species composition, seasonal occurrence, habitat preference and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other disease vectors in eastern is increasingly recognized that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of vector-borne diseases (vbds) with shifts of disease vectors to higher altitudes and latitudes. in particular, an increasing risk of malaria and dengue fever epidemics in tropical highlands and temperate regions has been predicted in different climate change scenarios. the aim of this paper is to expand the current knowledge on the seasonal occurrence and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other dise ...201425430654
existence of the rdl mutant alleles among the anopheles malaria vector in indonesia.the gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba) receptor-chloride channel complex is known to be the target site of dieldrin, a cyclodiene insecticide. gaba-receptors, with a naturally occurring amino acid substitution, a302s/g in the putative ion-channel lining region, confer resistance to cyclodiene insecticides that includes aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, endrin and endosulphan.201222364613
comparative studies on the stenogamous and eurygamous behavior of eight anopheles species of the hyrcanus group (diptera: culicidae) in thailand.establishment of laboratory colony is essential for mosquito-borne-disease research. mating behavior of stenogamous anopheles peditaeniatus and seven eurygamous species (anopheles argyropus, anopheles crawfordi, anopheles nigerrimus, anopheles nitidus, anopheles paraliae (=an. lesteri), anopheles pursati and anopheles sinensis), were investigated and compared in this study. the self-mating success of adult mosquitoes in different size cages at two density resting surface (drs) values, 3.6 and 7. ...201627023618
species composition and diversity of malaria vector breeding habitats in trincomalee district of sri lanka.mosquito larval ecology is important in determining larval densities and species assemblage. this in turn influences malaria transmission in an area. therefore, understanding larval habitat ecology is important in designing malaria control programs.201526583136
vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central vietnam.malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector anopheles dirus is uncommon. in these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species.201020846447
malaria transmission and vector behaviour in a forested malaria focus in central vietnam and the implications for vector vietnam, malaria is becoming progressively restricted to specific foci where human and vector characteristics alter the known malaria epidemiology, urging for alternative or adapted control strategies. long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (llih) were designed and introduced in ninh thuan province, south-central vietnam, to control malaria in the specific context of forest malaria. an entomological study in this specific forested environment was conducted to assess the behavioural patterns of fo ...201021182774
mosquito species associated within some western himalayas phytogeographic zones in the garhwal region of india.thirty four species of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) were collected across three phytogeographic zones; tropical (300 to 1000 m), sub tropical (1000 to 2000 m) and temperate (2000 to 3000 m) in the garhwal region of india. they included 5 genera: aedes, anopheles, armigeres, culex and uranotaenia. of these, the immature forms of 23 species were recovered from different breeding habitats. the larval habitats were seepage pools, river beds, rice fields, tanks, forest pools, ditches, streams, roc ...200720233101
prevalence of anopheline species and their plasmodium infection status in epidemic-prone border areas of bangladesh.information related to malaria vectors is very limited in bangladesh. in the changing environment and various anopheles species may be incriminated and play role in the transmission cycle. this study was designed with an intention to identify anopheline species and possible malaria vectors in the border belt areas, where the malaria is endemic in bangladesh.201020074326
malaria vectors of timor-leste.the island of timor lies at the south-eastern edge of indonesia on the boundary of the oriental and australian faunal regions. the country of timor-leste, which occupies the eastern part of the island, is malarious, but anopheline faunal surveys and malaria vector incrimination date back to the 1960 s. over the last decade the malaria vectors of south-east asia and the south-west pacific have been intensely studied using molecular techniques that can confirm identification within complexes of is ...201020122278
multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in sri lanka.the current status of insecticide resistance and the underlying resistance mechanisms were studied in the major vector of malaria, anopheles culicifacies, and the secondary vector, anopheles subpictus in five districts (anuradhapura, kurunegala, moneragala, puttalam and trincomalee) of sri lanka. eight other anophelines, anopheles annularis, anopheles barbirostris, anopheles jamesii, anopheles nigerrimus, anopheles peditaeniatus, anopheles tessellatus, anopheles vagus and anopheles varuna from a ...200818755020
factors affecting selection for multiple resistance in anopheles nigerrimus in sri resting habits and breeding habits of anopheles nigerrimus in sri lanka were investigated. this species is primarily exophilic, in contrast to endophilic an. culicifacies in the same areas. an. nigerrimus larvae were found in all habitat types sampled, in particular paddy fields where a large quantity of agricultural pesticides is used. this species was shown to be resistant to a range of insecticides including a number of organophosphates and carbamates. the adult resting behaviour preclu ...19863810798
chromosome studies of oriental anophelines. ii. the salivary gland chromosomes of anopheles nigerrimus. 19715155713
anopheles culicifacies breeding in polluted water bodies in trincomalee district of sri lanka.anopheles culicifacies, the major vector of malaria in sri lanka, is known to breed in clean and clear water. the main objective of the study was to detect the breeding habitat diversity of an. culicifacies.201323958454
entomological investigations on malaria vectors in some war-torn areas in the trincomalee district of sri lanka after settlement of 30-year civil disturbance.background. malaria was an endemic problem in trincomalee district, eastern province of sri lanka. very few recent data concerning anopheles are available which transmit malaria. therefore, the aim of this study is to identify various anopheles species and the dynamics of anophelines including malaria vectors in trincomalee district for effective vector control under the current malaria elimination program embarked in the country. method. entomological surveys were conducted on a monthly basis, ...201525789195
identification of sibling species status of anopheles culicifacies breeding in polluted water bodies in trincomalee district of sri lanka.anopheles culicifacies s.l., the major vector of malaria in sri lanka, is known to breed in clean and clear water. however, recent findings have confirmed breeding from waste water bodies in urban and semi-urban areas. no study has been conducted to identify whether it is vector or non-vector siblings. the objective of the study was to identify the sibling species status of an. culicifacies s.l.201525994607
determination of the foraging behaviour and blood meal source of malaria vector mosquitoes in trincomalee district of sri lanka using a multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction assay.studies of host preference patterns in blood-feeding anopheline mosquitoes are crucial to incriminating malaria vectors. however, little information is available on host preferences of anopheles mosquitoes in sri lanka.201627118141
species composition and population dynamics of malaria vectors in three previously ignored aquatic systems in sri 2015 alone there were an estimated 214 million new cases of malaria across the globe and 438,000 deaths were reported. although indigenous malaria has not been reported in sri lanka since 2012, to date 247 imported cases of malaria have been identified. knowledge of the locations, behaviour and vectorial capacity of potential malarial vectors is therefore needed to prevent future outbreaks. attention is now being focused on some previously ignored habitats.201627165184
entomological determinants of insecticide-treated bed net effectiveness in western a large cluster randomized control trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (itn) in western myanmar the malaria protective effect of itn was found to be highly variable and, in aggregate, the effect was not statistically significant. a coincident entomological investigation measured malaria vector abundance and biting behaviour and the human population sleeping habits, factors relevant to itn effectiveness.201324119994
revised morphological identification key to the larval anopheline (diptera: culicidae) of sri revise morphological identification keys to the anophelines in sri lanka.025183086
anopheline species and their plasmodium infection status in aligarh, india.malaria is a global issue and india contributes substantially to global malaria incidence. information related to malaria vectors is very limited in aligarh. the environmental and climatological situations permit the continual breeding of vectors in permanent breeding sites. this study was designed with the aim to screen all the anophelines species and possible malaria vectors in three different localities of aligarh. anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three different localities (fort, jal ...201527579016
anopheles subpictus carry human malaria parasites in an urban area of western india and may facilitate perennial malaria transmission.india contributes 1.5-2 million annual confirmed cases of malaria. since both parasites and vectors are evolving rapidly, updated information on parasite prevalence in mosquitoes is important for vector management and disease control. possible new vector-parasite interactions in goa, india were tested.201626919828
revisited its2 phylogeny of anopheles (anopheles) hyrcanus group mosquitoes: reexamination of unidentified and misidentified its2 sequences.the anopheles (anopheles) hyrcanus group of mosquitoes is very important for human health because some are malarial vector mosquitoes. despite their pathological importance, some unidentified internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) sequences have been reported from members of this group, and their phylogenetic relationships have been rarely understood. in the present study, 84 its2 sequences for the hyrcanus group members were retrieved from genbank. the detailed sequence comparison unambiguously r ...200717514381
the role of climate variability in the spread of malaria in bangladeshi highlands.malaria is a major public health problem in bangladesh, frequently occurring as epidemics since the 1990s. many factors affect increases in malaria cases, including changes in land use, drug resistance, malaria control programs, socioeconomic issues, and climatic factors. no study has examined the relationship between malaria epidemics and climatic factors in bangladesh. here, we investigate the relationship between climatic parameters [rainfall, temperature, humidity, sea surface temperature (s ...201021179555
a video clip of the biting midge culicoides anophelis ingesting blood from an engorged anopheles mosquito in hainan, china.biting midges are hematophagus ectoparasites of insects, humans and other animals. culicoides (trithicoides) anophelis edwards1922 is a predator of engorged mosquitoes.201324499575
incrimination of anopheles dirus as a vector of malaria in dibrugarh district, assam.anopheles nigerrimus, a. vagus, a. dirus, a. karwari and a. kochi were the most abundant species among 12 anopheline species collected during the course of entomological studies carried out from july to september, 1988 in an area endemic for malaria under tengakhat phc of dibrugarh district, assam. sporozoites were detected in the salivary glands of one specimen of a. dirus, peyton & harrison (a. balabacensis) which constituted about 18.11 per cent of the total anopheline collection.19892699591
re: anopheles nigerrimus as a vector of malaria in india. 19912045805
scanning electron microscopy of anopheles hyrcanus group (diptera: culicidae) eggs in thailand and an ultrastructural key for species identification.the eggs of anopheles argyropus, anopheles crawfordi, anopheles nigerrimus, anopheles nitidus, anopheles paraliae, anopheles peditaeniatus, anopheles pursati, and anopheles sinensis are described with the aid of scanning electron micrographs. comparisons of the egg structure among the eight species showed that the eggs differed with respect to the following characteristics: the deck-complete (an. argyropus, an. nigerrimus, an. paraliae, an. peditaeniatus, and an. sinensis); variable (complete, s ...201424337511
dna barcoding for the identification of eight species members of the thai hyrcanus group and investigation of their stenogamous behavior.eight species members of the thai hyrcanus group were identified based on the intact morphology and molecular analysis (coi barcoding, 658 bp) of f1-progenies. five iso-female lines of each species were pooled in order to establish stock colonies. a stenogamous colony of each species was investigated by making 200 and 300 newly emerged adult females and males co-habit in a 30 cm cubic cage for one week. after ovipositon, the spermathecae of females were examined for sperms. the results revealed ...201324161242
pesticide resistance mechanisms produced by field selection pressures on anopheles nigerrimus and a. culicifacies in sri sri lanka, anopheles nigerrimus is resistant to a range of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides at both the larval and adult stages. biochemical studies indicate that an alteration in acetylcholinesterase is the basis of resistance rather than increased metabolic breakdown of the insecticides. in contrast, a. culicifacies is resistant only to malathion and closely related compounds containing a carboxylate ester bond. agricultural pesticides are the sole source of selection pressure for ...19863492309
scanning electron microscopy of antennal sensilla of the eight anopheles species of the hyrcanus group (diptera: culicidae) in thailand.antennal sensilla were first investigated in the eight medically and veterinary important anopheles mosquito species (anopheles argyropus, anopheles crawfordi, anopheles nigerrimus, anopheles nitidus, anopheles paraliae (= anopheles lesteri), anopheles peditaeniatus, anopheles pursati, and anopheles sinensis) of the hyrcanus group in thailand, using scanning electron microscopy (sem). four types of sensilla, including sensilla chaetica (large and small), sensilla trichodea (sharp- and blunt-tipp ...201727752768
anopheles nigerrimus (hyrcanus group) as a laboratory vector of some filariae of man and animals. 196114479871
a study of malayan filariasis in lubuk mumpo and datar lebar villages in lais regency, north bengkulu, sumatera, indonesia.filariasis surveys at lubuk mumpo and datar lebar, bengkulu, sumatera, showed microfilarial rates of 23.9% and 30% respectively. periodicity studies showed the parasite to be nocturnally periodic b. malayi with a periodicity index of 82.17. however, unlike the malaysian form of periodic b. malayi, 44-100% of the microfilariae in thick blood smears were sheathed. mansonia annulata, m. bonneae, m. dives, m. uniformis and anopheles nigerrimus are probably involved in the transmission of the disease ...19826133359
molecular characterization of anopheline (diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes from eight geographical locations of sri lanka.genus anopheles is a major mosquito group of interest in sri lanka as it includes vectors of malaria and its members exist as species complexes. taxonomy of the group is mainly based on morphological features, which are not conclusive and can be easily erased while handling the specimens. a combined effort, using morphology and dna barcoding (using the markers cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) region, was made during the present study to recognize ...201728578667
epidemiological observations on malaria in some parts of tengakhat phc, dibrugarh district, assam.a three year study carried out in 44 villages (pop. 17,938) reveals seasonal transmission of malaria i.e., from june to november. the incidence of malaria was high in the year 1988 in comparison to that of 1987 and 1989. p. falciparum was the predominant species. the population living in forest fringe areas were more prone to malaria than the rest. anopheles nigerrimus, an. kochi, an. karwari and an. philippinensis were most abundant among the 16 anopheline species collected. known vectors of ma ...19911810748
cytogenetic, hybridization and molecular evidence of four cytological forms of anopheles nigerrimus (hyrcanus group) in thailand and cambodia.thirteen isoline colonies of anopheles nigerrimus were established from individual wild-caught females collected from cow-baited traps at locations in thailand and cambodia. three types of x (x1 , x2 , x3 ) and 4 types of y (y1 , y2 , y3 , y4 ) chromosomes were recovered, according to differing amounts of extra heterochromatin. four karyotypic forms were designed depending upon apparently distinct figures of x and y chromosomes, i.e., form a (x1 , x2 , x3 , y1 ), b (x2 , x3 , y2 ), c (x1 , y3 ), ...201324581355
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