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a real-time pcr assay for detection of the ehrlichia muris-like agent, a newly recognized pathogen of humans in the upper midwestern united states.the ehrlichia muris-like agent (emla) is an emerging, tick-transmitted human pathogen that occurs in the upper midwestern united states. here, we describe the development and validation of a p13-based quantitative real-time pcr taqman assay to detect emla in blood or tissues of ticks, humans, and rodents. the primer and probe specificities of the assay were ascertained using a large panel of various ehrlichia species and other members of rickettsiales. in addition to control dna, both non-infect ...201526507653
human infection with ehrlichia muris-like pathogen, united states, 2007-2013(1).an ehrlichia muris-like (eml) pathogen was detected among 4 patients in minnesota and wisconsin during 2009. we characterized additional cases clinically and epidemiologically. during 2004-2013, blood samples from 75,077 patients from all 50 united states were tested by pcr from the groel gene for ehrlichia spp. and anaplasma phagocytophilum. during 2007-2013, samples from 69 (0.1%) patients were positive for the eml pathogen; patients were from 5 states: indiana (1), michigan (1), minnesota (33 ...201526402378
comparison of phenology and pathogen prevalence, including infection with the ehrlichia muris-like (eml) agent, of ixodes scapularis removed from soldiers in the midwestern and the northeastern united states over a 15 year period (1997-2012).since 1997, human-biting ticks submitted to the department of defense human tick test kit program (httkp) of the us army public health command have been tested for pathogens by pcr. we noted differences in the phenology and infection prevalence among ixodes scapularis ticks submitted from military installations in different geographic regions. the aim of this study was to characterize these observed differences, comparing the phenology and pathogen infection rates of i. scapularis submitted from ...201425465046
detection of human pathogenic ehrlichia muris-like agent in peromyscus leucopus.an ehrlichia muris-like (eml) bacterium was recently detected in humans and ixodes scapularis ticks in minnesota and wisconsin. the reservoir for this agent is unknown. to investigate the occurrence of the eml agent, groel pcr testing and sequencing was performed on blood from small mammals and white-tailed deer that were collected in areas where human and tick infections were previously demonstrated. dna of the eml agent was detected in two peromyscus leucopus of 146 small mammals (1.4%); while ...201525481346
lyme disease coinfections in the united states.lyme disease in north america is caused by infection with the spirochetal bacterium borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by ixodes scapularis and ixodes pacificus ticks. these ticks also have the potential to transmit a rapidly expanding list of other pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasites, including anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia microti, deer tick (powassan) virus, borrelia miyamotoi, and the ehrlichia muris-like organism. coinfections with b burgdorferi and these other agents are oft ...201526593260
infection of immature ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) by membrane feeding.a reduction in the use of animals in infectious disease research is desirable for animal welfare as well as for simplification and standardization of experiments. an artificial silicone-based membrane-feeding system was adapted for complete engorgement of adult and nymphal ixodes scapularis say (acari: ixodidae), and for infecting nymphs with pathogenic, tick-borne bacteria. six wild-type and genetically transformed strains of four species of bacteria were inoculated into sterile bovine blood an ...201626721866
prevalence and distribution of human and tick infections with the ehrlichia muris-like agent and anaplasma phagocytophilum in wisconsin, 2009-2015.ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are important emerging tickborne zoonoses that affect both humans and animals. knowledge of the geographic distribution and prevalence of ehrlichia spp. and anaplasma phagocytophilum in wisconsin is important information as a baseline for future comparisons. reported human cases between 2009 and 2015 were identified using the wisconsin electronic disease surveillance system (wedss) and mapped by county of residence. vector surveillance was established using ticks co ...201728055326
proposal to reclassify ehrlichia muris as ehrlichia muris subsp. muris subsp. nov. and description of ehrlichia muris subsp. eauclairensis subsp. nov., a newly recognized tick-borne pathogen of humans.we have previously described a novel taxon of the genus ehrlichia (type strain wisconsint), closely related to ehrlichia muris, that causes human ehrlichiosis among patients with exposures to ticks in the upper midwestern usa. dna from this bacterium was also detected in ixodes scapularis and peromyscus leucopus collected in minnesota and wisconsin. to determine the relationship between the e. muris-like agent (emla) and other species of the genus ehrlichia phenotypic, genotypic and epidemiologi ...201728699575
co-feeding transmission of the ehrlichia muris-like agent to mice (mus musculus).the ehrlichia muris-like agent (emla) is a newly recognized human pathogen found in wisconsin and minnesota. ecological investigations have implicated both the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis, and the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus, as playing roles in the maintenance of emla in nature. the work presented here shows that i. scapularis is an efficient vector of emla in a laboratory mouse model, but that dermacentor variabilis, another frequent human biting tick found in emla endemic ...201626824725
experimental evaluation of peromyscus leucopus as a reservoir host of the ehrlichia muris-like agent.the ehrlichia muris-like agent (emla) is a newly recognized human pathogen in the north central united states. although blacklegged ticks (ixodes scapularis) have been identified as capable vectors, wild reservoirs have not yet been established for emla. as key hosts for i. scapularis, white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) are important reservoirs for various tick-borne pathogens, and potentially, for emla. the objective of this study was to evaluate reservoir competence in p. leucopus using a ...201728129781
update and commentary on four emerging tick-borne infections: ehrlichia muris-like agent, borrelia miyamotoi, deer tick virus, heartland virus, and whether ticks play a role in transmission of bartonella henselae.emerging tick-borne infections continue to be observed in the united states and elsewhere. current information on the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and treatment of infections due to ehrlichia muris-like agent, deer tick virus, borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato, and heartland virus was provided and critically reviewed. more research is needed to define the incidence and to understand the clinical and the laboratory features of these infections. there is also a growing need for the ...201525999230
a tick vector transmission model of monocytotropic ehrlichiosis.ehrlichioses are emerging, tick-borne diseases distributed worldwide. previously established animal models use needle inoculation as a mode of infection; however, there is limited representation of natural transmission in artificially inoculated models compared with transmission by the tick vector. the objective of this study was to develop a tick vector transmission animal model of ehrlichial infection using a human pathogen, ehrlichia muris-like agent (emla).201525737562
tissue distribution of the ehrlichia muris-like agent in a tick vector.human pathogens transmitted by ticks undergo complex life cycles alternating between the arthropod vector and a mammalian host. while the latter has been investigated to a greater extent, examination of the biological interactions between microbes and the ticks that carry them presents an equally important opportunity for disruption of the disease cycle. in this study, we used in situ hybridization to demonstrate infection by the ehrlichia muris-like organism, a newly recognized human pathogen, ...201525781930
human pathogens associated with the blacklegged tick ixodes scapularis: a systematic review.the blacklegged tick ixodes scapularis transmits borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) in eastern north america; however, the agent of lyme disease is not the sole pathogen harbored by the blacklegged tick. the blacklegged tick is expanding its range into areas of southern canada such as ontario, an area where exposure to blacklegged tick bites and tick-borne pathogens is increasing. we performed a systematic review to evaluate the public health risks posed by expanding blacklegged tick populatio ...201627151067
prevalence of ehrlichia muris in wisconsin deer ticks collected during the mid 1990s.human ehrlichiosis is due to infection by tick transmitted bacteria of the genus ehrlichia. based on a hypothesis for the biogeography of deer tick transmitted infections, we undertook a focused search for the eurasian e. muris in north american deer ticks. the search was stimulated by anecdotal reports of e. muris-like infection in human ehrlichiosis patients from wisconsin. we analyzed archived adult deer ticks collected in northern wisconsin during the 1990s by specific polymerase chain react ...201121643499
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