anti-rotavirus antibody in human colostrum. 197874515
anti-rotavirus antibody in human colostrum. 197876105
in-vitro detection of human rotaviruses. 197578193
use of antisera against bovine (ncdv) and simian (sa11) rotaviruses in elisa to detect different types of human rotavirus.two elisa systems for the detection of human rotaviruses were developed. in the first system antibodies to nebraska calf diarrhea virus (ncdv) were used for coating the solid matrix and for the preparation of the enzyme conjugate. in the second system antibodies to human rotavirus and antibodies to simian rotavirus (sa11) were used for coating the solid matrix and for the preparation of the enzyme conjugate respectively. the second elisa system proved to have a broader spectrum for the detection ...197994274
human rotavirus in young dogs. 1976190523
human rotavirus in lambs: infection and passive protection.a human stool filtrate containing rotavirus which was administered orally to gnotobiotic lambs caused diarrhea, virus excretion, development of antibodies to rotavirus, and pathological changes in the villi of the small intestine. thus, lambs may serve as experimental animals for the study of human rotavirus infections. this model system was used to study passive protection. human immunoglobulin g (igg) containing antibody to rotavirus was fed to lambs 24 to 78 h after birth, and the lambs were ...1977194837
comparison of rotavirus strains by hemagglutination inhibition.rotaviruses have been shown to be of importance as aetiologic agents of gastroenteritis in infants and in domestic animals of several species. hemagglutinins were prepared from two canadian isolates of bovine rotavirus and from one isolate of a simian rotavirus. a united kingdon isolate of bovine rotavirus was shown not to possess hemagglutinating activity, indicating a strain difference between a canadian and united kingdom bovine rotavirus. in hemagglutination-inhibition (hai) tests a rabbit h ...1978205329
rna polymerase associated with human rotaviruses in diarrhea stools.rna polymerase activity was detected in six stools which were partially purified by high-speed centrifugation from infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis, but was not detected in five stools which were negative for rotavirus by counterimmunoelectrophoresis and radioimmunoassay. the polymerase activity was associated with the 1.38-g/ml rotavirus band after purification in a cscl gradient.1978207902
comparison of human and animal rotavirus strains by gel electrophoresis of viral rna. 1978208274
human rotavirus infection in infants and young children with intussusception.human rotavirus was detected by electron microscopy in 11 of 30 infants and young children with intussusception (37% of subjects under study). serologic complement fixation tests revealed evidence of infection with the rotavirus in 70% of the patients examined who eliminated the rotavirus in their stools. these results indicate that human rotavirus, in addition to adenovirus, may be an infectious agent causing intussusception in infants and young children.1978212529
rotaviral immunity in gnotobiotic calves: heterologous resistance to human virus induced by bovine virus.the possibility of immunizing human infants against rotaviruses, which cause severe dehydrating diarrheal disease, may depend on the use of a related rotavirus, derived from another animal species, as a source of antigen. to test the feasibility of this approach, calves were infected in utero with a bovine rotavirus and challenged with bovine or human type 2 rotavirus shortly after birth. infection in utero with bovine rotavirus induced resistance to diarrheal disease caused by the human virus a ...1979216077
review of rotavirus infections of man and animals. 1977220639
[virological and serological study of rotavirus gastroenteritis].cases of acute gastroenteritis with negative bacteriological analyses were examined. preparations of feces collected from patients in the acute stage of the disease were found by immune electron microscopy to contain typical rotavirus particles forming specific aggregates in the presence of convalescent sera. examinations of paired acute and convalescent sera of the patients revealed the presence in convalescent sera of specific antibodies neutralizing simian rotavirus sa 11 antigenically relate ...1979225885
rotavirus polypeptides.rotavirus infected monkey kidney cells (llc-mk2) have been labelled with 35s-methionine in the presence of actinomycin d. the cells have been lysed with sds and the polypeptides separated by discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. rotavirus polypeptides began to appear 4 to 5 h p.i.; incorporation was maximum at 8 h, but all the polypeptides were still being made 15 to 18 h p.i. tissue culture adapted calf rotavirus particles were labelled with 35s-methionine and the polypeptides compa ...1979227989
viral intestinal infections of animals and man. 1979232863
[experiments to obtain and test a cell-culture rotavirus-precipitating antigen].the location of the rotaviral precipitating antigen and the possibility for its production from cattle rotaviral strains adapted on cell cultures of calf kidney were investigated. highest titer antigen was produced by concentration with ammonium sulfate simultaneously from the maintaining medium and from the cell monolayer. comparative studies on the antigenic and physico-chemical properties of the cell-cultural and the faeces rotaviral precipitating antigen were made. the identity of both antig ...1979232949
characteristics of the genome of human infantile enteritis virus (rotavirus).thermal denaturation studies and polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis have shown that the genome of human infantile enteritis virus (human rotavirus) consists of approximately 11 double-stranded segments. differences in the molecular weights of some of the corresponding genome segments are apparent between different isolates of the virus.1976820876
expression of the osu rotavirus outer capsid protein vp4 by an adenovirus recombinant.full-length cdna of the vp4 gene of porcine rotavirus strain osu was cloned into adenovirus type 5 (ad5) downstream of the e3 promoter. the plaque-purified recombinant (ad5-osu vp4) expressed apparently authentic vp4 rotavirus outer capsid protein. the protein had the same molecular size (85 kda) and electrophoretic mobility as did native osu vp4 and was immunoprecipitated by a polyclonal antiserum raised to osu vp4. cotton rats that possessed prechallenge rotavirus antibodies that may have been ...19921318411
identification of candidate sequences that determine virulence in coxsackievirus b4.we have previously shown that a major determinant of virulence for coxsackievirus b4 mapped to the 5' end of the viral genome. comparison of the corresponding cdna sequences of a virulent and a non-virulent virus has allowed the identification of candidate determinants of virulence in the 5' untranslated region and the capsid proteins vp1, vp2 and vp4. thirteen nucleotide substitutions were observed in a region spanning 3298 nucleotides. four mutations were detected in the non-coding region. of ...19921320798
subgroup i serotype 3 human rotavirus strains with long rna pattern as a result of naturally occurring reassortment between members of the bovine and au-1 genogroups.two human rotavirus strains, pcp 5 and mz 58, which possessed an unusual combination of subgroup (i), serotype (3) and rna pattern (long) were examined by rna-rna hybridization to determine their genogroup. while these two strains did not belong to either the wa or the ds-1 genogroup, pcp 5 and mz 58 possessed seven gene segments that formed hybrids with bovine rotavirus strain ncdv and four gene segments that formed hybrids with human rotavirus strain au-1. these results suggest that pcp 5 and ...19921326266
mechanism of interferon action: identification of a rna binding domain within the n-terminal region of the human rna-dependent p1/eif-2 alpha protein kinase.a molecular cdna clone of the human rna-dependent p1/eif-2 alpha protein kinase was expressed in escherichia coli. mutant p1 proteins were examined for rna binding activity by northwestern blot analysis using the reovirus s1 mrna, an activator of the kinase; the adenovirus vai rna, an inhibitor of kinase activation; or human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) tar rna as probe. analysis of trpe-p1 deletion mutant fusion proteins revealed that the 11-kda n-terminal region of the p1 protein bound reoviru ...19921373554
human serum non-antibody inhibitors towards sa-11 rotavirus the present work the non-antibody inhibitory activity of human serum towards sa-11 rotavirus hemagglutination (ha) has been studied. among human serum protein components, inhibitory activity was recovered in fractions iii (beta-globulin), iv (alpha-globulin) and iv (glycoprotein). additional experiments performed with purified lipoprotein sub-classes and their lipid and apolipoprotein moieties demonstrated the ability of hdl and, hdl1 to prevent sa-11 ha.19911648658
relation of vp7 amino acid sequence to monoclonal antibody neutralization of rotavirus and rotavirus monotype.the neutralization epitopes of the vp7 of human rotavirus rv-4 were studied by using five neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibodies to select virus variants resistant to neutralization by each of the antibodies. antibody resistance patterns and sequence analysis of the rv-4 variants revealed that at least four sites on vp7, located at amino acids 94 (region a), 147 to 148 (region b), 213 (region c), and 291, are involved in neutralization of the human g1 rotavirus rv-4. the a-region site elicited ...19911656083
genetic diversity and similarity among mammalian rotaviruses in relation to interspecies transmission of address the question whether there was any molecular evidence for interspecies transmission of rotaviruses from one animal species to another, genetic relationships among human and animal rotaviruses were examined by a series of hybridization experiments in which genomic rnas from 14 rotavirus strains derived from seven different host species were hybridized with the [32p]-labelled transcription probes prepared from 11 strains representing rotaviruses from those seven host species. in general ...19911656919
[detection of non-a rotavirus in tucumán].a case of infectious gastroenteritis (gei) caused by a non-a rotavirus (rv) in the province of tucumán is reported. fecal sample analysis for group a rv by enzyme immunoassay (elisa) gave a negative result. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) of the viral rna showed a genomic pattern coincident with that described by pedley for rv belonging to group c. to our knowledge, this is the first communication on the detection of non-a rv as an etiological agent of human gei in argentina.19911667700
isolation and molecular characterization of a serotype 9 human rotavirus strain.a human rotavirus strain, designated au32, that belongs to serotype 9 was isolated and was compared by rna-rna hybridization with recently established two serotype 9 strains (wi61 and f45) as well as other prototype human strains. these three strains exhibited a very high degree of homology with one another and shared a high degree of homology with strains belonging to the wa genogroup but not with strains belonging to either the ds-1 or au-1 genogroup. these results suggest that genetic constel ...19901691433
selective virus inhibitors.our recent efforts have been directed at the development of selective inhibitors of different classes of viruses, including adeno, pox, and herpesviruses [herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2), varicella-zoster (vzv), cytomegalovirus (cmv), epstein-barr virus (ebv)], (+/-)rna viruses (reo- and rotavirus), (-)rna viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, measles, respiratory syncytial, vesicular stomatitis and rabies virus) and retroviruses [i.e. human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), the ...19901693749
monoclonal antibodies to quebec strain (q17) of bovine rotavirus.fourteen monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against "quebec" strain (q17) of bovine rotavirus were isolated and characterized. four were specific for viral protein vp7 and ten were specific for viral protein vp6. five different isotypes were represented by this group of antibodies. all of the anti-vp6 and none of the anti-vp7 antibodies were sensitive to the effects of periodate on their antigen. the antibodies could be separated into three groups based on their relative resistance to the dissociation ...19901698323
preparation and characterization of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody directed to vp4 of rotavirus strain k8 which has unique vp4 neutralization epitopes.for selecting the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (n-mabs) directed to vp4 of rotavirus strain k8, which has unique vp4 neutralization epitopes, we prepared several reassortant viruses by mixed infection of two different strains k8 (serotype 1) and p (serotype 3) in vitro: three reassortant clones having vp4 of k8 and vp7 of p and four clones having vp4 of p and vp7 of k8. by using these reassortants in screening hybridomas, a n-mab (k8-2c12) directed to strain k8-specific vp4 was obtained. t ...19911722090
serotypic change in the prevalence of human rotavirus strains in israel. 19911848541
rotavirus excretion by village pigs in papua new guinea.cohort studies were conducted on 29 pigs from 3 villages in the highlands of papua new guinea. animals ranged in age from 9 d to 5 m old. three hundred and twenty nine faecal samples were collected from individual pigs followed over 3 to 6 w periods, and were examined for group a rotavirus antigen by elisa, and rotaviral genomic rna by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). electron microscopy was also conducted on selected samples. group a rotavirus was detected in the faeces of 16 pigs wit ...19911850980
a porcine rotavirus strain with dual vp7 serotype specificity.porcine rotavirus mdr-13, which on original isolation showed a two-way antigenic relationship with human rotavirus rv-3, shows vp7 relationships with serotype g5 as well as g3 viruses upon gene reassortment. analysis of porcine mdr-13 and the md-uk reassortant revealed marked nucleotide and amino acid similarity of vp7 genes of these viruses with those of both serotype g3 and g5 viruses. evolution of such a strain, possibly by sequential mutations in the vp7 gene, is discussed.19902155514
protection of adults rechallenged with a human rotavirus.previous studies of adults challenged with human rotavirus (cjn strain) showed that 74% became infected and 55% of those infected experienced illness. protection against infection correlated with rotavirus antibody, most significantly (p = .005) serum rotavirus igg. in this study, 20 previously challenged subjects were reinoculated with the same virus 9-12 months after their initial challenge. only 1 of 8 subjects not infected after the initial challenge and 2 of 12 infected after the first inoc ...19902155972
rotavirus induces proliferative response and augments non-specific cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes in vitro cell-mediated immune responses to rotavirus in humans were studied. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) of healthy adults proliferated in response to stimulation with the infectious and u.v.-inactivated wa strain of human rotavirus, showing a maximum response on day 7 of culture; however, cord blood lymphocytes failed to respond to rotavirus. a cross-reactive proliferative response of pbmc detected by stimulation with the ncdv strain of bovine rotavirus suggests the existence of e ...19902157566
distinct populations of rotaviruses circulating among neonates and older infants.we obtained three stool specimens from each of 371 neonates. two specimens were obtained between days 1 and 3 after birth, while they were in the hospital, and one specimen was obtained between days 6 and 14 after birth, after they had been discharged from the hospital. seventy neonates excreted human rotavirus (hrv) while they were in the hospital, and the incidence rate for the cohort was 0.094 episodes per infant day. the incidence rate of community-acquired neonatal infections was markedly r ...19902161863
sensitive solid-phase immune electron microscopy double-antibody technique with gold-immunoglobulin g complexes for detecting rotavirus in cell culture and feces.a new solid-phase immune electron microscopy double-antibody colloidal-gold technique (spiemdagt) was developed and compared with direct electron microscopy, direct immune electron microscopy, and enzyme immunoassay for detecting rotavirus. guinea pig and rabbit antirotavirus antisera were used as capture and detector antibodies, respectively, and goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin g-gold complexes were employed as a label. animal rotavirus in cell culture media and human virus in stool specimens w ...19902161868
molecular and antigenic analyses of serotypes 8 and 10 of bovine rotaviruses in thailand.antigenic and genomic properties of non-serotype 6 bovine rotaviruses isolated in thailand and japan were studied by cross-neutralization tests, nucleotide sequence determination of the vp7 gene, and rna-rna hybridization. two thai strains (61a and a44) were serologically related to a japanese isolate kk3 which has been assigned to serotype 10. in contrast, strain a5 was found to be antigenically similar to human strain 69m with serotype 8 specificity, although strain a5 showed a one-way cross-r ...19911662688
diversity of rotavirus serotypes in mexican infants with hundred thirty-two stool specimens from infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalized in two mexican cities (mexico city and mérida) were examined by serotype- and subgroup-specific enzyme immunoassays. among them, 38 (29%) were serotype 1, 15 (11%) were serotype 2, 13 (10%) were serotype 3, 22 (17%) were serotype 4, none was serotype 5 or 6, and 44 (33%) could not be serotyped. by subgrouping, 121 specimens were characterized as follows: 24 (18%) were subgroup 1, 97 (74%) were subgrou ...19902166073
molecular identification by rna-rna hybridization of a human rotavirus that is closely related to rotaviruses of feline and canine origin.with a few exceptions subgroup i group a human rotavirus strains have short rna patterns, whereas most animal rotavirus strains belong to subgroup i and have long rna patterns. thus, new isolates of subgroup i human rotaviruses with long rna patterns are considered to have a high likelihood of being animal rotaviruses. a group of human rotaviruses represented by the au-1 strain has recently been shown to be genetically related to a feline rotavirus (frv-1) isolated in japan. a human rotavirus, s ...19902166076
symmetric infection of rotavirus on polarized human intestinal epithelial (caco-2) cells.when rotavirus infects the mature villus tip cells of the small intestine, it encounters a highly polarized epithelium. in order to understand this virus-cell interaction more completely, we utilized a cell culture-adapted rhesus rotavirus (rrv) to infect human intestinal (caco-2) and madin-darby canine kidney (mdck-1) polarized epithelial cells grown on a permeable support. filter-grown caco-2 cells and mdck-1 cells, producing a transepithelial resistance of 300 to 500 and greater than 1,000 om ...19911649325
detection of group b and c rotaviruses by polymerase chain reaction.we adapted the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to detect the noncultivatable group b and c rotaviruses and introduced a simple and convenient technique to purify viral rna from stool specimens. double-stranded rna present in stool extracts was purified by adsorption to hydroxyapatite and was used as the template for reverse transcription and polymerase amplification. primer pairs specific for group b (gene 8) and group c (gene 6) rotaviruses were selected to amplify group-characteristic sizes of ...19911645368
nucleotide sequence of vp4 and vp7 genes of human rotaviruses with subgroup i specificity and long rna pattern: implication for new g serotype specificity.we sequenced the genes coding for the two neutralization proteins, vp4 and vp7, of human rotavirus strains l26 and l27 with subgroup i specificity but the long rna pattern. the deduced vp7 amino acid sequence of strains l26 and l27 showed a low homology (73.6 to 81.9%) to those of rotavirus strains of the established serotypes. this finding, together with the previous serological characterizations, suggests that the vp7 (g) serotype of the l26 and l27 strains is distinct from those of strains of ...19902170690
identification of gene 4 alleles among human rotaviruses by polymerase chain reaction-derived probes.four different alleles of the gene encoding vp4, an outer capsid rotavirus protein, have been recognized among human rotaviruses. to investigate the relative frequency of these alleles, hybridization probes corresponding to a hyperdivergent region (nucleotides 205 to 554) of the fourth gene from three human rotavirus strains, wa, ds1, and m37 (each of which has a distinct gene four allele), were synthesized by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method, using as templates either cloned dna or cd ...19902171217
six-year retrospective surveillance of gastroenteritis viruses identified at ten electron microscopy centers in the united states and identify the prevalence, seasonality and demographic characteristics of patients with viral gastroenteritis, we reviewed 6 years of retrospective data on viral agents of gastroenteritis screened by electron microscopy at 10 centers in the united states and canada. from 52,691 individual electron microscopic observations, a virus was detected in 16% of specimens, and the yearly positive detection rate among centers ranged from 8 to 34%. rotavirus was the agent most commonly observed (26 to 83% ...19902172903
[serotypes and electropherotypes of group a human rotaviruses in patients with acute gastroenteritis in saitama area, 1988-1991].serotypes and rna electropherotypes of group a human rotaviruses were identified in stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis in kasukabe kosei hospital, saitama, japan, during three rotavirus seasons from 1988 to 1991. of the 665 stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis, 169 (25.4%) stool samples were positive for group a human rotaviruses. of these 169 samples, 98 (58.0%) were serotype 1, 7 (4.1%) serotype 2, 14 (8.3%) serotype 3, 3 (1.8%) serotype 4 and 47 (27.8%) w ...19921331261
human milk mucin inhibits rotavirus replication and prevents experimental gastroenteritis.acute gastrointestinal infections due to rotaviruses and other enteric pathogens are major causes of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children throughout the world. breast-feeding can reduce the rate of serious gastroenteritis in infants; however, the degrees of protection offered against rotavirus infection vary in different populations. the mechanisms associated with milk-mediated protection against viral gastroenteritis have not been fully elucidated. we have isolated a macromolec ...19921331178
identification of human and bovine rotavirus serotypes by polymerase chain reaction.the use of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for identifying serotypes of human and bovine rotaviruses was examined. in the identification of 115 human rotavirus samples in stools, results with pcr showed excellent agreement with results of serotyping by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies. furthermore, the pcr showed a much higher sensitivity (93%) than the elisa test (82.6%). the pcr method could also be applied for identifying the serot ...19921327857
preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to utilizing a strain of cultivable simian rotavirus (sa-11) as an immunizing antigen, we prepared 4 clones of mouse-mouse hybridoma, namely c127, c139, c172, and c214 which secreted monoclonal antibodies against the immunogen itself, sa-11 and also against other group a strains such as wa and s2. western blot analyses revealed that all of these antibodies are directed against vp6, a 42 kda major inner capsid protein of group a rotavirus. competitive experiments suggested that c127, c172 and c21 ...19892469693
[the principal enteropathogens in infantile diarrhea in spain]. 19921321314
experience with an enzyme immunoassay for serotyping human group a enzyme immunoassay utilizing neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to vp7 of four human group a rotavirus serotypes successfully typed rotaviruses in 71.4% (568 of 796) of fecal specimens. sensitivity was enhanced by using homologous capture and detector antibodies. serotyping was most successful with specimens stored for less than 3 years and containing 10(4) or more particles per ml.19892541171
electrophoretic study of the genome of human rotavirus in rural indian community.a rural cohort of 507 children, less than 3 yr of age was kept under weekly surveillance for 12 months, for morbidity due to diarrhoea. stool specimens for rotavirus detection were obtained in 346 of the 360 diarrheal episodes occurring in 354 children and in 211 children without diarrhoeal symptoms. rotavirus was detected by an elisa test in 4 per cent of children with diarrhoea and 6.6 per cent of control subjects. viral genome rna was extracted by phenol chloroform method from all the positiv ...19892544517
characterization of a canine rotavirus strain by neutralization and molecular hybridization assays.a canine rotavirus, rs-15, previously isolated in japan was determined to be subgroup i and serotype 3. when compared with prototype human and animal rotavirus strains by rna-rna hybridization assay, the rs-15 strain showed a high degree of homology only with the canine cu-1 strain isolated in the united states of america, suggesting that canine rotaviruses constitute a distinct gene family, which we have elsewhere proposed to term "genogroup".19892548456
antigenic and molecular characterization of bovine rotaviruses isolated in japan.japanese bovine rotavirus isolates, which fall into two different serotypes, were shown to belong to subgroup i and to have long rna electrophoretypes. this study confirmed the distinction of two serotypes on the basis of a greater than 20-fold difference in neutralization titres between the homologous and heterologous reactions; however, significant one-way cross-neutralization was observed between one of the strains with bovine serotype 2 and antisera to strains with bovine serotype 1 (serotyp ...19892549598
rotavirus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocyte response of mice after oral inoculation with candidate rotavirus vaccine strains rrv or wc3.the immunologic basis of homotypic and heterotypic protection by immunization with two candidate rotavirus vaccine strains (simian strain rrv and bovine strain wc3, respectively) was investigated. mice were orally inoculated with rrv, and 6 d later splenic lymphocytes lysed target cells infected with rrv (serotype 3) but not with human rotavirus serotypes 1 or 2; 4 w after inoculation, cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls) generated in vitro from ctl precursors were also strain-specific. also, the freq ...19892553826
a serotype 10 human rotavirus.rotaviruses with genome rearrangements isolated from a chronically infected immunodeficient child (f. hundley, m. mcintyre, b. clark, g. beards, d. wood, i. chrystie, and u. desselberger, j. virol 61:3365-3372, 1987) are the first recognized human isolates of serotype 10. this was shown by both a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assays using serotype specific monoclonal antibodies. the serotype was confirmed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding vp7, which re ...19921320627
molecular and serological analyses of two bovine rotaviruses (b-11 and b-60) causing calf scours in australia.fecal specimens from 78 calves involved in outbreaks of calf diarrhea which occurred in three farms in victoria, australia, in 1988 were analyzed for rotaviruses. thirty-eight samples were positive for group a virus antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 20 of these contained viral double-stranded rnas that could be detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. two major electropherotypes could be observed, and a representative isolate of each electropherotype (isolates b-11 and b-6 ...19921310336
clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic features of a viral gastroenteritis in infants and children.we studied 27 infants admitted to the hospital with acute diarrhea caused by human rotavirus (hrv) and obtained additional data on fecal excretion from ten outpatients with the same infection. the disease was characterized by watery diarrhea with fever and vomiting at the onset, isotonic dehydration, compensated metabolic acidosis, and increased concentrations of sodium and chloride but low concentrations of sugar in stools. diarrhea usually ceased in three to four days when oral feedings were r ...1977887336
identification of an enteric adenovirus by immunoelectroosmophoresis (ieop) technique.infantile gastroenteritis can be caused by several of the established adenovirus types. there are also adenoviruses that defy in vitro cultivation but have been recognized by electron microscopy. one isolate of these viruses, which have been designated enteric adenoviruses, has been characterized. several of the established adenovirus types are shed in stools over long periods. the conditions for direct identification of enteric adenoviruses by immunoelectroosmophoresis (ieop) have therefore bee ...1979225444
enhancement of antigen incorporation and infectivity of cell cultures by human rotavirus.infection of cell cultures with human rotavirus preparations was attempted and the effects of trypsin and low-speed centrifugation on antigen incorporation, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay, were determined. in addition, the effect of viral aggregation on antigen incorporation was investigated by filtering viral preparations. four strains of human rotavirus were employed, and the results were compared to those obtained with two tissue culture-adapted animal rotaviruses. ...1979222805
atypical human rotaviruses in the g.d.r.following the aetiologic agent of diarrhoea in children aged one to three years we found in the stools a large number of rotaviruses by electron microscopy (em), although elisa was negative; the sensitivity of elisa had been confirmed in previous investigations. in 141 children with diarrhoea 10 conventional (group a) and 21 antigenically distinct rotaviruses were detected. the presence of atypical rotaviruses could be confirmed by electrophoretic analysis of their rna migration profiles. the el ...19892574938
detection of human rotavirus by nucleic acid analysis in comparison to enzyme-linked immunoassay and electron microscopy.the results of rna analysis for the detection of rotavirus were compared with those of a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and electron microscopy using 212 faecal specimens obtained from 200 children with gastroenteritis. rotavirus was extracted directly from faecal specimens and rna segments were made visible by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using a silver staining technique. of the 212 faecal specimens 137 were found to be positive in elisa, 125 in rna analysis and 121 i ...19852580704
infectivity and antigenicity reduction rates of human rotavirus strain wa in fresh waters.the rates of inactivation of human rotavirus type 2 (strain wa) (hrv-wa) and poliovirus type 1 (strain chat) were compared in polluted waters (creek water and secondary effluent before chlorination) and nonpolluted waters (lake water, groundwater, and chlorinated tap water). viral infectivity titers were determined by plaque assays, while hrv-wa antigenicity also was monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. both viruses persisted longest in lake water and shortest in tap water. the act ...19872821902
inactivation of animal viruses during sewage sludge treatment.using a previously developed filter adsorption technique, the inactivation of a human rotavirus, a coxsackievirus b5, and a bovine parvovirus was monitored during sludge treatment processes. during conventional anaerobic mesophilic digestion at 35 to 36 degrees c, only minor inactivation of all three viruses occurred. the k' values measured were 0.314 log10 unit/day for rotavirus, 0.475 log10 unit/day for coxsackievirus b5, and 0.944 log10 unit/day for parvovirus. however, anaerobic thermophilic ...19872823708
evidence for endocytosis-independent infection by human rotavirus.the effects of five lysosomotropic drugs (nh4cl, chloroquine, methylamine, amantadine and dansylcadaverine) and cytochalasin b on human rotavirus (hrv kun strain) and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv indiana strain) infection in monkey ma 104 cells were examined. these drugs had little effect on hrv yield but greatly reduced vsv yield. the results strongly suggest that hrv does not require endocytotic activity and intracellular acidic vesicles for the initial stage of infection and support our po ...19872825623
an out-break of acute gastroenteritis due to rotavirus in an infant december 1976, an outbreak of acute infectious diarrhea occurred among infants who resided in an infant home in the city of sapporo. rotavirus infection was proved in 42 (90%) of 47 infants by serologic and/or electron microscopic examinations. out of 42 infected infants 38(90%) were clinically affected; diarrhea with or without vomiting in 27 (64%), vomiting without diarrhea in 6 (14%) and only febrile episode in 5 (12%). the remaining 4(10%) infants showed no symptoms. clinical manifestatio ...1979220751
acute infantile gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus in japan.we had an outbreak of acute infantile gastroenteritis accompanied by milky-white stool (called hakuri in japanese) during the winters of 1976 and 1977. stool specimens collected from 72 cases of hakuri were studied by negative-staining electron microscopy. rotavirus was detected with a very high frequency (89%). rotavirus obtained from one of the patients was isolated and passaged in cultures of primary human embryonic kidney cells. viral antigens could be detected in the cytoplasm of the cells ...1978214305
filter paper solid-phase radioimmunoassay for human rotavirus surface immunoglobulins.a filter paper solid-phase radioimmunoassay has been developed. filter paper disks adsorbed a large amount of rotavirus and serum globulin and gave small mean variation of coating and low background binding. the rotavirus isolated from stools from infants with acute enteritis 1, 3, and 4 days after onset of symptoms was shown to be already covered with immunoglobulin g (igg), iga, and igm antibodies by this radioimmunoassay, by immunoelectrophoresis, and by immune electron microscopy. the immuno ...1977199613
identification of nonspecific reactions in laboratory rodent specimens tested by rotazyme rotavirus elisa.fecal specimens from several laboratory animal species were tested for rotavirus antigen by rotazyme ii, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) that is widely used in human diagnostic studies. fecal samples from rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats tested negative; whereas those from rats and mice yielded a high proportion of positive results. rats had the highest rate with 82% of the samples being positive. however, the presence of rotavirus in positive rod ...19882842540
antigenic relationship between human and bovine rotaviruses as determined by neutralization, immune adherence hemagglutination, and complement fixation tests.guinea pig antiserum to bovine rotavirus does not neutralize human rotavirus. bovine and human rotaviruses were, however, extensively cross-reactive when examined by complement fixation and immune adherence hemagglutination tests with antiserum to either virus. the immune adherence hemagglutination test was 16- to 32-fold more sensitive than the complement fixation test in detecting rotavirus.1977198371
simian rotavirus (sa 11) in serodiagnosis of human rotavirus infections.tests were made on 169 sera from children up to 10 years of age for rotavirus antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence and complement fixation tests. the simian strain sa 11 served as a substitute antigen for the human rotavirus. furthermore, the sa 11 complement-fixing antigen was compared with a commercial antigen of the bovine rotavirus strain ncdv. it was demonstrated that sa 11 which can be more easily propagated than most bovine strains, may be used as a substitute antigen in complement f ...197986940
serotyping of human group a rotavirus with oligonucleotide probes.rotaviruses (rv) in stools of children with diarrhea in thailand were serotyped by monoclonal enzyme immunoassay (meia), and rna extracted from these specimens were tested for hybridization with oligonucleotides constructed from the nucleotide sequences of vp7 of human serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4. of 178 specimens that contained rv as identified with a monoclonal antibody to group a rv, 84% (149/178) hybridized with serotype-specific oligonucleotides, and 42% (74/178) were serotyped by meia (p less ...19902165109
relative frequency of human rotavirus subgroups i and ii in relation to "short" and "long" electrophoretypes of viral rna. 19882849966
a highly efficient second-step concentration technique for bacteriophages and enteric viruses using ammonium sulfate and tween 80.addition of tween 80 to a 1.5% solution of beef extract was found to enhance the elution of bacteriophages adsorbed to electronegative filters. when reconcentration of the eluate was attempted by ammonium sulfate precipitation, a floating layer containing most of the viruses was formed. this floating layer can be obtained with several nonionic detergents including tween 80 and under a salt saturation of 55% with ammonium sulfate, potassium tartrate, and sodium phosphate. virus recovery ranged fr ...19882850100
clinical and immunological studies of rotavirus vaccines.the rit 4237 bovine rotavirus vaccine has served as a useful model for rotavirus vaccination, but the vaccine will not be further developed or tested. the main problem encountered with this vaccine was its poor "take" rate in developing countries. the reasons for this are unclear, and it is not known whether other bovine rotavirus vaccines are more efficacious in this respect. wc-3 bovine rotavirus vaccine will shortly be tested at several sites in developing countries. the rhesus rotavirus vacc ...19882851185
development of an enzyme immunoassay for the hawaii agent of viral gastroenteritis.the hawaii agent is a norwalk-like virus of acute gastroenteritis in humans which is antigenically distinct from the prototype norwalk agent. we established a solid phase sandwich type microtiter enzyme immunoassay (eia) for hawaii antigen employing sera and stools from experimentally challenged volunteers as reagents. this assay detected the hawaii agent in stools from 3 of 8 volunteers who were ill after oral challenge with the hawaii agent, including one specimen which was positive to a dilut ...19882851600
clinical features of acute infantile gastroenteritis associated with human rotavirus subgroups i and ii.during a prospective 3-year study, clinical and epidemiological features of rotavirus gastroenteritis in black infants were investigated. fever and temperatures exceeding 39 degrees c were more frequent in children shedding subgroup ii rotaviruses, whereas vomiting was more pronounced in children with subgroup i infection. diarrhea, dehydration, duration of illness, and the need for admission to a hospital ward were similar in both groups.19882852676
human rotavirus detection in stool specimens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and latex agglutination test.a total of 194 stool samples from sick and healthy children were tested by three commercial tests: two rotavirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) and one latex agglutination test (ltx). the concordance, sensibility and specificity of these tests were calculated. the results suggest to consider as positive the samples reactive to two enzyme immunoassays at least. the latex test, although less sensitive than enzygnost-rotavirus and rotazyme ii, was found to be especially useful for the r ...19882853953
[isolation of immunoglobulins from the egg yolk of hens immunized with intestinal viruses].antibodies from the yolk of eggs of chicken immunized with enteric viruses (simian rotavirus sa 11, poliomyelitis virus type 2, and coxsackie b2) were obtained. the time course of the emergence and amplification of antibody in the yolk was followed for several months by neutralization tests and enzyme immunoassay. the long-term persistence of a high antibody level in the yolk, the simplicity of generation of large amounts of chromatographically pure preparations, as well as specificity of chicke ...19882854680
different electrophoretypes of human rotaviruses in hungary.polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of rotaviral double-stranded ribonucleic acid (rna) extracted directly from faecal specimens collected in three different parts of hungary was applied to characterize and distinguish 21 randomly selected viral isolates. this technique made it possible to define 7 different electrophoretypes. of the isolates 11 exhibited an identical "long" electrophoretic migration pattern. "short" rna pattern was found in two cases, and one atypical rotavirus was also revealed ...19872891275
human enteric coronaviruses: antigenic relatedness to human coronavirus oc43 and possible etiologic role in viral a group of infants with acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis, examination of paired sera for antibody to human coronavirus (hcv) oc43 and neonatal calf diarrhea coronavirus showed a peculiar pattern of serological response, restricted only to hcv oc43 surface antigens, in a significantly higher proportion than among age-matched controls. in another group of infants and young children with acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis, fecal excretion of coronavirus-like particles was detected by electron ...19852985710
the neurovirulence of human and animal rotaviruses in cercopithecus monkeys.cercopithecus monkeys were inoculated according to the specifications of neurovirulence safety test for live rubella virus vaccine with rit 4237, a rotavirus vaccine candidate. rit 4237 is a high passage level of the nebraska calf diarrhoea virus (ncdv). the histological findings in the first test indicated some involvement of the central nervous system. the same test was therefore repeated with rit 4237, with a lower passage level of the ncdv strain, and with the 'wa' strain, a human virus grow ...19852987270
immune protection of infants against rotavirus gastroenteritis by a serotype 1 reassortant of bovine rotavirus wc3.the safety and protective efficacy of a serotype 1 reassortant of bovine rotavirus wc3, disignated strain wi79-9, was evaluated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. rotavirus reassortant wi79-9 contains a gene segment 9 coding for the surface structural protein vp7 of a human serotype 1 rotavirus, with all other gene segments derived from wc3 rotavirus, which had previously been shown to be safe and immunogenic in infants. infants 2-11 months of age were given two doses of vaccine (10(7.3 ...19902161038
inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide.the inactivation of single-particle stocks of human (type 2, wa) and simian (sa-11) rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide was investigated. experiments were conducted at 4 degrees c in a standard phosphate-carbonate buffer. both virus types were rapidly inactivated, within 20 s under alkaline conditions, when chlorine dioxide concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/liter were used. similar reductions of 10(5)-fold in infectivity required additional exposure time of 120 s at 0.2 mg/liter for wa and ...19902160222
sequence analysis of gene 11 equivalents from "short" and "super short" strains of rotavirus.the molecular basis for the aberrant migration pattern of the gene 11 equivalent in rotaviruses with "short" (human ds-1) and "super short" (human 69m and bovine vmri) electropherotypes was investigated. the mrnas of these viruses were synthesized in vitro, and the entire gene 11 equivalent of each of these viruses was sequenced with specific synthetic oligonucleotide primers. these sequences were compared with previously published sequences of "long" pattern rotavirus gene 11 segments. the incr ...19902152809
fluid therapy with specific mucopolysaccharides. a new approach to control evaluation is given of the shortcomings of existing oral fluid therapies and their consequences: lack of protection of the intestinal wall and the supply of unabsorbed carbohydrates to the large intestine. the inclusion of specific mucopolysaccharides having a polyxylose backbone and galactose end residues in the side chains seems to offer effective protection of the intestinal wall. a trial conducted in experimentally infected calves (e. coli) shows that this concept of oral fluid therapy li ...19902138047
a human atypical rotavirus found in an ecuador infant with strain of atypical rotavirus, morphologically indistinguishable from known rotaviruses but lacking the common group antigen of typical rotavirus detectable by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), was isolated from one of 152 ecuadorian infants with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. the genome analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a unique rna pattern clearly distinct from that of typical rotaviruses.19853000025
effect of relative humidity, atmospheric temperature, and suspending medium on the airborne survival of human rotavirus.the wa strain of human rotavirus, grown in ma-104 cells, was suspended either in tryptose phosphate broth or feces from a case of rotaviral diarrhea. it was then aerosolized into a rotating drum using a collison nebulizer. the drum air was sampled using an all-glass impinger containing tryptose phosphate broth as collecting fluid. at 20 +/- 1 degree c, the virus aerosolized from tryptose phosphate broth was found to survive best at 50 +/- 5% relative humidity, where its half-life was 44.2 +/- 6. ...19853000566
incidence and diagnosis of rotavirus infection in neonates: results of two studies.the present study investigates the incidence of human rotavirus excretion in neonates of two hospitals. from april 1, 1983 to march 31, 1984, rotaviruses were detected with rotazyme in the feces of 57 (15%) of 383 neonates at the department of pediatrics, university of berne, in a total in 71 (5.2%) of the 1369 stool samples tested. of the 57 neonates with rotazyme-positive stool samples, 53 (93%) were asymptomatic. the problems of the specificity of rotazyme in neonatal feces and the possibilit ...19901963446
[propagation and detection of human rotavirus (wa strain) in cell cultures of the line ma 104]. 19863014764
antigenic characterization and elisa detection of adult diarrhea rotaviruses.recently, severe epidemics of diarrhea among both adults and children in china have been associated with an agent called adult diarrhea rotavirus (adrv). we have studied adrv from two areas of china (jinzhou and guangxi) and compared them with prototype group a, b, and c rotaviruses. the viral genomes were compared by electrophoresis of the rna genome segments in polyacrylamide gels, and the antigenic relatedness of these viruses was examined by immune electron microscopic studies using virus pr ...19863016112
characterization of rotavirus electropherotypes excreted by symptomatic and asymptomatic infants.human rotavirus isolates from 1100 stool samples were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and 48 different migration patterns were detected. heterogeneity in the migration of segment 10 was observed in both long and short electropherotypes in which three long and two short patterns were identified. in spite of these variations all short and long electropherotypes were subgrouped by enzyme immunoassay as subgroups i and ii respectively. mixed infections were detected in 17% of cases a ...19911847104
clinical features of acute gastroenteritis associated with rotavirus, enteric adenoviruses, and a prospective one year study, comprising children with acute gastroenteritis admitted to hospital or treated as outpatients, the clinical and laboratory features of rotavirus diarrhoea (168 cases) were compared with those of enteric adenovirus (32 cases), bacterial (42), mixed (16), and non-specific (135) infections. the rotavirus disease was remarkably consistent, with a sudden onset of vomiting, a high frequency of fever and dehydration, and a mean duration of diarrhoea of 5.9 days. outpati ...19863017237
development of a rotavirus plaque assay using sephadex g-75.a rapid, reproducible and easily performed plaque assay is described for use with a variety of rotavirus strains. plaque formation was induced in ma-104 cells by the use of sephadex g-75, instead of the traditional agar, and crystalline trypsin in the overlay. formation of large, discrete, easily read plaques was noted in both human and non-human rotavirus strains.19901693368
electropherotyping of human rotaviruses: an epidemiological survey of rotavirus infections in electrophoretic analysis of rotavirus rna segments was carried out on 522 faecal specimens, obtained from children hospitalized in sicily in the period 1981/85. one hundred and one viral isolates could be characterized with respect to the electrophoretic pattern of their genomic rnas. this analysis revealed that in 1981/82 different electropherotypes cocirculated in the infant population. in 1983 one of the patterns became prevalent; in 1984/85 only one electropherotype was detected, both in ...19863021522
single gene substitution rotavirus reassortants containing the major neutralization protein (vp7) of human rotavirus serotype 4.a series of reassortants was isolated from coinfection of cell cultures with wild-type bovine rotavirus (uk strain [serotype 6]) or rhesus rotavirus (strain mmu18006 [serotype 3]) and a tissue culture-adapted human rotavirus strain, st3 (serotype 4). monospecific antiserum or a set of monoclonal antibodies to the major outer capsid neutralization glycoprotein, vp7, of the animal rotavirus parent was used to select for reassortants with human rotavirus serotype 4 neutralization specificity. the m ...19863021814
reassortant rotaviruses containing structural proteins vp3 and vp7 from different parents induce antibodies protective against each parental serotype.genetic studies of reassortant rotaviruses have demonstrated that gene segments 4 and 9 each segregate with the serotype-specific neutralization phenotype in vitro. reassortant rotaviruses derived by coinfection of ma-104 cells with the simian strain sa11 and the antigenically distinct bovine strain ncdv were used to determine which viral genes coded for proteins which induced a protective immune response in vivo. in addition, reassortant rotaviruses containing only the gene segment 4 or 9 prote ...19863021983
homotypic and heterotypic antibodies for prevention of experimental rotavirus gastroenteritis.we investigated the abilities of homologous and heterologous antibody preparations to neutralize murine rotavirus in a mouse model of rotavirus infection. we found that incubation of virus with murine sera obtained from animals experimentally infected with the homologous epizootic diarrhea of infant mice strain of rotavirus resulted in inability of the virus to cause symptomatic disease in infant mice. sera from nonimmune mice and mice infected or immunized with a heterotypic strain of rotavirus ...19863023437
gastroenteritis caused by human rotaviruses (serotype three) in a suckling mouse model.the pathogenic potential of human rotaviruses of serotypes 1 through 4 was evaluated in suckling mice. oral inoculation of three different human rotaviruses of serotype 3 into 5-6 day old cd-1 mice caused disease characterized by diarrhea and dehydration. the mean 50% diarrhea inducing dose (dd50) was 5 x 10(5) pfu. histopathological examination of small intestines revealed villus epithelial cell vacuolization localized to the distal one-third of the villus. only serotype 3 rotaviruses exhibited ...19873025888
[virus-related gastroenteritis]. 19873026769
nosocomial outbreak of neonatal gastroenteritis caused by a new serotype 4, subtype 4b human rotavirus.a nosocomial outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis involving 52 newborns occurred between june and september 1988 at the university children's hospital of freiburg, federal republic of germany. stools from 27 representative patients were examined for rotavirus serotypes, using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the electropherotype was also examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of genomic rna. as many as 18 patients were found to be infected by serotype 4, su ...19902167942
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