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serologic survey for canine distemper and infectious canine hepatitis in wolves in alaska.sera from 57 wolves (canis lupus) in three areas of alaska were evaluated for evidence of previous exposure to infectious canine hepatitis virus (ichv) and canine distemper virus (cdv). fifty-four sera (94.7%) were positive for ichv exposure and four (7%) were positive for cdv exposure. all four cdv-reacting wolves also had titres to ichv. the relatively common occurrence of ichv exposure may be due to the greater resistance of ichv to chemical and physical agents and its transmissibility via th ...19826296469
antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in canada.antibody titres to selected pathogens (canine adenovirus [cav-2], feline herpesvirus [fhv], phocine herpesvirus [phv-1], canine distemper virus, dolphin morbillivirus [dmv], phocine distemper virus [pdv], parainfluenza virus type 3 [pi3], rabies virus, dolphin rhabdovirus [drv], canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus, borrelia burgdorferi and toxoplasma gondii) were determined in whole blood or serum samples from selected free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mam ...200415338705
serologic survey for selected disease agents in wolves (canis lupus) from alaska and the yukon territory, 1984-2000.wolves (canis lupus) were captured in several geographic areas of alaska (usa) and the yukon territory (canada) during 1984-2000. blood was collected from 1,122 animals. sera were tested for antibodies against infectious canine hepatitis virus (ich), canine distemper virus (cdv), canine parvovirus (cpv), francisella tularensis, and serovars of leptospira interrogans. antibody prevalence for ich was >84% for all areas. area-specific prevalences of antibodies ranged from 12% to 70% for cpv, from 0 ...200415650081
prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus among foxes and wolves from spain.viral diseases can influence the population dynamics of wild carnivores and can have effects on carnivore conservation. hence, a serologic survey was conducted in an opportunistic sample of 137 foxes (vulpes vulpes) and 37 wolves (canis lupus) in spain for 1997-2007 to detect antibodies against canine distemper virus (cdv) and against canine parvovirus (cpv) by indirect elisa. antibodies against cdv were detected in 18.7% of the analyzed animals and antibodies against cpv in 17.2%. there was no ...200817646060
serologic survey for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in free-ranging wild carnivores from portugal.a serologic survey for canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine parvovirus (cpv) was performed on serum and lung extract from an opportunistic sample of 120 free-ranging wild carnivores (13 species) from portugal, collected from 1995 to 2006. antibodies to cdv were detected in wolf (canis lupus; 3/27) and red fox (vulpes vulpes; 2/22). antibodies to cpv were detected in wolf (9/28), red fox (2/14), wildcat (felis silvestris;1/8), genet (genetta genetta; 17/18), and stone marten (martes foina; 3/1 ...200919204354
a serological survey of infectious disease in yellowstone national park's canid community.gray wolves (canis lupus) were reintroduced into yellowstone national park (ynp) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. in 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks.200919756151
serosurvey for canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus, leptospira interrogans, and toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging canids in scandinavia and svalbard.prevalence of antibodies reactive to canine distemper virus (cdv), canine adenovirus type 1 (cav-1), leptospira interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae, and toxoplasma gondii were examined in free-ranging scandinavian canids. sampling included 275 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from mainland norway, 60 arctic foxes (vulpes lagopus) from the high-arctic islands of svalbard, and 98 wolves (canis lupus) from the joint swedish-norwegian population. methods used included virus neutralization ...201020688639
diseases and parasites in wolves of the riding mountain national park region, manitoba, canada.we examined wolf (canis lupus) blood and fecal samples from the riding mountain national park (rmnp) region of manitoba, canada. in 601 fecal samples collected during two study periods in rmnp and the duck mountain provincial park and forest (dmppf) we found gastrointestinal helminth eggs from alaria sp. (15.5%), capillaria sp. (1.0%), taeniid tapeworms (30.8%), toxascaris sp. (1.7%), toxocara sp. (0.2%), trichuris sp. (2.2%), and moniezia sp. (0.5%). in addition, we found demodex sp. (0.2%) and ...201121270013
exposure to infectious agents in dogs in remote coastal british columbia: possible sentinels of diseases in wildlife and humans.ranked among the top threats to conservation worldwide, infectious disease is of particular concern for wild canids because domestic dogs (canis familiaris) may serve as sources and reservoirs of infection. on british columbia's largely undeveloped but rapidly changing central and north coasts, little is known about diseases in wolves (canis lupus) or other wildlife. however, several threats exist for transfer of diseases among unvaccinated dogs and wolves. to gain baseline data on infectious ag ...201121461190
prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and distemper virus in wolves in the canadian rocky mountains.wild carnivores are often exposed to diseases via contact with peridomestic host species that travel through the wildland-urban interfaces. to determine the antibody prevalences and relationships to human activity for two common canid pathogens, we sampled 99 wolves (canis lupus) from 2000 to 2008 for antibodies to canine parvovirus (cpv) and canine distemper virus (cdv) in banff and jasper national parks and surrounding areas of the canadian rockies. this population was the source for wolves re ...201222247375
prevalence of antibodies for selected canine pathogens among wolves (canis lupus) from the alaska peninsula, usa.we collected blood samples from wolves ( canis lupus ) on the alaska peninsula, southwest alaska, us, 2006-11 and tested sera for antibodies to canine adenovirus (cav), canine coronavirus (ccv), canine distemper virus (cdv), canine herpesvirus (chv), canine parainfluenza (cpi), canine parvovirus (cpv), neospora caninum , and toxoplasma gondii . detected antibody prevalence was 90% for cav, 28% for ccv, 12% for cdv, 93% for chv, 0% for cpi, 20% for cpv, 0% for n. caninum, and 86% for t. gondii . ...201627195683
arctic lineage-canine distemper virus as a cause of death in apennine wolves (canis lupus) in italy.canine distemper virus (cdv) infection is a primary threat affecting a wide number of carnivore species, including wild animals. in january 2013, two carcasses of apennine wolves (canis lupus) were collected in ortona dei marsi (l'aquila province, italy) by the local veterinary services. cdv was immediately identified either by rt-pcr or immunohistochemistry in lung and central nervous tissue samples. at the same time, severe clinical signs consistent with cdv infection were identified and taped ...201424465373
viral gut metagenomics of sympatric wild and domestic canids, and monitoring of viruses: insights from an endangered wolf population.animal host-microbe interactions are a relevant concern for wildlife conservation, particularly regarding generalist pathogens, where domestic host species can play a role in the transmission of infectious agents, such as viruses, to wild animals. knowledge on viral circulation in wild host species is still scarce and can be improved by the recent advent of modern molecular approaches. we aimed to characterize the fecal virome and identify viruses of potential conservation relevance of diarrheic ...201728649326
surveillance for antibodies against six canine viruses in wild raccoons (procyon lotor) in japan.raccoons (procyon lotor) are found worldwide. they are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. we examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. we also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. we found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (cdv), ...201728715293
serosurvey for selected viral infections in free-ranging jaguars (panthera onca) and domestic carnivores in brazilian cerrado, pantanal, and amazon.we investigated the exposure of jaguar (panthera onca) populations and domestic carnivores to selected viral infections in the cerrado, amazon, and pantanal biomes of brazil. between february 2000 and january 2010, we collected serum samples from 31 jaguars, 174 dogs (canis lupus familiaris), and 35 domestic cats (felis catus). serologic analyses for antibodies to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (cdv), feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), and for feline leukemia virus (felv) antigen were co ...201323778599
recent host range expansion of canine distemper virus and variation in its receptor, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule, in carnivores.the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (slam) is a receptor for morbilliviruses. to understand the recent host range expansion of canine distemper virus (cdv) in carnivores, we determined the nucleotide sequences of slams of various carnivores and generated three-dimensional homology slam models. thirty-four amino acid residues were found for the candidates binding to cdv on the interface of the carnivore slams. slam of the domestic dog (canis lupus familiaris) were similar to those of oth ...201424807184
parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) from central georgia, usa.we examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) from central georgia, usa, for select parasites and viral agents. sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (dirofilaria immitis). serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against leishmania spp. twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for toxoplasma gondii. real-time pcr of feces revealed 32% of coyot ...201425098300
pathologic and molecular virologic characterization of a canine distemper outbreak in farmed civets.in october 2011, a fatal disease outbreak occurred in 3 civet species farmed for their use in the coffee industry in thailand. the disease quickly killed 20 animals in a mixed population of asian palm civets (paradoxurus hermaphroditus; n = 18), a masked palm civet (paguma larvata; n = 1), and small indian civet (viverricula indica; n = 1). clinical signs consisted of severe lethargy, weakness, vomiting, and diarrhea with associated dehydration, dyspnea, nasal and footpad hyperkeratosis, and sei ...201525253065
concomitance and interactions of pathogens in the iberian wolf (canis lupus).with the aim of improving our understanding of their epidemiological features, exposure to or presence of canine parvovirus (cpv), canine distemper virus (cdv), leishmania infantum and sarcoptes scabiei were studied in 88 wild wolves from asturias (northern spain) by means of long-term (2004-2010) serological and molecular data. individual and population factors and the possible interactions between them were also statistically analyzed for better understanding the contact/presence of studied pa ...201526267084
lethal distemper in badgers (meles meles) following epidemic in dogs and wolves.canine distemper virus (cdv) represents an important conservation threat to many wild carnivores. a large distemper epidemic sustained by an arctic-lineage strain occurred in italy in 2013, mainly in the abruzzi region, causing overt disease in domestic and shepherd dogs, apennine wolves (canis lupus) and other wild carnivores. two badgers were collected by the end of september 2015 in a rural area of the abruzzi region and were demonstrated to be cdv-positive by real time rt-pcr and ihc in seve ...201627876612
patterns of exposure of iberian wolves (canis lupus) to canine viruses in human-dominated landscapes.wildlife inhabiting human-dominated landscapes is at risk of pathogen spill-over from domestic species. with the aim of gaining knowledge in the dynamics of viral infections in iberian wolves (canis lupus) living in anthropized landscapes of northern spain, we analysed between 2010 and 2013 the samples of 54 wolves by serology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for exposure to four pathogenic canine viruses: canine distemper virus (cdv), canine parvovirus-2 (cpv), canine adenovirus 1 and 2 (cav ...201626589403
parasitology and serology of free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) in north carolina, usa.coyotes (canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern us and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. we examined free-ranging coyotes from central north carolina, us, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. we detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (dirofilaria immiti ...201525984773
domestic dog origin of canine distemper virus in free-ranging wolves in portugal as revealed by hemagglutinin gene characterization.serologic evidence for canine distemper virus (cdv) has been described in grey wolves but, to our knowledge, virus strains circulating in wolves have not been characterized genetically. the emergence of cdv in several non-dog hosts has been associated with amino acid substitutions at sites 530 and 549 of the hemagglutinin (h) protein. we sequenced the h gene of wild-type canine distemper virus obtained from two free-ranging iberian wolves (canis lupus signatus) and from one domestic dog (canis f ...201121719841
persistence of canine distemper virus in the greater yellowstone ecosystem's carnivore community.canine distemper virus (cdv) is an acute, highly immunizing pathogen that should require high densities and large populations of hosts for long-term persistence, yet cdv persists among terrestrial carnivores with small, patchily distributed groups. we used cdv in the greater yellowstone ecosystem's (gye) wolves (canis lupus) and coyotes (canis latrans) as a case study for exploring how metapopulation structure, host demographics, and multi-host transmission affect the critical community size and ...201021049890
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