humoral immune responses in seals infected by phocine distemper virus.recently the isolation and characterisation of a morbillivirus which caused high mortality in common seals (phoca vitulina) in 1988 have been reported. because of the clinical and pathological similarity of the disease in seals to that of distemper in dogs, the name phocine distemper virus (pdv) has been proposed. there are marked differences in the virus-induced proteins of pdv compared to other morbilliviruses and the humoral immune response of moribund and dead seals to pdv was restricted to ...19902382048
antiserum raised in pigs against canine distemper virus and its utility in diagnostic procedures for morbillivirus infections (canine distemper, phocine distemper, rinderpest).antiserum against canine distemper virus (cdv) was raised in pigs by intranasal inoculation with cdv strains cnd65 and rockborn. immunoglobulin fractions were conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. peroxidase-conjugated anti-cdv immunoglobulin preparations were used for the detection and titration of cdv, seal-derived (phocine) distemper virus (pdv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) in vero cell cultures. for the detection and titration of corresponding neutralizing antibodies a direct neutralizing pe ...19902396484
retrospective epidemiology in multiple sclerosis and significance of canine morbillivirus in the illness etiology. 19854023593
canine distemper virus dna vaccination induces humoral and cellular immunity and protects against a lethal intracerebral challenge.we have studied the immune responses to the two glycoproteins of the morbillivirus canine distemper virus (cdv) after dna vaccination of balb/c mice. the plasmids coding for both cdv hemagglutinin (h) and fusion protein (f) induce high levels of antibodies which persist for more than 6 months. intramuscular inoculation of the cdv dna induces a predominantly immunoglobulin g2a (igg2a) response (th1 response), whereas gene gun immunization with cdv h evokes exclusively an igg1 response (th2 respon ...19989765383
morbillivirus downregulation of cd46.there is evidence that cd46 (membrane cofactor protein) is a cellular receptor for vaccine and laboratory-passaged strains of measles virus (mv). following infection with these mv strains, cd46 is downregulated from the cell surface, and consequent complement-mediated lysis has been shown to occur upon infection of a human monocytic cell line. the mv hemagglutinin (h) protein alone is capable of inducing this downregulation. some wild-type strains of mv fail to downregulate cd46, despite infecti ...19989811778
morbillivirus infections, with special emphasis on morbilliviruses of carnivores.morbilliviruses infections cause significant mortality in human beings and animals. measles virus is responsible for up to two million childhood deaths annually in the developing world, while rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants cause severe epizootics in domestic and wild ruminants in areas of the world where they remain endemic. canine distemper virus (cdv) is a cause of fatal disease in many species of carnivores. distemper is controlled by vaccination in domestic dogs and farmed mink, b ...199910515262
establishment of a rescue system for canine distemper virus.canine distemper virus (cdv) has been rescued from a full-length cdna clone. besides measles virus (mv) and rinderpest virus, a third morbillivirus is now available for genetic analysis using reverse genetics. a plasmid p(+)cdv was constructed by sequential cloning using the onderstepoort vaccine strain large-plaque-forming variant. the presence of a t7 promoter allowed transcription of full-length antigenomic rna by a t7 rna polymerase, which was provided by a host range mutant of vaccinia viru ...200011044118
morbillivirus infection of the mouse central nervous system induces region-specific upregulation of mmps and timps correlated to inflammatory cytokine expression.viral infection of the central nervous system (cns) can result in perturbation of cell-to-cell communication involving the extracellular matrix (ecm). ecm integrity is maintained by a dynamic balance between the synthesis and proteolysis of its components, mainly as a result of the action of matrix metalloproteinases (mmps) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (timps). an mmp/timp imbalance may be critical in triggering neurological disorders, in particular in virally induced neural d ...200111483772
pulmonary sarcocystosis in a puppy with canine distemper in costa rica.canine distemper and pulmonary sarcocystosis were diagnosed in a 10-week-old rottweiler with 4-day history of diarrhea, vomiting, and weakness. microscopic examination of the lung revealed bronchointerstitial pneumonia typical of morbillivirus infection. also, numerous apicomplexan parasites were scattered in the alveolar walls. this protozoan infection was first thought to be toxoplasmosis but immunoperoxidase staining revealed large numbers of sarcocystis canis. this is the first case of canin ...200312735355
canine distemper, a re-emerging morbillivirus with complex neuropathogenic mechanisms.paramyxoviruses are responsible for a wide variety of diseases both in humans and in animals. common to many paramyxoviruses is the fact that they can cause neurological symptoms in their final host. newly discovered paramyxoviruses, such as the hendra and nipah viruses, show the same pattern of pathogenesis as that of the paramyxoviruses already known. canine distemper virus (cdv) is a well-studied member of the genus morbillivirus. study of the neuropathogenesis of cdv might give insight into ...200312885204
roles of an extracellular matrix (ecm) receptor and ecm processing enzymes in demyelinating canine distemper encephalitis.canine distemper virus (cdv) belongs to the genus morbillivirus of the paramyxoviridae family. due to the central nervous system (cns) tropism of the virus and associated neuropathological changes, demyelinating canine distemper encephalitis (cde) represents a relevant model for human demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis. the present review decribes the role of cd44 antigen (cd44), the principle cell surface receptor for hyaluronate and extracellular matrix (ecm) processing enzymes (ma ...200616716051
canine distemper virus selectively inhibits apoptosis progression in infected immune cells.morbillivirus infections are characterized by severe leukopenia and immune suppression that develop even before the onset of clinical signs. to characterize in more detail the fate of the immune cells during the critical first week, we evaluated the overall viability, level of apoptosis, cell cycle status, and extent of infection in different immune tissues of ferrets inoculated with a lethal canine distemper virus (cdv) strain. initial experiments with mdck cells, a canine epithelial cell line, ...200919357171
investigation of a unique short open reading frame within the 3' untranslated region of the canine distemper virus matrix messenger rna.increasing evidence suggest that the long "untranslated" region (utr) between the matrix (m) and the fusion (f) proteins of morbilliviruses has a functional role. in canine distemper virus (cdv), the f 5' utr was recently shown to code for a long f signal peptide (fsp). subsequently, it was reported that the m/f utrs combined with the long fsp were synergistically regulating the f mrna and protein expression, thereby modulating virulence. unique to cdv, a short putative open reading frame (orf) ...201020797417
viral protein expression and phenotyping of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system of phocine distemper virus-infected harbor seals (phoca vitulina).the central nervous system (cns) represents an important target organ of the phocine distemper virus (pdv). the aim of the present study was to characterize pathological changes in the cns of harbor seals suffering from natural pdv-infection. the distribution of virus protein and mrna was investigated by immunohistochemistry (ihc) and in situ hybridization, respectively. in addition, inflammatory and glial cells were characterized by ihc. polioencephalitis with glial activation, neuronal death a ...201020303682
influence of persistent canine distemper virus infection on expression of reck, matrix-metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in a canine macrophage/monocytic tumour cell line (dh82).a morbillivirus infection of tumour cells is known to exert oncolytic activity, but the mechanism of this inhibitory action has not been well defined. matrix metalloproteinases (mmps) are important enzymes degrading the extracellular matrix and are often upregulated in malignant neoplasms. recent studies have demonstrated that reck may potently suppress mmp-2 and -9 activity, thus inhibiting angiogenesis and metastasis. in this study, real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (rt-qpcr) wa ...200918684651
'rescue' of mini-genomic constructs and viruses by combinations of morbillivirus n, p and l proteins.chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat)-expressing negative-sense mini-genomic constructs of measles virus (mv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) were rescued by standard technology with helper plasmids expressing the nucleocapsid (n), phospho- (p) and large (l) proteins of mv, canine distemper virus (cdv) or rpv in order to determine whether the proteins of different viruses can function together. homogeneous sets consisting of n, p and l plasmids derived from one virus were able to generate reporter ...200515784901
pathogenicity of morbilliviruses for terrestrial carnivores.many different species of the order carnivora are susceptible to canine distemper and the mortality rate varies greatly between species. ailuridae, canidae, hyaenidae, mustelidae, procyonidae, ursidae, viverridae and now felidae have been reported to be susceptible to canine distemper virus infection. although distemper outbreaks in dogs, fur farms and in zoo carnivores have been greatly reduced in recent years due to vaccination, there are still regular outbreaks in free-living carnivores. unex ...19958588312
mass mortality in seals caused by a newly discovered morbillivirus.during a recent disease outbreak among harbour seals (phoca vitulina) in the north and baltic seas, more than 17,000 animals have died. the clinical symptoms and pathological findings were similar to those of distemper in dogs. based on a seroepizootiological study, using a canine distemper virus (cdv) neutralization assay, it was shown that cdv or a closely related morbillivirus (phocid distemper virus-pdv) was the primary cause of the disease. the virus was isolated in cell culture from the or ...19902205971
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