screening of milk for mycoplasma by bacteriological culture is an important componen ...201627016831
the growth and long term survival of acholeplasma laidlawii in media products used in biopharmaceutical manufacturing.acholeplasma laidlawii is a potential contaminant of bovine serum and has also been found as a contaminant in serum free cell culture media products. anecdotal evidence of a. laidlawii contamination of tryptone soya broth circulated for a number of years before it was acknowledged that the organism could contaminate microbiological broth powders. the occasional occurrence of a. laidlawii in broth powders and possibly in powdered components of cell culture media as part of the normal bioburden po ...201020153666
development of serum-free media for the cultivation and recovery of acholeplasma laidlawii used for challenge testing sterilizing-grade filters in biopharmaceutical applications.a serum-free cultivation broth and recovery agar for use in 0.1 micron-rated filter characterization and validation studies for biopharmaceutical applications were developed using acholeplasma laidlawii as the test microorganism. selection criteria were (a) a single-stage, serum-free broth medium to support high-titer cell growth and yield a cellular morphology suitable for bacterial challenge testing within 24 h and (b) a serum-free agar growth medium that can recover cells using conventional e ...200819634344
performance of a novel viresolve nfr virus filter.mammalian cell-expressed therapeutic proteins are particularly vulnerable to contamination by endogenous retrovirus-like particles (rvlps). the viresolve nfr filter was designed to meet the critical requirement of manufacturing a safe and virus-free therapeutic by retaining rvlps by a minimum of six log reduction value (lrv). the nfr designation refers to retrovirus removal in a normal flow format. to qualify the product, we tested two model viruses: the 78 nm diameter phi6 bacteriophage and the ...200212153313
comparative pcr analysis for detection of mycoplasma infections in continuous cell lines.mycoplasma contamination of cell lines is one of the major problems in cell culturing. about 15-35% of all cell lines are infected with a limited number of mycoplasma species of predominantly human, swine, or bovine origin. we examined the mycoplasma contamination status in 495 cell cultures by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay, microbiological culture method, and deoxyribonucleic acid-ribonucleic acid (dna-rna) hybridization, and in 103 cell cultures by pcr and dna-rna hybridization, in ord ...200211928999
[the kinetic and functional characteristics of dna-dependent dna-polymerases in acholeplasma laidlawii pg-8].the kinetic and functional characteristics of i and ii forms of dna-dependent dna-polymerases of acholeplasma laidlawii pg-8 have been studied. it is stated that i form of dna polymerase possesses 5'-3'-exonuclease activity and is a typical replicase; ii form of dna-polymerase possesses both 5'-3'-polymerase and 3'-5'-exonuclease activity and is, evidently, a reparase. both forms of enzyme give preference to poly(u)- and poly(a)-matrices having extremely high activity on these polymers. the enzy ...19938497202
rapid, sensitive pcr-based detection of mycoplasmas in simulated samples of animal sera.a fast and simple method to detect mycoplasmal contamination in simulated samples of animal sera by using a pcr was developed. the following five mycoplasma species that are major cell culture contaminants belonging to the class mollicutes were investigated: mycoplasma arginini, acholeplasma laidlawii, mycoplasma hyorhinis, mycoplasma orale, and mycoplasma fermentans. after a concentration step involving seeded sera, genus-specific primers were used to amplify a 717-bp dna fragment within the 16 ...19948161186
bovine genital mycoplasmosis.infection, lesions and clinical significance of acheloplasmas, mycoplasma bovis and mycoplasma bovigenitalium in genital disease of cattle are described. a more detailed account is given of ureaplasma infections. acute and chronic forms of granular vulvitis in both field and experimental disease are described as well as the role of the organism in abortion. recovery rates of ureaplasma and mycoplasma from semen and preputial washings in bulls are outlined and their significance in disease is dis ...19817337908
the effect of antibiotics against bovine mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas.a combination of lincomycin-spectinomycin-tylosin was tested against several strains of mycoplasmas and acholeplasmas as might be encountered in bovine semen and shown to be effective against them. this combination as well as minocin , rosaramicin, rosoxacin, tiamulin, gentamicin and declomycin were tested in vitro against 58 isolates of ureaplasma from the bovine urogenital tract. the lincomycin-spectinomycin-tylosin combination, minocin , rosaramicin, tiamulin and declomycin were quite active, ...19846232992
cholesterol requirement of mycoplasmas.cholesterol requirement for growth of mycoplasmas was tested in a serum-free medium supplemented with albumin, l-arginine, palmitic acid, and various concentrations of cholesterol dissolved in tween 80. in cases in which tween 80 was shown to inhibit growth, the test medium was supplemented with cholesterol dissolved in ethanol. of the 31 species examined, all but mycoplasma laidlawii, m. granularum, and mycoplasma species strain s-743 exhibited a growth response to cholesterol. no requirement f ...19704911537
[decontamination of continual cell lines spontaneously infected with mycoplasmas].the continual cell lines of bovine kidneys mdbk and aubek, and porcine kidneys rpd and ibrs, spontaneously infected with mycoplasma arginini and acholeplasma laidlawii, were decontaminated by the method of selective elimination. two elimination procedures were modified to be used for the decontamination: one based on the reduction of infection by the light treatment of the cultures, the other based on the selection of mycoplasma-free cell population through cell clonation. on the basis of a long ...19863090766
evaluation of a digitonin disk assay to discriminate between acholeplasma and mycoplasma isolates from bovine milk.a study was undertaken to evaluate effectiveness of a digitonin disk inhibition test to discriminate between acholeplasma laidlawii and mycoplasma sp. isolated from bovine milk. the test measured zone diameters of growth inhibition surrounding a digitonin-containing disk on solid medium. zones of inhibition for 20 isolates of a. laidlawii, ranging from 8-14 mm, did not overlap those of 261 isolates of mycoplasma sp., ranging from 16 to 38 mm. examination of variation in zone diameters for m. bov ...19892912675
[the inactivation of mycoplasmas and bacteria in calf serum by 60co gamma rays].reported in this paper is the use of 60co gamma radiation to inactivate mycoplasmas in calf serum, newborn calf serum, and fetal calf serum. a dose of 3 kgy, independent of dose rate, was found to be sufficient for inactivation in the above sera of several mycoplasmas, including acholeplasma laidlawii, mycoplasma (m.) orale, m. arginini, m. hyorhinis, and m. bovis. the critical dose proved to be at 2 kgy. no difference was found to exist between the above species in susceptibility to irradiation ...19892619478
[the "in vitro" effect of antibiotics on mycoplasmas under conditions of the preparation of bull sperm].bull sperm was experimentally contaminated with mycoplasma (m.) bovis, m. bovigenitalium, and acholeplasma laidlawii (10(5) colony-forming units/ml sperm). antibiotics were tested for their effectiveness under conditions of preparation of sperm for artificial insemination, primarily for their capability of killing all mycoplasma by the end of sperm equilibration (cooling to +4 degrees c within 5 h). mycoplasma decontamination was achievable only by means of nourseothricin and lincospectin, in a ...19892619467
[detection certainty of the contamination of bull sperm with mycoplasma].tests for presence of mycoplasmas were conducted on 20 insemination bulls known as mycoplasma spreaders, with 5 sperm pellet batches of 20 pellets each being investigated for each animal. mycoplasma contamination was positively recorded from 83 of the above 100 batches. mycoplasma (m.) bovigenitalium, m. californicum. m. arginini, m. bovirhinis, and acholeplasma laidlawii were typed by means of indirect immunofluorescent technique, which confirmed the presence also in the gdr of mycoplasma speci ...19892619465
effects of age, environmental temperature and relative humidity on the colonization of the nose and trachea of calves by mycoplasma spp.nasal and tracheal swabs sequentially collected from three groups of eight calves between the ages of 1 and 98 days indicated that the nose and trachea were colonized by mycoplasma spp. during the first weeks of life. over 92% of all calves harboured mycoplasma spp. in their noses when they were 2 weeks old, the rate of recovery falling gradually thereafter. the peak period of recovering mycoplasmas from the noses and tracheas of calves was at 6 weeks old. m. bovirhinis, m. arginini and acholepl ...19902224487
the nasal mycoplasmal flora of healthy calves and cows.the nasal mycoplasmal flora of 270 healthy cows from 27 herds in the netherlands and 35 healthy calves from 7 of these herds was examined. various methods for isolating mycoplasmas were compared. the prevalence of the various species was as follows: ureaplasma diversum in 3 (9%) calves; mycoplasma dispar in 14 (40%) calves; m. bovis in 1 (3%) calf; m. bovirhinis in 23 (66%) calves and 16 (6%) cows; m. bovoculi in 8 (23%) calves and 53 (20%) cows; m. canis in 1 (3%) calf; m. equirhinis in 2 (1%) ...19921462726
[identification of mycoplasma by the growth inhibition of samples isolated from cell cultures].cell cultures must be continuously screened for the presence of mycoplasma because, although these microorganisms sometimes pass unnoticed, they may cause chromosomic alterations and interfere with viral replication, antibody and interferon production etc. the international organization for mycoplasmology (iom) recommends the isolation and identification of mycoplasma with a view to the detection of the origin of the infection and the improvement of the quality of the cultures. in this paper, 37 ...19921307416
experimentally produced calf pneumonia.experimental pneumonia was produced in calves by the endobronchial inoculation of pneumonic lung homogenates. irradiated homogenates produced minimal pneumonia. ampicillin treatment of the homogenates and the experimental calves reduced the extent of pneumonia. treatment with tylosin tartrate prevented experimental pneumonia. these results suggest that the total pneumonia was due to organisms susceptible to tylosin tartrate and that the residual pneumonia remaining after ampicillin treatment was ...19761265354
pathogenicity of certain mycoplasma species in the bovine mammary gland.strains of three of the species of mycoplasmas isolated from pneumonic calf lungs, mycoplasma dispar, mycoplasma bovirhinis and acholeplasma laidlawii, were inoculated into the bovine mammary gland. pathogenicity of the species was monitored by counting the inflammatory cells and mycoplasmas in milk. six of the seven m dispar strains produced clinical mastitis, but the seventh strain, vic12, was apparently avirulent. the four strains of m bovirhinis caused subclinical mastitis. none of the four ...1976935661
[experience in identification and control of mycoplasma in dairy cattle stock under routine laboratory conditions].exacting demands have to be met by milk testing routine laboratories where mycoplasma species are to be cultured from milk samples. cleanliness of sampling, immediate cold storage, and no-delay transport of the milk samples to the testing centre are of greatest importance to the informative value of all mycoplasma tests. in the summer season, it is recommended to freeze the milk samples immediately after sampling. mycoplasma broth should not be inoculated to animals of the herd from which the sa ...1979551756
[studies of mycoplasma mastitis in cattle. 7. mycoplasma mastitis in 3 dairy cattle herds].reported in this paper is the occurrence of enzootic mastitis in three dairy cattle stocks. the outbreaks had been caused by mycoplasma bovis, acholeplasma laidlawii, acholeplasma axanthum as well as by one unidentified strain of the family of mycoplasmataceae. all animals with positive response to mycoplasma tests were identified an selected by repetitive testing of cultures in milk samples which had been taken from all lactating and dry cows and heifers as well as by evaluation of organ sample ...1979547919
the identification and characterization of ibpa, a novel α-crystallin-type heat shock protein from mycoplasma.α-crystallin-type small heat shock proteins (shsps) are expressed in many bacteria, animals, plants, and archaea. among mycoplasmas (mollicutes), predicted shsp homologues so far were found only in the acholeplasmataceae family. in this report, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of a novel shsp orthologue, ibpa protein, present in acholeplasma laidlawii. importantly, similar to the endogenously expressed shsp proteins, the recombinant ibpa protein was able to spontaneously g ...201122002515
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