preliminary findings on social and ecological correlates of a polyspecific association between a golden-headed lion tamarin (leontopithecus chrysomelas) and wied's marmosets (callithrix kuhlii).the advantages of living in a group include feeding benefits and/or predation avoidance, while the disadvantages are typically related to competition. one way to avoid competition while maintaining the benefits of living in a group is to form interspecific associations with species with relatively little dietary overlap. here we report a stable association between a male golden-headed lion tamarin (ghlt), leontopithecus chrysomelas, and a group of wied's black-tufted-ear marmosets (wbtms), calli ...201727771832
occurrence of prosthenorchis elegans in free-living primates from the atlantic forest of southern bahia, brazil.parasite prevalence and abundance are important factors affecting species' conservation. during necropsies on a free-living golden-headed lion tamarin ( leontopithecus chrysomelas ) and two wied's marmosets ( callithrix kuhlii ) in the atlantic forest of southern bahia, brazil, we collected a large number of adult intestinal parasites that we identified as prosthenorchis elegans. this parasite is pathogenic for neotropical primates. prosthenorchis spp. infestation is influenced by diet with incr ...201626981688
psychosocial stress and urinary cortisol excretion in marmoset monkeys (callithrix kuhli).activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (hpa) axis is one of the hallmarks of the physiological responses to psychosocial stressors. the most common method of assessing hpa function is via the measurement of plasma cortisol levels. however, venipuncture involves capture and restraint, which can modify hpa function. we validated a noninvasive procedure for monitoring hpa responses to stressors by measuring excretion of free urinary cortisol. samples collected throughout the day displayed ...19979251962
development of heterosexual relationships in wied's black tufted-ear marmosets (callithrix kuhli).in tamarins and marmosets, long-term stable sociosexual relationships are formed between heterosexual adults, but these "monogamous" relationships are often formed in groups that contain multiple adults of both sexes. the patterning of interactions during pair formation may therefore be shaped by this demographic profile. we evaluated the development of sociosexual relationships in six captive pairs of wied's black tufted-ear marmosets (callithrix kuhli) during the 80 days from the initial day o ...199531924092
urinary steroid and gonadotropin excretion across the reproductive cycle in female wied's black tufted-ear marmosets (callithrix kuhli).details of the endocrinology of reproduction in the genus callithrix are known only for the common marmoset, c. jacchus. this paper presents the patterns of urinary pregnandiol-3-glucuronide (pdg), urinary estrone conjugates (e1c), and gonadotropin excretion throughout the reproductive cycle of wied's black tufted-ear marmoset (c. kuhli) as determined via steroid conjugate enzyme immunoassays (eia) and gonadotropin radioimmunoassays (ria). postpartum ovulation occurred at 13.6 ± 1.2 days after p ...199631918517
social and reproductive conditions modulate urinary cortisol excretion in black tufted-ear marmosets (callithrix kuhli).the links between psychosocial stress, social status, reproductive function, and urinary cortisol were assessed in social groups of black tufted-ear marmosets (callithrix kuhli). urinary cortisol excretion was monitored in cases of intrafamily conflict ("sibling fights") and in daughters in four distinct social contexts: in the family group, while housed singly or in same-sex pairs, and while paired with a male pairmate. cortisol excretion was elevated in participants in intra-family conflict on ...19979261507
social and developmental influences on reproductive function in female wied's black tufted-ear marmosets (callithrix kuhli).although marmoset social groups may contain multiple adult females, reproduction is typically limited to one breeding female. a variety of endocrine and behavioral mechanisms have been identified that regulate fertility among female marmosets. in the present study, we assessed the mechanism(s) by which fertility is regulated in female black tufted-ear marmosets, callithrix kuhli. the reproductive status of 10 daughters aged 2-24 months was evaluated by measuring concentrations of urinary pregnan ...19979154436
close proximity of the heterosexual partner reduces the physiological and behavioral consequences of novel-cage housing in black tufted-ear marmosets (callithrix kuhli).the present studies assessed the extent to which heterosexual pairmates could buffer marmosets (wied's black tufted-ear marmoset, callithrix kuhli) against stress. six male and six female marmosets from established groups were exposed to two experimental manipulations together with a control condition. each condition lasted a total of 4 days. for the two experimental conditions, animals were removed from the family group and housed in a novel cage for 48 h in either the presence or the absence o ...19989878270
variation in steroid hormones associated with infant care behaviour and experience in male marmosets (callithrix kuhlii).we describe temporal patterns of change in paternal behaviour and urinary concentrations of the steroid hormones testosterone (t) and oestradiol (e(2)) in male black tufted-ear marmosets, callithrix kuhlii, relative to the birth of their young, and test predictions of the hypotheses that (1) high levels of t are incompatible with paternal care and (2) levels of t and e(2)vary with a father's prior experience in his family group. after young were born, levels of urinary t and e(2)remained near pr ...200011124885
interactions among paternal behavior, steroid hormones, and parental experience in male marmosets (callithrix kuhlii).male black tufted-ear marmosets (callithrix kuhlii) contribute to the rearing of their offspring. here we evaluated predictions of hypotheses suggesting that (1) t and e2 influence infant-care behavior in male marmosets, (2) levels of t and e2 are modulated by paternal experience, and (3) paternal behavior and levels of t and e2 in male marmosets covary with stress. we observed the behavior of marmosets in their family groups following the birth of infants and evaluated urinary concentrations of ...200111161885
influence of the mother's reproductive state on the hormonal status of daughters in marmosets (callithrix kuhlii).behavioral and endocrine suppression of reproduction in subordinate females produces the high reproductive skew that characterizes callitrichid primate mating systems. snowdon et al. [american journal of primatology 31:11-21, 1993] reported that the eldest daughters in tamarin families exhibit further endocrinological suppression immediately following the birth of siblings, and suggested that dominant females exert greater control over subordinate endocrinology during this energetically challeng ...200415356856
intensity of aggressive interactions modulates testosterone in male marmosets.androgen is associated with the expression of male-typical behavior, including aggressive behavior, but high levels of androgen may be incompatible with other behavioral systems, such as paternal care. in a variety of species of birds that display paternal care, testosterone (t) levels in males are maintained at low levels, and these levels rise only in response to direct agonistic challenges. this idea has not been thoroughly studied in mammals with biparental care, and we exposed male marmoset ...200415581666
opportunistic mothers: female marmosets (callithrix kuhlii) reduce their investment in offspring when they have to, and when they can.all female primates incur energetic costs associated with producing and caring for offspring, but females belonging to the new world primate family callitrichidae, the marmosets and tamarins, appear to face even further demands. in fact, the energetic demands of rearing callitrichid infants are thought to have led to the evolution of cooperative infant care in these species. if this explanation is true, then one might expect that natural selection should also have shaped patterns of maternal beh ...200515935439
demographic review of a captive colony of callitrichids (callithrix kuhlii).although reports on colony demographics for a variety of callitrichid species are available in the literature, to date there has not been a detailed examination of wied's black tufted-ear marmoset (callithrix kuhlii). the purpose of this study is to present colony demographics for c. kuhlii from the university of nebraska at omaha's callitrichid research center from 1991 to 2002. c. kuhlii are currently held in a number of zoological parks in the united states and abroad; however, the university ...200717177315
germ-line chimerism and paternal care in marmosets (callithrix kuhlii).the formation of viable genetic chimeras in mammals through the transfer of cells between siblings in utero is rare. using microsatellite dna markers, we show here that chimerism in marmoset (callithrix kuhlii) twins is not limited to blood-derived hematopoietic tissues as was previously described. all somatic tissue types sampled were found to be chimeric. notably, chimerism was demonstrated to be present in germ-line tissues, an event never before documented as naturally occurring in a primate ...200717389380
treatment with crh-1 antagonist antalarmin reduces behavioral and endocrine responses to social stressors in marmosets (callithrix kuhlii).corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh) has multiple roles in coordinating the behavioral and endocrine responses to a host of environmental challenges, including social stressors. in the present study we evaluated the role of crh in mediating responses to a moderate social stressor in wied's black tufted-eared marmosets (callithrix kuhlii). male and female marmosets (n=14) were administered antalarmin (a selective crh-1 receptor antagonist; 50 microg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle in a blind, counterbalanc ...200717397037
production and perception of sex differences in vocalizations of wied's black-tufted-ear marmosets (callithrix kuhlii).males and females from many species produce distinct acoustic variations of functionally identical call types. social behavior may be primed by sex-specific variation in acoustic features of calls. we present a series of acoustic analyses and playback experiments as methods for investigating this subject. acoustic parameters of phee calls produced by wied's black-tufted-ear marmosets (callithrix kuhlii) were analyzed for sex differences. discriminant function analyses showed that calls contained ...200919090554
predation risk and the interspecific association of two brazilian atlantic forest primates in cabruca agroforest.forming interspecific associations is one of many strategies adopted by primates in order to avoid predation. in addition to improved predator detection and avoidance, benefits of interspecific associations relate to improved foraging efficiency. in this study we tested these two hypotheses explaining associations between the endangered golden-headed lion tamarin, leontopithecus chrysomelas and the sympatric wied's marmoset, callithrix kuhlii. we estimated predation risk by recording the number ...201121455950
female marmosets' behavioral and hormonal responses to unfamiliar intruders.the endocrine control mechanisms for female mammalian aggression have been largely unstudied. although it has been proposed that androgens may modulate female aggressive behavior in a similar manner to males, very little conclusive evidence exists. previous work in male marmosets found that post-encounter increases in testosterone (t) were dependent on the intensity of aggression displayed during the aggressive encounter. we exposed female marmosets (callithrix kuhlii), a monogamous and biparent ...201121748772
complete mitochondrial genome of callithrix kuhlii (primates: callitrichinae) with phylogenetic consideration.the wied's black-tufted-ear marmoset, callithrix kuhlii, is a new world monkey that lives in tropical and subtropical forests of eastern brazil. in this study, the mitochondrial genome sequence of this species is determined, which is found to be 16 500 bp in length and consists of 22 transfer rna genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal rna genes and one d-loop control region. the overall nucleotide composition is 32.73% of a, 26.80% of t, 27.04% of c and 13.43% of g, with an at content of 59 ...201626162052
variation in circulating and excreted estradiol associated with testicular activity in male marmosets.concentrations of estradiol (e2) are high in the urine of male marmosets, and links between e2 and paternal behavior have been proposed in black tufted-ear marmosets, callithrix kuhlii. however, it is not clear whether urinary e2 in male marmosets: 1) represents production of e2 associated with testicular activity, 2) is associated with adrenal steroid production, or 3) merely reflects peripheral conversion of t to e2 prior to excretion. we tested the hypothesis that urinary e2 in male marmosets ...200211793411
cholelithiasis in four callitrichid species (leontopithecus, callithrix).medical records of three male and three female callitrichids of four species (leontopithecus chrysopygus, leontopithecus rosalia, callithrix argentata argentata, callithrix kuhlii) diagnosed with cholelithiasis were reviewed. ages of affected animals at the time of diagnosis ranged from 2-14 yr. definitive antemortem diagnosis of cholelithiasis was made in four of the six cases. chronic weight loss, lethargy, and weakness were seen in all cases. chronic intermittent diarrhea was seen in three ca ...200617312811
leptospirosis in wied's marmosets (callithrix kuhlii).two adult wied's marmosets (callithrix kuhlii) presented with jaundice, anemia, and weight loss. death of one individual was attributed to renal tubular necrosis; liver and kidney were positive for leptospira antigen by immunohistochemical (ihc) staining. the second animal was negative for antigen by ihc staining, but serologically positive for leptospira borgpetersenii serovar ballum with an eightfold titer increase in paired samples, and was euthanized because of unresponsiveness to treatment. ...200617312798
pre- and postpartum sex steroids in female marmosets (callithrix kuhlii): is there a link with infant survivorship and maternal behavior?recent studies in primates have suggested that pre- and peripartum sex steroid hormones may be important determinants of maternal behavior and motivation, since higher levels of prepartum estrogen are associated with maternal competency and infant survivorship. to test the cross-species generality of this finding, we monitored excreted profiles of estradiol (e(2)), progesterone metabolites (pregnanediol glucuronide; pdg), and e(2):pdg ratios throughout pregnancy in black tufted-ear marmosets (ca ...200010924281
elevated urinary testosterone excretion and decreased maternal caregiving effort in marmosets when conception occurs during the period of infant dependence.the proximate mechanisms that regulate transitions in mammalian female reproductive effort have not been widely studied. however, variation in circulating levels of the androgenic steroid hormone testosterone (t) appears to mediate a trade-off between investment in current and future offspring in males [ketterson, e.d., nolan, v., jr., 1992. hormones and life histories: an integrative approach. am. nat. 140, s33-s62; ketterson, e.d., nolan, v., jr., 1994. hormones and life histories: an integrat ...015579264
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