diseases and parasites of red foxes, gray foxes, and coyotes from commercial sources selling to fox-chasing enclosures.fifty-six red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 18 gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), and 13 coyotes (canis latrans) obtained by the south carolina wildlife and marine resources department during an investigation of suspected illegal wildlife translocation were examined for diseases and parasites. red foxes and coyotes were confiscated from an animal dealer based in ohio (usa), and gray foxes were purchased from an animal dealer in indiana (usa). emphasis was placed on detection of pathogens representi ...19921474656
prevalence of selected pathogenic microbial agents in the red fox (vulpes fulva) and gray fox (urocyon cinereoargenteus) of southwestern red foxes (vulpes fulva) and gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) were trapped in southwestern wisconsin. fox sera were tested to determine the prevalence of antibody for five different leptospira interrogans serovars, canine distemper virus (cdv), infectious canine hepatitis virus (ichv), and franciscella tularensis infections. grippotyphosa was the most prevalent leptospiral serovar antibody observed. twenty-five of 53 (47%) red foxes and 11 of 36 (31%) gray foxes had specific an ...19816265659
detection of canine distemper viral antigen in foxes (vulpes vulpes) in northwestern spain.we describe the lesions of natural distemper in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in spain. the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (abc) technique and a monoclonal antibody against the nucleocapsid protein of canine distemper virus were successfully used to confirm canine distemper diagnosis.19948151832
epizootiology of canine distemper in new jersey raccoons.seventeen epizootics of canine distemper (cd) involving at least 615 raccoons (procyon lotor) were identified between 1 september 1977 and 25 march 1991 in new jersey (usa). epizootics occurred three times at four year intervals in three areas. based on this cycling, the wide distribution of cd cases, and their occurrence between epizootics, i propose an enzootic status for cd in new jersey raccoons. the peak period prevalence of raccoon canine distemper cases occurred at the end of the mating s ...19938355340
applications of pox virus vectors to vaccination: an update.recombinant pox viruses have been generated for vaccination against heterologous pathogens. amongst these, the following are notable examples. (i) the engineering of the copenhagen strain of vaccinia virus to express the rabies virus glycoprotein. when applied in baits, this recombinant has been shown to vaccinate the red fox in europe and raccoons in the united states, stemming the spread of rabies virus infection in the wild. (ii) a fowlpox-based recombinant expressing the newcastle disease vi ...19968876138
survey on viral pathogens in wild red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in germany with emphasis on parvoviruses and analysis of a dna sequence from a red fox parvovirus.the seroprevalence of canine parvovirus (cpv), canine distemper virus (cdv), canine adenovirus (cav) and canine herpesvirus (chv) infections in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) was determined in fox sera collected between 1991 and 1995. a total of 500 sera were selected and the seroprevalences were estimated to be 13% (65 of 500 sera) for cpv, 4.4% (17 of 383 sera) for cdv, 35% (17 of 485 sera) for cav, and 0.4% (2 of 485 sera) for chv, respectively. no statistically significant differences were observ ...19989825797
epizootiological investigations of canine distemper virus in free-ranging carnivores from germany.canine distemper virus (cdv) infects a broad range of carnivores. to assess whether wild carnivores may play a role in the epidemiology of cdv in domestic dogs in germany, the seroprevalence of cdv was determined. in sera from red foxes (30 of 591 (5%)) and stone martens (2 of 10 (20%)) antiviral antibodies were detected using a neutralization assay, whereas sera of raccoons, two mink, one pine marten and one raccoon dog were negative. in foxes, there was a significantly higher prevalence in urb ...200010831852
disease threats to the endangered iberian lynx (lynx pardinus).the iberian lynx, (lynx pardinus), is the most endangered felid in the world. to determine whether sympatric carnivores are reservoirs of pathogens posing a disease risk for the lynx, evidence of exposure to 17 viral, bacterial and protozoan agents was investigated in 176 carnivores comprising 26 free-living lynx, 53 domestic cats, 28 dogs, 33 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 24 egyptian mongooses (herpestes ichneumon), 10 common genets (genetta genetta) and 2 eurasian badgers (meles meles) in the are ...200918555712
serologic survey for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in free-ranging wild carnivores from portugal.a serologic survey for canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine parvovirus (cpv) was performed on serum and lung extract from an opportunistic sample of 120 free-ranging wild carnivores (13 species) from portugal, collected from 1995 to 2006. antibodies to cdv were detected in wolf (canis lupus; 3/27) and red fox (vulpes vulpes; 2/22). antibodies to cpv were detected in wolf (9/28), red fox (2/14), wildcat (felis silvestris;1/8), genet (genetta genetta; 17/18), and stone marten (martes foina; 3/1 ...200919204354
a serological survey of infectious disease in yellowstone national park's canid community.gray wolves (canis lupus) were reintroduced into yellowstone national park (ynp) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. in 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks.200919756151
importance of canine distemper virus (cdv) infection in free-ranging iberian lynxes (lynx pardinus).canine distemper virus (cdv) is a morbillivirus that is the etiological agent of one of the most important viral diseases affecting canids and an expanding range of other carnivores. using real-time rt-pcr, cdv rna was detected in organs of an iberian lynx (lynx pardinus) found dead in the doñana national park, southwestern andalusia, spain. this finding may be of great importance for the conservation of the species; at present the iberian lynx is the most critically endangered wild felid. the a ...201020570061
Susceptibility of carnivore hosts to strains of canine distemper virus from distinct genetic lineages.Using the complete haemagglutinin (HA) gene and partial phosphoprotein (P) gene we investigated the genotype of canine distemper virus (CDV) strains recovered from two wildlife species in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated significant differences between the strains from raccoons Procyon lotor (family Procyonidae) obtained in 2007 and strains from red foxes Vulpes vulpes (family Canidae) obtained in 2008. The raccoon strains belonged to the CDV European wildlife ...201122024346
screening red foxes (vulpes vulpes) for possible viral causes of to various known infectious and non-infectious causes, the aetiology of non-suppurative encephalitis in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) often remains unclear. known causes in foxes imply rabies, canine distemper, toxoplasmosis, aujeszky's disease, as well as parvovirus, adenovirus, circovirus and flavivirus infections. in this study, particular attention was paid on bornaviruses, since red foxes are predators of bicoloured white-toothed shrews, a reservoir of borna disease virus 1 (bodv-1). in ad ...201627590473
first report of angiostrongylus vasorum and hepatozoon from a red fox (vulpes vulpes) from west virginia, usa.angiostrongylus vasorum was identified in the lungs of a red fox (vulpes vulpes) from west virginia, united states (us), indicating a new geographical location for this metastrongylid nematode. the fox was euthanized and submitted for necropsy after displaying erratic behavior. we did not detect rabies virus or canine distemper virus from the fox. we observed bronchopneumonia associated with a. vasorum infection disseminated in both lungs. in addition, protozoal meronts were observed in the live ...201424412356
pathological findings in the red fox (vulpes vulpes), stone marten (martes foina) and raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in northern germany.anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. the present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (vulpes vulpes), stone marten (martes foina) and raccoon dog (nyctereu ...201728399176
global mammal parasite database version 2.0.illuminating the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of parasites is one of the most pressing issues facing modern science, and is critical for basic science, the global economy, and human health. extremely important to this effort are data on the disease-causing organisms of wild animal hosts (including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helminths, arthropods, and fungi). here we present an updated version of the global mammal parasite database, a database of the parasites of wild ungulates (artioda ...201728273333
prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus among foxes and wolves from spain.viral diseases can influence the population dynamics of wild carnivores and can have effects on carnivore conservation. hence, a serologic survey was conducted in an opportunistic sample of 137 foxes (vulpes vulpes) and 37 wolves (canis lupus) in spain for 1997-2007 to detect antibodies against canine distemper virus (cdv) and against canine parvovirus (cpv) by indirect elisa. antibodies against cdv were detected in 18.7% of the analyzed animals and antibodies against cpv in 17.2%. there was no ...200817646060
heterogeneity within the hemagglutinin genes of canine distemper virus (cdv) strains detected in italy.canine distemper virus (cdv) is a highly contagious viral pathogen causing lethal disease in dogs and other mammalians. a high degree of genetic variation is found between recent cdv strains and the old cdv isolates used in the vaccines and such genetic variation is regarded as a possible cause of the increasing number of cdv-related diseases in dogs. the h gene shows the greatest extent of genetic variation that allows for distinction of various lineages, according to a geographical pattern of ...200616730927
detection and genetic characterization of canine distemper virus (cdv) from free-ranging red foxes in italy.fragments of the genes encoding the haemoagglutinin (h) and the nucleocapsid protein (n) of a canine distemper (cdv)-like virus affecting a red fox (vulpes vulpes) were sequenced and analysed. the cdv-like virus detected in the fox was found to be not dissimilar, in both the h and n gene, from other cdvs spreading in italy, as well as all over the world, and phylogenetic analysis on the h protein-encoding gene allowed to include all the italian cdvs in the h european genotype.200212005452
emergence of canine distemper virus strains with modified molecular signature and enhanced neuronal tropism leading to high mortality in wild ongoing canine distemper epidemic was first detected in switzerland in the spring of 2009. compared to previous local canine distemper outbreaks, it was characterized by unusually high morbidity and mortality, rapid spread over the country, and susceptibility of several wild carnivore species. here, the authors describe the associated pathologic changes and phylogenetic and biological features of a multiple highly virulent canine distemper virus (cdv) strain detected in and/or isolated from r ...201222362965
occurrence and geographical distribution of canine distemper virus infection in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) of saxony-anhalt, germany.canine distemper virus (cdv) infects dogs and a variety of carnivore species. in saxony-anhalt, a federal state of germany, 761 foxes were examined for cdv infection, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr), in the years 2010 and 2011. a prevalence of 30.5% was found for the whole time period without significant changes in prevalence between 2010 and 2011. the relative risk (rr) of a fox to test positive for cdv varied markedly within the area of the state and was significantly increased ...201322999912
rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern italy (2006-2010).since 2006 the red fox (vulpes vulpes) population in north-eastern italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (cdv). additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the udine province at the national border with slovenia. disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to the ...201323630599
serosurvey for canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus, leptospira interrogans, and toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging canids in scandinavia and svalbard.prevalence of antibodies reactive to canine distemper virus (cdv), canine adenovirus type 1 (cav-1), leptospira interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae, and toxoplasma gondii were examined in free-ranging scandinavian canids. sampling included 275 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from mainland norway, 60 arctic foxes (vulpes lagopus) from the high-arctic islands of svalbard, and 98 wolves (canis lupus) from the joint swedish-norwegian population. methods used included virus neutralization ...201020688639
prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus among red foxes in luxembourg.canine distemper virus (cdv) has a wide host spectrum, and during the past years, distemper has been observed in species that were previously not considered to be susceptible. in this study, we investigated the prevalence of cdv-specific antibodies in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) sampled between may and november 1997. about 9 to 13% of the luxembourg red fox population is positive for antibodies against cdv. thus a sizeable proportion of red foxes has been exposed to cdv in the wild. the significan ...200212528458
pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.canine distemper virus (cdv) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. the disease severity markedly varies in different species. to investigate the pathogenesis of cdv in raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (vulpes vulpes) and mink (neovison vison) species, three groups of cdv sero-negative animals were infected with cdv strain ln(10)1. this cdv strain belongs to the asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant i ...201526210812
associations between biosecurity and outbreaks of canine distemper on danish mink farms in 2012-2013.during 8 months from july 2012 to february 2013, a major outbreak of canine distemper involving 64 mink farms occurred on the danish peninsula of jutland. the canine distemper outbreak was associated with exposure of farmed mink to infected wild carnivores and could represent a deficit in biosecurity on the mink farms. the aim of this study was to investigate the extent and association of specific biosecurity measures with the outbreak. the study was carried out in an epidemiological case-contro ...201526423523
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