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swine influenza virus and the recycling of influenza-a viruses in man.sera collected in 1967 and 1972 from people in the 0-100 age-group showed haemagglutination-inhibition (h.i.) antibody to swine virus a/iowa/15/30 (hsw1n1) in greatest number and with highest titre in people born before 1918. a slight decrease was observed from 1967 to 1972 in the number of sera with antibody to swine virus and in the height of the titres. the recently isolated a/new jersey/10/76 (hsw1n1) virus showed a result comparable to that of the swine/1930 virus in sera of 1972. on the an ...197659252
[the possible epidemic recrudescence of swine-like influenza virus type a].an account of the effects of recent influenza epidemics is given from the medical standpoint, and also with respect to their social and economic repercussions. the part played by air travel in the carriage of such epidemics is also examined. the immunity of the population of rome towards an a strain swine fever (a/new jersey 8/76) is assessed in the light of personal research.1976995280
[prevalence of antibodies to a/new jersey/76, a/victoria/3/75 and b/hong kong/5/72 influenza viruses in the population of milan examined in the late spring of 1976 and evaluation of the past experience of the same population with probable agent of the 1918-20 pandemics].hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies (h.i.a.) to influenza viruses a/new jersey/76, a/victoria/3/75 and b/hong kong/5/72 were titrated in 227 serum samples collected in milan in the late spring 1976 from healthy subjects of 0 to 90 years of age. in 185 of these neuraminidase-inhibiting antibodies (n.i.a.) for the type a strains were also titrated. subjects up to 40 years of age lack h.i.a. to a/new jersey/76 strain; antibody levels equal to or greater than 1:40 are occasionally present in the ...19761016579
[possible significance of human patients with "swine" influenza virus in january-february,1976 at fort dix, new jersey, usa, and theories concerning the cause of deaths in the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919]. 19761024248
sensitivity of influenza a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) virus to amantadine-hcl.the appearance of a swine type of influenza a among recruits in fort dix, new jersey, in 1976 prompted an evaluation of the sensitivity of this virus to amantadine - hcl. well-tolerated levels of the drug effectively blocked replication of the influenza a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) virus isolate in three laboratory models: monkey kidney cells, embryonated eggs, and intranasally infected mice. on a comparative basis this virus would appear to be more sensitive to amantadine - hcl than human influen ...1977894080
behaviour in ferrets of swine influenza virus isolated from man.after intranasal instillation into ferrets, the "swine" influenza virus a/new jersey/8/76(hsw1 n1) had a 50% minimal infectious dose similar to that of previously tested a/pr/8-a/england (h3 n2) recombinants virulent and attenuated for man. a/new jersey produced only a mild upper respiratory tract infection. however, higher titres of virus were recovered from the lungs over a longer period than experienced previously with asian and hong kong virus strains. there was a diphasic pyrexia the second ...197763712
[comparative characteristics of influenza virus a/ussr/02/76 and swine influenza virus].comparative studies of the biological properties, antigenic structure and ultrastructure of influenza a viruses isolated in the ussr, a/new jersey/8/76 and a/swine/31 were carried out. antigenic differences between a/ussr/02/76 and a/swine/31 strains as well as a/new jersey/8/76 strain were found in the hemagglutination-inhibition and neuraminidase activity-inhibition tests. these differences were confirmed by serological examination of human sera.197771790
swine influenza a at fort dix, new jersey (january-february 1976). iv. summary and speculation.influenza a/new jersey/76 virus was detected at fort dix from january 19 through february 9, 1976 and infected at least 230 military personnel. thirteen hospital admissions for acute respiratory disease were associated with influenza a/new jersey infection, and additional members of index training companies may have been hospitalized with influenza a/new jersey. this virus was likely introduced into the reception center by an incoming trainee. although our studies could not eliminate the possibi ...1977342615
antigenic subgroups of influenza a (hsw1 n1) virus differentiated by hemagglutination inhibition.eleven influenza a/swine virus strains could be arranged in three subgroups by hemagglutination inhibition (hi) titrations. the antisera used include post-infection ferret sera (native as well as after adsorption with heterologous hsw1 n1 virus) and paired human sera from recent influenza a patients, showing antibody titre rises against a/swine virus. for serological detection of infections with an unknown a/swine virus, virus strains of the subgroup with the broadest reactivity are more suitabl ...1977604129
identification and preliminary antigenic analysis of swine influenza-like viruses isolated during an influenza outbreak at fort dix, new jersey.the sequence of events and the laboratory procedures that resulted in the identification of swine influenza-like viruses isolated during an influenza outbreak at fort dix, new jersey in january and february of 1976 are described. preliminary antigenic analysis suggested that the isolates from fort dix are closely related to a 1975 isolate of swine influenza virus and distinguishable from earlier swine influenza strains.1977606762
ether-treated, subunit hsw1n1 influenza vaccines: response of immunologically primed subjects to two antigenic variants.two bivalent, ether-treated, subunit influenza vaccines were compared in adults greater than or equal to 45 years old. both vaccines contained 200 chick cell-agglutinating (cca) units of a/victoria/3/75 antigen/dose. the hsw1n1 components, also at a level of 200 cca units/dose and designated a/shope and a/x-53, were antigenically representative of the a/swine/1976/31 and a/new jersey/8/76 viruses, respectively. a/shope virus possessed about 100 times more neuraminidase activity than a/x-53 virus ...1977606773
infection and vaccination of pigs with influenza a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) virus.pigs were infected and had mild signs of illness when exposed to influenza a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) virus. virus was recovered for up to eight days after exposure. the virus was readily transmitted to susceptible pen mates. vaccination with inactivated whole-virus vaccine did not provide protection against infection or disease. there was some protection against challenge when the pigs were vaccinated with a temperature-sensitive strain of influenza a/new jersey/8/76 virus.1977606794
surveillance of the swine influenza vaccination program at the royal military college, kingston.in a prospective study symptoms appearing in a previously healthy population within 6 weeks after inoculation with monovalent swine influenza vaccine (a/new jersey/76) were tabulated. of the 703 persons (ranging in age from 17 to 55 years) participating in the follow-up 54% reported experiencing symptoms, usually within 24 hours of vaccination; the symptoms were usually minor and none of the participants displayed evidence of guillain-barré syndrome.1978657050
investigations on the involvement of swine influenza a virus (hsw1n1) in the influenza outbreak recorded in a town of romania during the 1976--1977 winter season.seroepidemiological investigations performed with 1,620 serum samples and serodiagnostic tests with 166 paired sera demonstrated that swine influenza virus type a/new jersey 8/76 (hsw1n1) played no role in the epidemiology of human influenza in a large town of romania during 1977.1978567886
further studies in man of hsw1n1 influenza viruses.two subpopulations of antigenically different hsw1n1 influenza viruses, cloned from 'swine' new jersey virus 1976, were individually inoculated into antibody-free volunteers. one clone contained a haemagglutinin so far seen only in swine viruses prevalent in 1971 and after, the other a haemagglutinin of earlier strains dating back to a least 1957. each of the viruses was infectious for man and intermediate in human virulence between a wild human virus and swine pathogens of 1966 and 1967, which ...19807381437
guillain-barré syndrome and the 1978-1979 influenza vaccine.an ongoing surveillance program was intensified to determine whether an increased risk of acquiring vaccine-related guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) (similar to that observed after vaccination with the a/new jersey swine-influenza vaccine in 1976) existed for the approximately 12.5 million adults (greater than or equal to 18 years old) vaccinated in the 1978-1979 influenza campaign. in the contiguous united states (excluding maryland) 544 cases of gbs with onset between september 1, 1978, and march ...19817231501
prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition antibody to current strains of the h3n2 and h1n1 subtypes of influenza a virus in sera collected from the elderly in 1976.sera were collected in 1976 from 182 individuals born between 1876-1935, who included patients in a large local nursing home in orange county, california, and patients and staff at the university of california, irvine medical center. sera were treated with receptor-destroying enzyme and assayed for hemagglutination inhibition (hi) antibody to recent strains of influenza a virus. the antigens tested were: a/victoria/3/76 and a/texas/1/77 for subtype h3n2; a/new jersey/8/76, a/x53 and a/swine/1976 ...19827072705
guillain-barré syndrome in the united states, 1979-1980 and 1980-1981. lack of an association with influenza vaccination.an ongoing surveillance program was intensified during the 1979-1980 and the 1980-1981 influenza seasons to determine whether an increased risk of acquiring guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) within eight weeks after influenza vaccination existed for adults in the united states who received influenza vaccine, when compared with adult who had not been vaccinated recently. five hundred twenty-eight cases of gbs with onset between sept 1 and march 31, including seven following recent vaccination, were r ...19827097920
sero-epizootiological study on swine influenza in a prefecture of japan.a total of 1799 swine sera collected in toyama prefecture in the central part of japan during the years 1978-82 were tested for antibody against swine influenza virus (siv), a/new jersey/8/76 (h1n1). a high prevalence of antibody was observed in the years after the severe epizootic of si, 34.5% in 1979 and 51.7% in 1982. in other years, the percentages of positive sera were low and ranged from 1.7 to 12.4%. regional variations were seen in relation to a small scale epizootic. no antibody to siv ...19836306099
influenza virus a/swine-outbreaks in domestic pigs and antibody findings in human sera.in the last years, the occurrence of influenza viruses a/h1n1 (hsw1n1) in pig stocks of different countries has been increasingly reported. in general, the isolated viruses were related to the influenza virus a/new jersey/8/76 h1n1 (hsw1n1). human infections were not reported in these outbreaks. since march 1981, very limited influenza outbreaks in several pig stocks of the gdr with high morbidity and very low lethality have been observed. the illness took an uncomplicated path and generally sub ...19836316691
antigenic and genetic characterization of h1 influenza viruses isolated from feral ducks and swine in japan.the strains of h 1 n 4 influenza a virus isolated from feral ducks in japan in 1977-78 were compared to swine-origin h 1 n 1 viruses antigenically and genetically. homologous characteristics were found among the h 1 n 4 isolates from feral ducks in hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) tests, viral rna patterns on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and oligonucleotide mapping. although the hemagglutinins of duck-origin viruses employed in this study were identified as h 1, the viruses were distinguis ...19836651533
isolation of swine-like influenza a(h1n1) viruses from man in switzerland and the netherlands.swine influenza a (h1n1) viruses were isolated from two people in switzerland and one in the netherlands in early 1986. in haemagglutination-inhibition and neuraminidase-inhibition assays, the three viruses were closely related to one another and to the a/new jersey/8/76 strain. the swiss patients showed only mild symptoms, whereas the dutch patient suffered from severe pneumonia. two of the patients had been in close contact with diseased pigs. no such contact could be established for the third ...19883214596
antibody responses of swine to type a influenza viruses during the past ten years in japan.a total of 6346 swine sera collected at an abattoir in the city of obihiro, hokkaido during the years 1978-87 were tested for the presence of antibodies to swine and human influenza viruses. a high incidence of antibody to a/new jersey/8/76 (swine type h1n1) virus was observed throughout the 10 years except for the occasional month and a single long period of 15 months. antibodies to human h3n2 virus in swine appeared to be related to the epidemics of human influenza which occurred in the study ...19883378588
[antigenic structure of hemagglutinins of influenza h1n1 (hsw1n1) virus isolated from humans and ducks].the method of specific adsorption followed by the use of antisera in hi test and competitive enzyme immunoassay was used to study the antigenic composition of hemagglutinins (ha) hsw1 in influenza viruses isolated in 1982 from humans in bulgaria and in 1976 in canada from ducks as well as their antigenic relationships with ha of hsw1 variant isolated from swine and man. hemagglutinins of hsw1 strains isolated from man in bulgaria and alma-ata were found to be similar to ha of a/new jersey/8/76 v ...19892483779
seroprevalence of porcine and human influenza a virus antibodies in pigs between 1986 and 1988 in hassia.1,268 sera collected from slaughtered pigs in hassia (frg) from 1986 to 1988 were tested for antibodies against porcine and human influenza a virus strains using the single radial haemolysis test (srht). antibodies against the porcine strains (subtype h1n1) a/swine/arnsberg/1/81, a/swine/iowa/15/30 and a/new jersey/7/76 were detected in 411 (32.4%), 318 (25.1%) and 304 (24.0%) of sera, respectively. up to 1988 a slight increase (10%) in the seroprevalence to a/swine/arnsberg/1/81 was noticed, wh ...19892559562
reassessment of the association between guillain-barré syndrome and receipt of swine influenza vaccine in 1976-1977: results of a two-state study. expert neurology group.although the original centers for disease control study of the relation between a/new jersey/8/76 (swine flu) vaccine and guillain-barré syndrome (polyradiculoneuritis) demonstrated a statistical association and suggested a causal relation between the two events, controversy has persisted. to reassess this association, the authors obtained medical records of all previously reported adult patients with guillain-barré syndrome in michigan and minnesota from october 1, 1976 through january 31, 1977 ...19911851395
genetic relatedness of the nucleoprotein (np) of recent swine, turkey, and human influenza a virus (h1n1) isolates.the sequences of nucleoprotein (np) genes of recent human and turkey isolates of influenza a viruses, which serologically could be correlated to contemporary swine viruses, were determined. these sequences were closely related to the nps of these swine viruses and they formed a separate branch on the phylogenetic tree. while the early swine virus from 1931 resembled the avian strains in consensus amino acids of the np and in its ability to rescue np ts mutants of fowl plague virus in chicken emb ...19921536092
genetic reassortment in pandemic and interpandemic influenza viruses. a study of 122 viruses infecting humans.the human influenza pandemics of 1957 and 1968 were caused by reassortant viruses that possessed internal gene segments from avian and human strains. whether genetic reassortment of human and avian influenza viruses occurs during interpandemic periods and how often humans are infected with such reassortants is not known. to provide this information, we used dot-blot hybridization, partial nucleotide sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis to examine the 6 internal genes of 122 viruses is ...19968817180
efficacy of vaccination of pigs with different h1n1 swine influenza viruses using a recent challenge strain and different parameters of protection.this study investigates whether antigenic evolution within h1n1 swine influenza viruses can compromise vaccine efficacy and, specifically, whether the a/new jersey/8/76 strain in the commercial swine influenza vaccines needs to be updated. pigs were vaccinated twice intramuscularly with experimental monovalent vaccines derived from different h1n1 strains (a/new jersey/8/76, sw/belgium/1/83 or sw/belgium/1/98) or with a commercial bivalent vaccine based on a/new jersey/8/76 (h1n1) and a/port chal ...200111483274
swine influenza a outbreak, fort dix, new jersey, 1976.in early 1976, the novel a/new jersey/76 (hsw1n1) influenza virus caused severe respiratory illness in 13 soldiers with 1 death at fort dix, new jersey. since a/new jersey was similar to the 1918-1919 pandemic virus, rapid outbreak assessment and enhanced surveillance were initiated. a/new jersey virus was detected only from january 19 to february 9 and did not spread beyond fort dix. a/victoria/75 (h3n2) spread simultaneously, also caused illness, and persisted until march. up to 230 soldiers w ...200616494712
influenza pandemic periodicity, virus recycling, and the art of risk assessment.influenza pandemic risk assessment is an uncertain art. the theory that influenza a virus pandemics occur every 10 to 11 years and seroarcheologic evidence of virus recycling set the stage in early 1976 for risk assessment and risk management of the fort dix, new jersey, swine influenza outbreak. additional data and passage of time proved the theory untenable. much has been learned about influenza a virus and its natural history since 1976, but the exact conditions that lead to the emergence of ...200616494714
transmissibility of swine flu at fort dix, 1976.the 1976 outbreak of a/new jersey/76 influenza in fort dix is a rare example of an influenza virus with documented human to human transmission that failed to spread widely. despite extensive epidemiological investigation, no attempt has been made to quantify the transmissibility of this virus. the world health organization and the united states government view containment of emerging influenza strains as central to combating pandemic influenza. computational models predict that it may be possibl ...200717412677
cross-neutralizing antibodies to pandemic 2009 h1n1 and recent seasonal h1n1 influenza a strains influenced by a mutation in hemagglutinin subunit 2.pandemic 2009 h1n1 influenza a virus (2009 h1n1) differs from h1n1 strains that circulated in the past 50 years, but resembles the a/new jersey/1976 h1n1 strain used in the 1976 swine influenza vaccine. we investigated whether sera from persons immunized with the 1976 swine influenza or recent seasonal influenza vaccines, or both, neutralize 2009 h1n1. using retroviral pseudovirions bearing hemagglutinins on their surface (ha-pseudotypes), we found that 77% of the sera collected in 1976 after im ...201121695241
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