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chronic encephalomyelitis caused by canine distemper virus in a bengal tiger.a chronic progressive neurologic disease was observed and monitored for 18 months in a young, tamed bengal tiger. clinical, serologic, and neuropathologic evidence of canine distemper virus infection was seen. clinical signs included convulsions, myoclonus, and slowly progressive ataxia. marked increases in neutralizing antibodies against canine distemper virus were seen in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. neuropathologic findings were nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis, with perivascular ...19836685717
aspects of canine distemper virus and measles virus encephalomyelitis.canine distemper (cd) is a frequently fatal, systemic morbillivirus infection in the dog and other carnivores: encephalomyelitis is the common cause of death. susceptibility to canine distemper virus (cdv) is now recognized in a wide range of non-domestic animals, most recently in captive lions, tigers and leopards. furthermore, closely related viruses have produced cd-like diseases in marine mammals. cdv induces an inclusion-body encephalomyelitis in the dog and demyelination is often a conspic ...19947898614
canine distemper epizootic in lions, tigers, and leopards in north america.canine distemper virus (cdv) infection occurred in captive leopards (panthera pardus), tigers (panthera tigris), lions (panthera leo), and a jaguar (panthera onca) in 1991 and 1992. an epizootic affected all 4 types of cats at the wildlife waystation, san fernando, california, with 17 mortalities. cdv-infected raccoons were thought to be the source of infection in these cats. two black leopards died at the naibi zoo, coal valley, illinois, and 2 tigers died at the shambala preserve, acton, calif ...19947948195
distemper: not a new disease in lions and tigers.in light of recent canine distemper virus (cdv) epidemics, we set out to determine the historical significance of cdv infection in captive lions and tigers in switzerland. the retrospective case material consisted of 42 lion and tiger necropsy cases from 1972 to 1992. necropsy reports for all lions and tigers were reviewed. all existing paraffin tissues were immunohistochemically examined with a polyclonal antibody raised against cdv. the results for 19 of the 42 lions and tigers were classified ...19979067652
morbillivirus infection in a wild siberian tiger in the russian far east.we report the first documented case of morbillivirus infection in a wild, free-ranging siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica). the tigress entered a small village in the russian far east in an ambulatory but stuporous state with no apparent recognition or fear of humans. her condition progressed rapidly with neurological signs, anorexia, and ultimately death. histologic lesions included vacuolated to malacic white matter in the brain stem, cerebellum, and thalamus, with associated lymphocytic ...201020966275
an outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.canine distemper virus (cdv), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. since december 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in japan, and cdv was isolated from four of these animals. in the subsequent months (january to february 2010), 12 tigers (panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastroin ...201122214864
serosurvey of free-ranging amur tigers in the russian far east.wild amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica, n=44) from the russian far east were tested for antibodies to feline leukemia virus, feline corona virus (fcov), feline immunodeficiency virus, feline parvovirus (fpv), canine distemper virus (cdv), toxoplasma gondii, and bartonella henselae. antibodies to fcov, cdv, fpv, and t. gondii were detected in 43, 15, 68, and 42% of tigers, respectively. no differences were detected in antibody prevalence estimates between tigers captured as part of a research ...201222247389
impacts of canine distemper virus infection on the giant panda population from the perspective of gut microbiota.the recent increase in infectious disease outbreaks has been directly linked to the global loss of biodiversity and the decline of some endangered species populations. between december 2014 and march 2015, five captive giant pandas died due to canine distemper virus (cdv) infection in china. cdv has taken a heavy toll on tigers and lions in recent years. here, we describe the first gut microbiome diversity study of cdv-infected pandas. by investigating the influence of cdv infection on gut bacte ...201728051146
evaluation of two canine distemper virus vaccines in captive tigers (panthera tigris).canine distemper virus (cdv) has caused clinical disease and death in nondomestic felids in both captive settings and in the wild. outbreaks resulting in high mortality rates in tigers (panthera tigris) have prompted some zoos to vaccinate tigers for cdv. in this study, six tigers received a recombinant canarypox-vectored cdv vaccine (1 ml s.c.) and were revaccinated with 3 ml s.c. (mean) 39 days later. blood collection for cdv antibody detection via serum neutralization was performed on (mean) ...201627468029
canine distemper virus antibody titers in domestic cats after delivery of a live attenuated virus vaccine.three methods for delivering a live attenuated canine distemper virus (cdv) vaccine to domestic cats ( felis catus ) were investigated, as models for developing vaccination protocols for tigers (panthera tigris). twenty domestic cats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: saline injection (negative controls); and oral, intranasal, and subcutaneous vaccinates. cats were injected with saline or a cdv vaccine (nobivac dp, merck) at wk 0 and 4. blood and nasal swabs were collected at wk 0 ...201627468028
mortality of amur tigers: the more things change, the more they stay the same.poaching as well as loss of habitat and prey are identified as causes of tiger population declines. although some studies have examined habitat requirements and prey availability, few studies have quantified cause-specific mortality of tigers. we used cumulative incidence functions (cifs) to quantify cause-specific mortality rates of tigers, expanding and refining earlier studies to assess the potential impact of a newly emerging disease. to quantify changes in tiger mortality over time, we re-e ...201526096683
canine distemper virus as a threat to wild tigers in russia and across their range.canine distemper virus (cdv) has recently been identified in populations of wild tigers in russia and india. tiger populations are generally too small to maintain cdv for long periods, but are at risk of infections arising from more abundant susceptible hosts that constitute a reservoir of infection. because cdv is an additive mortality factor, it could represent a significant threat to small, isolated tiger populations. in russia, cdv was associated with the deaths of tigers in 2004 and 2010, a ...201525939829
canine distemper virus threatens wild tigers. 201425638955
estimating the potential impact of canine distemper virus on the amur tiger population (panthera tigris altaica) in russia.lethal infections with canine distemper virus (cdv) have recently been diagnosed in amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica), but long-term implications for the population are unknown. this study evaluates the potential impact of cdv on a key tiger population in sikhote-alin biosphere zapovednik (sabz), and assesses how cdv might influence the extinction potential of other tiger populations of varying sizes. an individual-based stochastic, sird (susceptible-infected-recovered/dead) model was used t ...201425354196
canine distemper virus (cdv) in another big cat: should cdv be renamed carnivore distemper virus?one of the greatest threats to the conservation of wild cat populations may be dogs or, at least, one of their viruses. canine distemper virus (cdv), a single-stranded rna virus in the paramyxoviridae family and genus morbillivirus, infects and causes disease in a variety of species, not just canids. an outbreak of cdv in wild lions in the serengeti, tanzania, in 1994 was a wake-up call for conservationists, as it demonstrated that an infectious disease could swiftly impact a previously healthy ...201324045642
canine distemper virus: an emerging disease in wild endangered amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica).fewer than 500 amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica) remain in the wild. due to low numbers and their solitary and reclusive nature, tiger sightings across their range in the russian far east and china are rare; sightings of sick tigers are rarer still. serious neurologic disease observed in several wild tigers since 2001 suggested disease emergence in this endangered species. to investigate this possibility, histology, immunohistochemistry (ihc), in situ hybridization (ish), and reverse transcr ...201323943758
outbreak and genotyping of canine distemper virus in captive siberian tigers and red pandas.in this study, four canine distemper virus (cdv) strains were isolated from captive siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica) and red pandas (ailurus fulgens) during two separate cdv outbreaks in a zoo in guangdong province, china. sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses based on the full-length hemagglutinin (h) and fusion (f) genes showed that they were closely identical to genotype asia-1. prior to confirmation of cdv in siberian tigers, to control spread of the disease, a live attenuate ...201728811626
molecular cloning and functional characterization of eleven subtypes of interferon-α in amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica).interferon has a broad-spectrum of antiviral effects and represents an ideal choice for the development of antiviral drugs. nonetheless, information about alpha interferon (ifn-α) is vacant in amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica), an endangered species and indigenous to northeast asia. herein, 11 ptifn-αs genes, which encoded proteins of 164-165 amino acids, were amplified. afterwards, expression and purification were conducted in escherichia coli. in physicochemical analysis, ptifn-αs were show ...201728751224
cross-species transmission of canine distemper virus-an update.canine distemper virus (cdv) is a pantropic morbillivirus with a worldwide distribution, which causes fatal disease in dogs. affected animals develop dyspnea, diarrhea, neurological signs and profound immunosuppression. systemic cdv infection, resembling distemper in domestic dogs, can be found also in wild canids (e.g. wolves, foxes), procyonids (e.g. raccoons, kinkajous), ailurids (e.g. red pandas), ursids (e.g. black bears, giant pandas), mustelids (e.g. ferrets, minks), viverrids (e.g. civet ...201528616465
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